Hybrid material

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Hybrid material is collection material in which two or more works in different formats (printed text, graphics, manuscripts, or realia) share a volume or other physical container (for example, a manuscript letter tipped into a printed book). Compare Sammelbands for different works of the same format bound together after publication/creation.

Intellectually self-contained works

Intellectually self-contained works generally should have a separate record.

  • Add copy note stating creator, title, year, location within, and call number of the other work.
  • When a hybrid volume needs more than one record, create a record for the volume.
  • Make paired 773/774 links between the volume bibliographic record and the constituent bibliographical records.
  • In cases of interleaving, add genre term for Interleaved books (Binding) to volume and constituent records.
  • Create volume records for sammelbands only when needed, e.g., the volume is being photographed.

This example needs to be corrected to show a volume record with 773/774 links
Examples: In M.b.4 (ms. content) bib record:

245 00 Sonnets and other poems ǂh [manuscript], ǂf ca. 1790-1800.
520 2_ Manuscript sonnets and poems interleaved with Charlotte Smith's Elegiac sonnets, 1786. 
655 _7 Interleaved books (Binding)  ǂ2 rbbin
700 1_ Smith, Charlotte Turner, ǂd 1749-1806. ǂt Elegiac sonnets. 

In M.b.4 (printed content) holdings record:

100 1_ ǂa Smith, Charlotte Turner, ǂd 1749-1806.
245 10 ǂa Elegiac sonnets / ǂc by Charlotte Smith.
655 _7 Interleaved books (Binding)  ǂ2 rbbin   ǂ5 DFo
730 0_ Sonnets and other poems. ǂ5 DFo 
852 ǂz Interleaved with manuscript sonnets and poems, cataloged separately as M.b.4 (ms. content), under title Sonnets and other poems [manuscript], ca. 1790-1800.

Subordinate material

A work that is not intellectually self-contained generally should not have a separate record (e.g., annotations in printed books, drawings in manuscripts). In the past, separate cards were made for ms. annotations in printed books. In contrast, book catalogers will now add a description of the manuscript material to the book record.

  • Formulate copy-specific added entries and/or genre terms (e.g. Annotations, Manicules, etc) to be included in the bibliographic record, since manuscript content is not getting a separate record.
  • In certain circumstances, a curator may decide that subordinate material merits its own record. Generally, this would be the case if the interleaved materials have little or no direct intellectual connection to the bound item or if the creator/main entry for these materials would need to differ from that of the bound item. If instructed to make a separate record for the subordinate material, follow the procedure above for intellectually self-contained works of different aspects sharing a physical container.

Integrated media

In rare instances, two works of different media will be so integrated physically and by content in one volume that it makes sense to make separate cataloging records for the two works without reference to their physical position in the volume. This is different from Sammelbands (in which two or more works occupy discrete sections in a volume), from extra-illustrated books (where the location of individual items can be described in relation to the host volume), and from those cases where one medium is predominant and a copy-specific note is made to describe aspects of the subordinate medium. This decision is to be made by curators in consultation with the head of cataloging.

Example: M.b.4, which is a printed book (Elegiac sonnets by Charlotte Smith) interleaved with manuscript sonnets and poems. Neither the printed nor the ms. aspects predominate, and the content of both aspects relate to each other.

Create a separate record for each aspect. Add " ǂm (art content)" or " ǂm (ms. content)" or " ǂm (printed content)" as appropriate at the end of each call number in a ǂm

Indicate in reciprocal notes the presence of the other aspect without describing it fully.

Make reciprocal related work added entries in 700 ǂa / ǂt or 730 fields, identified as Folger-specific relations by use of "ǂ5 DFo" on cataloging records for published works. Needs discussion

Material removed from a volume or other physical container

See Things in books

Example of a manuscript:

500  Removed from: Sir Edward Coke, A booke of entries, 1614, p. 584 (Folger STC 5488).
700 1_ Coke, Edward, ǂc Sir, ǂd 1552-1634. ǂt Booke of entries. ǂ5 DFo

Give edited information for holdings note in original host item record. Do not make added entries for removed items.

852 ǂz 1 letter, found inserted on p. 584, removed to manuscript collection (X.c.130).

Manuscript poems in printed books

Manuscript poems in printed books merit special attention: some will receive separate cataloging and all should be included in the Union First Line Index of English Verse.

For book catalogers:

  • Notify the Rare Materials Cataloger by e-mail (cc: the Curator of Manuscripts) whenever you encounter a ms. poem in a printed book
  • Mention the presence of the ms. poem in copy specific note, including author and title (if known) and the first line.


On F2v, MS. poem beginning: "A man of words and not of deds / is lik a gardane full of weds..." 

Manuscript cataloger:

  • Add the poem to the Union First Line Index of English Verse
  • After consulting with the Curator of Manuscripts, create manuscript record or, if not cataloging separately, edit copy-specific note in the book record to include the phrase "listed in the Union first line index of English verse"


Instructions below assume hybrid volumes containing two formats; amend as necessary for hybrid works containing three or four.

Cataloger who first receives the volume:

  • Email the cataloger who handles the other format
    • Indicate if original cataloging is needed or if only a copy-specific note (and any copy-specific tracings &/or genre terms, if appropriate) need to be added to an already existing record
    • Include suggested wording for copy-specific notes, so that it can be easily copied and pasted into record
    • Include correct call number formulation
  • Give to other cataloger (or place on their shelves, if have item in hand)
    • Printed copy of above email
    • Copies of all pertinent bibliographic records, indicating their relationship to each other