List of physicians and apothecaries cited by Andrew Slee and John Ward

Andrew Slee was a Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge, 1650-1656. He compiled V.a.398, a 1654 volume of medicinal recipes.

John Ward was the vicar of Stratford-upon-Avon from 1662 to 1681. The Folger Shakespeare Library has 16 of his 17 diaries. More information on John Ward can be found in A Semi-Diplomatic Transcription of Selections from the John Ward Diaries.

This list was compiled by Dr. Robert Tallaksen, a reader and transcriber at the Folger Shakespeare Library. It is regularly updated. Last update was June 7, 2023.

NB: Latinized names listed may be abbreviated, or appear in manuscripts in the genitive (-ae, -i, -onis), accusative (-am, -em, -um) or ablative cases (-a, -e, -o) In transcription, all surnames are expanded and transcribed in the nominative unless Slee writes them out in the genitive, accusative, or ablative; e.g., Nicolai, Galenum, Fallopio.

The names of scientists have been included even if their work was not primarily medical. In most cases, names which proved to be clergy have been omitted from this list unless the persons had some direct connection with John Ward (JW)

Persons named by Slee are indicated with a dagger (†)
Persons named by Ward are indicated with an asterisk (*)

Identified physicians and apothecaries


Actuarius †
Iohannes Zacharius Actuarius (c. 1275 - c. 1328), Byzantine physician in Constantinople; actuarius was a title applied to various officials
Aetius †
Aetius of Amida (c. 502 - 575), Byzantine Greek physician
Agricola *
Georg Pawer or Bauer (1494 - 1555), German humanist scholar, mineralogist, and metallurgist, Latinized as Georgius Agricola (Bauer = "farmer"); studied medicine in Bologna
Aldovrandi *
Ulysse Aldovrandi (1522 - 1605), Italian naturalist, second director of botanical garden of the University of Bologna
Alphans. †
likely St. Alfanus I (d. 1085), physician, theologian, translator, and author; Archbishop of Salerno 1080 -85), on the faculty of the medical school at Salerno
Alston *
Sir Edward Alston (1597 - 1669), "Dr. in physick" at Christchurch Hospital; president of the RCP, 1655-66
Altomarus *
Donato Antonio Altomari (1506 - 62?), Italian physician, Latinized as Donatus Antonius Altomarus
Amee *
Dr., probably Dr. Hamy, see below
Andro., Androm. *†
Andromachus; either the Elder or the Younger; both fl. 1st c. CE; Greek physicians; the elder's name is preserved in "theriaca Andromachi," an antidote of 64 ingredients including opium and viper's flesh
Antoninus *
the Emperor Antoninus Pius (86 - 161 CE); supposed author of the Antonine itinerary (Itinerarium Antonini Augusti), a register of the stations and distances along varous imperial roads, possibly based on a survey carried out under Augustus Caesar
Aquapendente †
see Hieronymus Fabricius Aquapendente, below
Arcaeus †
Francesco de Arce (1493 - 1573), Spanish physician and surgeon, Latinized as Arcaeus
Archagathus peloponnensis *
medical practitioner and surgeon in Rome (fl. 219 CE), orginally from the Peloponnese; according to the historian L. Hemina, he was the first person who made medicine a distinct profession in the city; he was driven out of the city because of the severity of his treatments
Architas Tarentinus *
Archytas (Ἀρχύτας) of Tarento (5th c. BCE - mid-4th c. BCE), Greek (Tarento then being part of Magna Graecia) mathematician, music theorist, statesman, and strategist
Aristoteles *†
Aristotle (384 - 322 BCE), Greek philosopher and polymath
Artesius *
al-Tughra'i (in full, Mu'ayyad al-Din Abu Isma'il al-Husayn ibn Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Abd al-Samad al-Du'ali al-Kināni al-Tughra'i) (1061 - c. 1121), Persian poet, alchemist, and astrologer, known in Latin as Artesius Longaevus (i.e., Artesius the Aged or Ancient); JW says that he lived 1000 years "by the help of the philosophers stone" (V.a.295, f. 4r)
Asclepius *
Greek hero and god of medicine, Latinized as Aesculapius; son of Apollo and Coronis (or Arsinoe, or of Apollo alone); represented the healing aspect of medicine; early healing temples and medical schools were called Asclepieia, and Hyppocrates is said to have studied in the Asclepion at Kos; five daughters, including Hygeia, Iaso, Aceso, Aegle, and Panacea; his symbol is the serpent-entwined staff
Athenaeus *
Athenaeus of Naucratis (fl. late 2d - early 3rd c. CE), Greek rhetorician and grammarian
Atwood *
Mr., an oculist in Worcestershire; possibly Thomas Atwood, who consulted on Samuel Johnson in 1711
Augenius, Horatius *
Orazio Augenio (1527 - 1603), Italian physician, Latinized as Horatius Augenius; Professor of the Theory of Medicine at Padua; mentioned by Burton in The Anatomy of Melancholy as having written 17 books
Avicen., Avicenna *†
Ibn Sina, Abu Ali Sina, or Pur Sina (c. 980 - 1037), Persian physician and polymath; author of The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine
Azaravius †
Abu Al Qasim Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), Arab Andalusian physician, surgeon, and chemist, Latinized as Azaravius or Albucasis; "father of modern surgery"


Bacon *
Sir Francis Bacon, (1561 - 1626), English philosopher and statesman, father of empiricism
Barker *
possibly Sir Richard Barker (d. 1686), chemist and physician; founder member of the Society of Chemical Physicians; author of The Excellency and Usefulnesse of the True Spirit of Salt, 1663, and Sudorificum Regale, 1676; Israel Tonge (of the Popish Plot) lodged with him and Barker was instrumental in bringing Tonge and Titus Oates into communication
Bartholine *
Danish physicians; possibilities include Caspar Bartholin the Elder (1585 - 1629); Caspar Bartholin the Younger (1655 - 1738) - Bartholin's gland is so called after him; Rasmus Bartholin (1625 - 1698); but most likely Thomas Bartholin (1616 - 1680), who first described the lymphatic system in humans
Bartholomeus Perdulcis †
Barthélemy Pardoux (1545 - 1611), French physician, Latinized as Bartholomeus Perdulcis; author of Universa medicina (another book with the same title was written by Fernel)
Bartly *
possibly William Barkley or Berkeley, licensed to practice medicine in the province of Canterbury, 1665; JW's description in V.a.295, 17v, of Bartly as having "studied the philosophers stone 16 years in the East=Indies" is similar to Samuel Hartlib's reference to a Dr. Berkeley, who had "some amazing and in a manner miracuous cures lately performed" by him and that he had "lately come from Bermudas or New England"
Basilius Valentinus *
Basil Valentine (fl. 15th c.), alchemist, ostensibly Canon of the Benedictine Priory in Erfurt, Germany; but also likely a pseudonym used by one or more authors, one of whom was Johann Thölde, a German salt manufacturer (c. 1565 - c. 1624); many books are falsely attributed to him
Bates *
George Bate (1608 - 1669), English physician, MD FRS; physician to Charles II; wrote an account of Charles I's confrontation with Parliament under the pseudonym "Theodoricus Veridicus;" author of Pharmacopoiea Bateana; JW refers to him consistently as "Bates"
Bathurst *
physician in Oxford; probably not the John Bathurst (d. 1659), MD Cambridge 1637, who practiced in Yorkshire and London
Bauderon or Bauderoon*
Brice Bauderon (1539 - 1623), French physician; author of a highly regarded pharmacopoiea (1583)
Bauhinus *
Jean Bauhin (1511 - 1582), French physician; or his sons Gaspard (Caspar) (1560 - 1624), or Jean (Johann) (1541 - 1613), Swiss botanists
Bayerus, Bayrus †
Pietro Bairo of Turin (1468 - 1518), Italian physician, Latinized as Petrus Bayrus; author of Secreti Medicinali
Beckerus, Daniel *
German physicians; either Daniel Beckher the Elder (1594 - 1655), the "Prussian Hyppocrates;" or the Younger (1627 - 1670); Latinized as Beckerus
Beguinus *†
Jean Beguin (1550 - 1620), French iatrochemist, Latinized as Beguinus; wrote first textbook of chemistry (as opposed to alchemy), Tyrocinium Chymicum, 1610
Bericellus *
Giulio Cesare Baricelli (c. 1574 - c. 1638), Italian physician and philosopher; Latinized as Julius Caesar Baricellus; spelled "Bericellus" by JW; author of Thesaurus Secretorum; mentioned (as Baracellus) in Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy
Bernardus Paternus *
Bernardino Paternò (d. 1592), Italian physician, Latinized as Bernardinus Paternus Salonensis (of Salona in Croatia, then under Venetian rule); mentioned by Burton in The Anatomy of Melancholy; spelled "Bernardus" by JW
Bertius *
Pieter de Bert (1565 - 1629), Flemish philosopher, theologian, historian, geographer, and cartographer, Latinized as Petrus (or Peter) Bertius; best known as a cartographer for his edition of the Geographia of Ptolemy
Besler *
Basilius Besler (1561 - 1629), German apothecary and botanist; famous for his plant atlas or florilegium of the Eichstätt garden, Hortus Eystettensis, 1613; Besler was the curator of this garden, which belonged to Johann Konrad von Gemmingen, Prince-Bishop of Eichstätt
Betterice *
Richard (Dick) Bettris (c.1606 - 1682), barber-surgeon in Oxford; with his support a Quaker meeting was established in 1654 in his home, and for participating he was imprisoned
Bever *
almost certainly Gabriel de Beauvoir (? - ?), native of Guernsey, MD Padua 1648, FRCP 1653; became physician to the Charterhouse 1656 upon the resignation of Dr. Bate (q.v.); he was known to JW, who describes him as "a litle black man, a man of prettie practice;" and as a "wel carrigd man" who had £50 and a house at Charterhouse
Beverovicius *
Johannes van Beverwijck (1594 - 1647) of Dordrecht (Dort), Dutch physician and writer, Latinized as Beverovicius; first Dutch physician to defend Harvey's ideas on the circulation of blood
Biggs *
Noah Biggs (fl. mid-17th c.), English medical practitioner and social reformer; perhaps a pseudonym for Henry Biggs because of his employment at the dockyards of Deptford and Woolwich (DNB)
Blasius *
Gerard Leendertszoon Blasius (1627 - 1682), Dutch physician and anatomist, first professor of medicine in Amsterdam; many publications
Bobart *
Jacob Bobart the Elder (1599 - 1680), German botanist, born in Braunschweig, emigrated to England c. 1640; JW's contemporary, superintendent of the Oxford Physic Garden, sometimes referred to simply as Jacob; succeeded as superintendent by his son, Jacob Bobart the Younger (1641 - 1719)
Boghil *
Robert Boyle, q. v.
Bolsec *
Jérôme-Hermès Bolsec (? - c. 1584), French theologian and physician, Latinized as Hieronymus Bolsec; controversialist against Calvin
Bonacciolus *
Luigi Bonacciuoli (d. 1540) of Ferrara, Italian physician (obstetrics and gynecology), and anatomist, Latinized as Ludovicus Bonacciolus Ferrariensis
Bontius *
Reinier de Bondt (1576 - 1623), Dutch physician, Latinized as Reynier or Reynerus Bontius; physician to Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange; JW mentions Bontius' pills, composed of socotrine aloes, gamboge, and gum ammoniac, to be used in dropsy
Box the Drugster *
Henry Box (1585 - 1662), a highly regarded English druggist in Cheapside; The Henry Box School founded by him (1660) in his home town of Witney, Oxfordshire, is still in operation
Boyle *
Robert Boyle (1627 - 1691), FRS, Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and physician (Doctor of Physic, Oxford, 1665 - the only academic degree he ever achieved (DNB))
Brassavola *
Antonio Musa Brassavola (1500 - 1555), Italian physician, one of the most famous of his time; consulting physician to Kings (Francis I, Charles V, Henry VIII) and Popes (Paul III, Leo X, Clement VII, Julius III); performed the first successful tracheotomy
Briggs *
William Briggs (1642 - 1704), English physician and oculist; author of Ophtalmographia, on the anatomy of the eye, 1676
Bruce *
possibly David Bruce (fl. 1650), Scottish physician; MA St. Andrews, MD Valence (France), incorporated MD Oxford 1660; physician to the Duke and Duchess of York; traveled abroad and settled in Edinburgh, reported still living there in 1690; one of the original members of the Royal Society; JW mentions in V.a.291 f.157v, "Dr. Modesie is acquainted well with Dr. Bruce and seldome goes abroad withoute him"
Bruneer *
Abel Bruyner (1573 - 1665), physician to Gaston, Duke of Orleans; keeper (with Nicholas Marchant) of the Duke's Garden at Blois, where he was associated with Robert Morison; author of Hortus Blesensis (Blesae or Blesum = Blois), 1653, which was also attributed to Morison
Brunsfelsius *
Otto Brunfels (c. 1488 - 1534), German theologian and botanist; MD Basel 1532; listed by Linnaeus as one of the "fathers of botany"
Bulliald, Bullialdus *
Ismaël Boulliau (1605 - 1694), French astromomer and mathematician, Latinized as Ismael Bullialdus, early defender of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo
Burnet *
possibly Alexander Burnet (d. 1665), English physician, MD Cambridge 1648; Pepys' physician, and who died of the plague; or Sir Thomas Burnet (1638 - 1704), Scottish physician; wrote Thesaurus medicinae and Hyppocrates contractus, an abridgement in Latin of selected works of Hyppocrates; physician to Charles II, James II, William III and Mary II, and Queen Anne
Bush *
Paul Bush (1489/90 - 1558), English clergyman; "well read in physick as well as divinitie," first Bishop of Bristol
Bushell *
possibly Thomas Bushell (c. 1593 - 1674); a servant of Francis Bacon's, later a mining engineer; after Bacon's disgrace became a kind of secular hermit on the Isle of Wight and became a strict vegetarian, surviving on oil, honey, mustard, herbs, biscuits, and water
Butler *
uncertain, but possibly Nicholas Butler (c. 1646 - c. 1744)), MD Cambridge 1670 (Lit. Reg.), honorary FRCP 1680; practiced many years in London, especially during the plague


Caesius *
Bernardo Cesi (1581 - 1630), Italian mineralogist; Latinized as Bernardus Caesius Mutinensis (of Modena); author of Mineralogia, published posthumously 1636, a compilation of reports on minerals beginning with Homer up to Cesi's time
Caldwell *
John Caldwell (d. 1596), BA (1554-5) and MD (1564), Cambridge; ordained 1569, later Dean of Rochester, 1585, and Bishop of Salisbury, 1591
Calp(h)urnius Ruffus *
P. Calpurnius Macer Caiulius Rufus, Roman senator 2d c. CE; acquaintance of Pliny the Younger, from whom two letters to him survive
Campegius *
Symphorien Champier (1471 - 1539), also Latinized as Symphorius Champerius, French physician and author; personal physician to Antoine Duke of Lorraine; worked in Lyon with Rabelais, who wrote satirically about him in La vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel
Canonherius *
Pietro Andrea Canoniero or Canonieri (d. 1639), Italian physician, practitioner in Rome, Latinized as Petrus Andreas Canonherius; political, moral, medical, historical writings
Capivaccius *
Girolamo Capivaccio (1523 - 1589), Italian physician, professor in Padua, Latinized as Hieronymus Capivaccius; a late believer in uroscopy for diagnosis
Carolus Stephanus *
Charles Estienne (1504 - 1564), French anatomist and for a time printer to the King of France, Latinized as Carolus Stephanus and in English as Charles Stephens
Carpus *
Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (c. 1480 - c. 1530), Italian physician; Latinized as Jacobus (Berengarius) Carpus or simply Carpus; anatomist, said to have been the most important one before Vesalius
Cass. †
Cassius; probably Cassius Felix (fl. 5th. c.), Roman African medical writer; or possibly Cassius Iastorophista (fl. 2nd or 3rd c.), a Greek medical writer
Celsus *
Aulus Cornelius Celsus (c. 25 BCE - 50 CE), Roman encyclopedist; author of De Medicina, a primary source for medical knowledge in the Roman world
Chamberlayne *
Peter Chamberlen MD (1601 - 1683), English obstetrician, JW refers to him as "the man-midwife;" the Chamberlen family is credited with the invention of obstetrical forceps; a Mr. Newman was his man
Chambers *
John Chambers (d. 1556), English Benedictine and first Anglican Bishop of Peterborough; may be mistakenly identified with a John Chambre, a physician who became Dean of St. Stephen's, Westminster
Charlton *
Walter Charleton (1619 - 1707), English naturalist; physician to Charles I; his Three Anatomic Lectures were published in 1683; JW refers to Anatome pueri, 1664, in V.a.287, 41v
du Chesne *†
Joseph du Chesne or Duchesne (c. 1544 - 1609), French phsyician, Latinized as Josephus Quercetanus; MD Basel 1573; a Paracelsian; physician-in-ordinary to Henry IV of France; author of Pharmacopea dogmaticorum (1607)
Chrysolitus *
Dr. Stephanus Chrysolitus (fl. 1655?), noted by Defoe in A Journal of the Plague Year as "a famous physician lately arrived in these parts;" however, a certain Cleandro Arnobio related in his book Tesoro delle Gioie, Venice 1602, that it was told that a Roman physician, unnamed, had been able to cure plague sores by touching them with the topaz in a ring which had belonged to Popes Clement VI and Gregory IX; "chrysolitus" is Latin for topaz
Chrysostomus Iavellus *
Giovanni Crisostomo Javelli (c. 1470 - 1538), Italian Dominican philosopher and theologian; Latinized as Iavellus
Clayton *
likely Thomas Clayton (1575 - 1647), English physician; MD Oxford 1611 and Regius Professor of Medicine; or his son Sir Thomas Clayton, MD (1612 - 1693), who succeeded his father as Regius Professor in 1647, was elected MP for Oxford University 1660, and was the first medical professor to be knighted, 1661
Clerk *
possibly either Henry Clerke (1618 - 1686/7), MD Oxford 1652, president of Magdalen College, Oxford,1672, FRCP 1669, FRS 1667; or Josiah Clerk (1639 - 1714), MD Cambridge 1666, FRCP 1675
Clodius *
Frederick Clod (1625 - d. in or after 1661), German-English chemist and physician, Latinized as Clodius; lived next door to the Hartlibs, and married their daughter Mary in 1660; also a neighbor of Pepys, who refers to him several times
Clossaeus *
Samuel Clossaeus, a physician from Metz; no further information except that he corresponded with Horstius (q.v.)
Dr. Collins *†
possibilities include Samuel Collins (1619? - 1670), English physician, MD Padua 1641, personal physician to Czar Alexis I of Russia, author of The Present State of Russia, 1667; or Samuel Collins (1618 - 1710), English anatomist and physician, MD Padua 1654, physician-in-ordinary to Charles II and author of A Systeme of Anatomy, 1685; or Samuel Collins (1617 - 1685), English physician, MD Cambridge 1648, Censor and Registrar of the RCP
Colon †
likely Fabio Colonna (1567 - 1640); but identification uncertain, V.a.398, p. 46 c. 1, p. 47 c. 1
Columbus *
likely Matteo Realdo Colombo (c. 1515 - 1559), Italian anatomist and surgeon, since the name appears listed with other anatomists in V.a.287, 16r; or possibly Michele Colombo (fl. 1600), a pupil of Mercurialis
Conyers *
William Conyers (1622 - 1665-66), English physician; MD Oxford 1653, one of the few physicians who remained in London during the plague, and from which he perished
Cope, Sire Anthony *
Anthony Cope (c. 1548 - 1614), 1st Baronet of Hanwell, Oxfordshire; MP for Banbury and Sheriff of Oxfordshire; imprisoned in the Tower 1587 for presenting to the Speaker of the House of Commons a Puritan revision of the Book of Common Prayer; knighted by Elizabeth I and baronetted by James I
Cordus, Cord., Cord9
Valerius Cordus (1515 - 44), German physician, botanist, and pharmacologist; a prolific writer, including the first pharmacopoiea produced north of the Alps; possibly also in error as "Crodus," V.a. 398, p. 29 col. 2 and p. 41 col. 2
Cornax *
Mathias Cornax (1520 - 1564), Czech physician and apothecary (born in Olmütz, then in Moravia, now Olomouc, Czechia), professor in Vienna; said to have directed the first laparotomy (1549) for an extrauterine pregnancy
Cotta *
John Cotta (1575? - 1650), English physician, MD Cambridge 1603, "sometime physician in Northampton;" wrote against quack doctors, A True Discovery of the Empericke with the Fugitive, Physition, and Quacksaluer, 1617; but was also a believer in evil spirits and wrote The Triall of Witch-Craft Shewing the True and Right Methode of the Discovery, 1616
Creon *
Acron, Greek physician, (fl. 5th c. BCE); born in Agrigentum, Sicily, then part of Magna Graecia; in Athens during the plague in the 5th c. BCE, where he directed large fires to be kindled in the streets for purifying the air
Crollius *†
Oswald Croll (c. 1563 - 1609), German alchemist and professor of Medicine at Marburg; proponent of alchemy and chemistry in medicine; author of Basilica Chymica, 1608; Latinized as Crollius
Crook *
Helkiah Crooke (1576 - 1648), English physician and anatomist, MB Cambridge 1599; author of Microcosmographia: a Description of the Body of Man, 1615, first anatomy text in English by a physician
Ctesius *
Ctesias (fl. 5th c. BCE), Greek physician and historian of Cnidus; author of Indica (5th c. BCE), which contains many accounts of fanciful animals, people, and customs; first known reference to the unicorn; the name "Ctesius" is of a Syrian king, or one of the slain suitors of Penelope in the Odyssey
Culpepper *
Nicholas Culpeper ("Nick") (1616 - 1654), English physician, botanist, herbalist, and astrologer; his Complete Herbal, 1653, is a primary source of pharmaceutical and herbal information


Dale *
possibly Robert Dale (? - ?), AB Magdalen College Oxford, practioner at Stourbridge, Worcestershire, Extra-Licentiate of RCP 1663
Damocrates, Damocratis †
Servilius Damocrates (mid- to late 1st c. CE), Greek physician in Rome
Day *
William Daye (c. 1597 - ?), surgeon in Oxford; matriculated as Chirurgus ("licentiate in chirurgery") 1635, aged 38
Demetrius *
likely either Demetrius of Apamea (fl. 276 BCE), Greek physician, who named and described diabetes, also famous as an obstetrician; or another Demetrius (fl. 170 CE) who was the official preparer of theriaca for the emperor Marcus Aurelius
Deusingius *
Anton Deusing (1612 - 1666), German physician, mathematician, astonomer, and physiologist; Latinized as Antonius Deusingius; first professor of Medicine at Groning
Dickenson *
Edmund Dickinson (1621 - 1707), English physician and alchemist, MD Oxford 1656; practiced in Oxford beginning around 1663 until around 1675; physician-in-ordinary to Charles II and James II
Diembrochius *
likely Ysbrand van Diemerbroek (1609 - 1674), Dutch physician and anatomist, Latinized as Diemerbroekius; mentioned by Ramazzini (pioneer in occupational medicine, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba, 1700 )
Digby *
Sir Kenelm Digby (1603 - 1665), English natural philosopher; one of Bodley's collaborators in founding the Library, among many other accomplishments
Diodorus (or Diodoris) *
Likely Diodorus Siculus, fl. 1st c. BCE, Greek historian; his book on Egypt included the inscription of Ramesses II (likely Shelley's inspiration for the poem "Ozymandias")
Dioscorides *
Pedanius Dioscorides (c. 40 - 90), Greek philosopher though he served in the Roman army as a physician; author of De materia medica, an early pharmacopoiea
Dodonaeus *
Rembert Dodoens (1517 - 1585), Flemish physician and botanist, Latinized as Rembertus Dodonaeus; the "father of botany;" his name is written as "Dodoens" in botanical references
Donzellinus *
Girolamo Donzellini or Donzellino (c. 1513 - 1587), Italian (Venetian) physician; Latinized as Hieronymus Donzellinus; several trials for heresy; finally executed by drowning by the Venetian Inquisition for reading Lutheran books
Doringius *
Michael Döring (15?? - 1644), German physician and Paracelcist; Latinized as Doringius; brother-in-law of Sennert
Drake *
Roger Drake (1608 - 1669) English physician and clergyman, MD Leiden 1639; advocate of Harvey, for which he was attacked by Primrose (q.v.); resigned his candidacy to the College of Physicians in 1646 to enter the clergy
Duchesne *
see du Chesne, above


Eedes *
uncertain; possibly Francis Eedes (? - 1683), MD Oxford 1674; however, JW describes him as an apothecary
Edmund, Earl of Derby *
English nobleman but precise identification uncertain; JW notes that he died in Queen Elizabeth's day and that he was famous for "chirurgerie, bonesetting, and hospitalitie;" possibilities by dates include Edward Stanley (c. 1508 - 1572), third Earl; Henry Stanley (1531 - 1572) , fourth Earl, about whom the DNB says that he invited "actors, poets, heralds, and wrestlers" to his home and that he was known as a spendthrift; and Ferdinando Stanley (1559 - 1594), fifth Earl and patron of Shakespeare, also known as Lord Strange
Edwards, Dr. *
Richard Edwards (? - ?), practitioner at Bridgnorth in Shropshire, Extra-Licentiate of the RCP 1662
Elyot *
possibly Sir Thomas Elyot (c. 1490 - 1546), English humanist and diplomat; author of Castel of Helth, a summary in English of Galen and other ancient physicians, and The Boke Named the Governour
Ent *
Sir George Ent (1604 - 1689), English physician, MD Padua 1636; friend and promoter of W. Harvey; one of the original Fellows of the Royal Society; married to Sarah, daughter of Othowell Meverell
Epiphanius Ferdinandus *
Epiphanius Ferdinandi (1569 - 1638), Italian physician and medical writer
Erasmus *
Desiderius Erasmus (1466 - 1536), styled Roterodamus (of Rotterdam), Dutch philosopher and theologian; in England 1499, Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity at Cambridge, 1511 - 15
Esculapius *
see Asclepius, above
Eudemus †
Eudemus of Rhodes (c. 370 - c. 300 BCE), Greek philosopher and first historian of science, pupil of Aristotle


Fabricius *†
see Hieronymus Fabricius Aquapendente, below
Faithorne, William *
not a physician, but one of two artists; likely Faithorne the Elder (1616 - 1691), English painter and portrait engraver; a Faithorne the Younger (1656 - c. 1701) was a promising engraver but involved his father in financial difficulties
Fallopius *†
Gabriele Falloppio (1523 - 1562), Italian anatomist, physician, and Catholic priest, Latinized as Gabrielis Falloppius; the Fallopian tube, canal, and ligament are named after him
ffarnham *
Nicholas Farnham (d. 1257), English physician; studied medicine at Paris and taught at Bologna and Oxford; physician and confessor to King Henry III and Queen Eleanor; elected Bishop of Durham 1241
Faventinus †
Benedetto Vettori, (1481 - 1561), Italian physician and philosopher, Latinized as Benedictus Victorius Faventinus (Benedetto Vettori of Faenza); author of Consilia medicinalia ad varia morborum genera
Fernelius, Fernelianus *†
Jean François Fernel (1497 - 1558), French physician. Latinized as Ioannes Fernelius; introduced the term "physiology;" author of Universa medicina (another book with the same title was written by Bartholomeus Perdulcis)
Fienus †
Thomas Fyens or Feyens (1567 - 1631), French physician and surgeon, Latinized as Fienus; professor of medicine at Louvain; studied with Dodoens and Foreest at Leiden and Mercurialis at Bologna
ffioravanti *
Leonardo Fioravanti (1517 - 88), Italian physician, surgeon, and alchemist; mixed reputation with some considering him a charlatan
Flexon *
a Mr. Flexon was JW's barber; no dates or other information on him
Fludd *
Robert Fludd (1574 - 1637), English Paracelsian physician, Latinized as Robertus de Fluctibus; MD Christ Church, Oxford, 1605; contributing author to the Pharmacopoiea Londinensis; wide-ranging interests, including astrology, mathematics, cosmology, Rosicrucianism, and the Qabalah
Foesius †
Anuce Foës (1528 - 1595), French humanist, Hellenist, and philologist; Latinized as Anutius Foësius
Fonseca †
Juan Rodriguez de Fonseca (1451 - 1524), Spanish archbishop, courtier, and bureaucrat; Latinized as Rodericus Fonseca; managed the administration of Columbus's and Magellan's voyages
Forest *†
Pieter van Foreest (1521 - 1597), Dutch physician; Latinized as Petrus Forestus; the "Dutch Hippocrates"
Fox *
Simeon Fox (1568 - 1642), MD Padua; multiple offices of the RCP, including Censor, Registrar, and Treasurer; son of John Foxe of Foxe's Book of Martyrs; taught Dr. Wright (q.v.)
Fox *
Thomas Fox (1591 - ?), nephew of the above, MD Oxford (? date), described as "Dr. Fox of Waltham"
Fracastorius *†
Girolamo Fracastori (1483 - 1553), Italian physician, poet, and scholar, Latinized as Fracastorius; the name of the disease "syphilis" is from his poem Syphilis sive morbus gallicus
Frazier *
Sir Alexander Frazier (or Frasier) (1610? - 1681), Scottish physician; physician to Charles II; unsuccessfully treated Mary, Princess of Orange, James, Duke of Cambridge, and Charles, Duke of Kendal for smallpox; mentioned several times by Pepys
Freitag *
either Johann Freitag or (1587 - 1654), Swiss physician; discoverer of capsular cataract and attempted its extraction; or Johann Freitag (Freytag) (1581 - 1641), German physician, personal physician to Prince-Bishop Philipp Sigismund von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and professor at Groningen
Fry *
Roger Fry (? - ?), Oxford surgeon; his will was proved in the Court of the Chancellor of the University, 1 September 1672; "Anatomist of the University" according to James Yonge (1646/7 - 1721), naval surgeon


see Fallopius
Galen, Galenus *†
Aelius or Claudius Galenus (of Pergamon) (129 - c. 200), Greek physician, surgeon, and philosopher; first to evaluate the pulse as a diagnostic tool; one instance of "Gallenus" in V.a.398
Gaza *
Theodorus Gaza (c. 1398 - c. 1475), Greek humanist and translator, especially of Artistotle, and a leader in the revival of learning in the 15th c.
Gellius *
Aulus Gellius (c. 125 - 180), Roman author and grammarian; his only known work is Noctes Atticae (Attic Nights), which was a commonplace book of "interesting notes covering philosophy, history, biography, all sorts of antiquities, points of law, literary criticism, and lexicographic matters, explanations of old words and questions of grammar" (Loeb Classical Library). Something like JW's diaries
Gemini *
Thomas Gemini, Geminus, or Geminié (fl. 1540 - 60, d. 1562), not a physician but an engraver and printer; JW mentions "another [anatomy] called Gemini's," likely Compendiosa totius Anatomie deliniatio, aere exarata: per Thomam Geminum, a plagiarized version of Vesalius' De humani corporis fabrica libri septem; several editions, 1545 to 1559
Gemma *
Cornelio Gemma (1535 - 1578), Belgian physician, astronomer, and astrologer, Latinized as Cornelius Gemma; professor of medicine at Leuven
Gerardus *
John Gerard (c. 1545 - 1612), English herbalist and botanist, and barber-surgeon, Latinized as Gerardus; author of The Herball Or General History of Plants, though there was (and is) controversy whether the book was partially plagiarized from Dodoens (see Dodonaeus, above)
Gesnerus *†
Conrad Gessner (1516 - 1565), Swiss physician, naturalist, bibliographer, and philologist, Latinized as Gesnerus or Gesnerus maius ("the greater"); prolific author of Bibliotheca universalis (1545) and Historia animalium (1551-58), among many others
Gheselius †
uncertain but possibly Johannes Gheselius (1613 - 1650), Swiss physician
Gilbert *
William Gilbert (1544? - 1603), English physician, physicist, and natural philosopher, also known as Gilberd; pioneer in magnets, author of De magnete, 1600; JW reports that he spent £3000 on experiments on lodestones
Gilbertus Anglicus *†
Gilbert of England or Gilbertinus (c. 1180 - c. 1250), medieval English physician, Latinized as Gilbertus Anglicus; author of Compendium Medicinae (c. 1230 - 50), a most influential book; mentioned by Chaucer as being among the great physicians of all time (Canterbury Tales, general prologue, ll. 429 - 434: "Wel knew he the olde Esculapius, ...Bernard, and Gatesden, and Gilbertyn")
Glanvill *
Joseph Glanvill (1636 - 1680), English clergyman, philosopher, and writer; Author of A Philosophical Endeavour towards the Defense of the being of Witches and Apparitions (1666) and Plus ultra, or, The Progress and Advancement of Knowledge since the Days of Aristotle (1668)
Glauber *
Johann Rudolf Glauber (1604 - 1670), German-Dutch alchemist, chemist, and apothecary; "Glauber's salt" is sodium sulfate, still in use as a mild laxative and in dyeing
Glissonius, Glisson, Glysson *
Francis Glisson (1597 - 1677), English physician and anatomist; early work on rickets; classic work on liver anatomy, Anatomia hepatis, 1654; performed the operation for stone on the Earl of Shaftesbury (see Jeamson, below); remained in London to serve during the plague and survived
Goddard *
Jonathan Goddard (1617 - 1675), English physician and founding fellow of the Royal Society; physician to Charles I and surgeon to the New Model Army, also attended Cromwell when he died
Godwyn *
Thomas Godwin (1517 - 1590); BA Oxford 1543, later returned to study medicine, graduating MB 1555; chosen by Queen Elizabeth to be one of he Lenten Preachers, appointed Dean of Christ Church 1565, subsequently BD and DD; Bishop of Bath and Wells 1584
Goodyer *
John Goodyer (1592 - 1664), English botanist and herbalist; assisted Th. Johnson with a revised and corrected edition of Gerard's 1597 Herball
Gordonius *†
Bernard de Gordon (1285 - 1318), French physician and professor of medicine at Montpellier, Latinized as Gordonius or Bernardus Gordonensis; author of Lilium medicinae; also mentioned by Chaucer (as "Bernard," see Gilbertus Anglicus, above)
Greatorix, Greatrakes, Greatrates, Gretorex *
Valentine Greatrakes (1628 - 1666), Irish faith healer; known as "The Stroker" because of his technique of the laying on of hands for cures, at which he seems to have been extraordinarily successful
Grevinus *
Jacques Grévin (1538 - 1570), French playwright, also trained in medicine in Paris, Latinized as Iacobus Grevinus; some medical writings including Anatomes totius (1564)
Grulingius *
Philip Grüling (1594 - 1667), German physician; Latinized as Philippus Grulingius; author of Florilegium Hippocrateo-Galeno Chemicum Novum (1665)
Guarnerus or Guainerus *
Antonio Guaineri or Guainerio (c. 1380 - c. 1447), Pavian citizen, court physician, and university professor whose writings emphasized practice over theory and bore witness to contemporary social conditions; also wrote on women's diseases
Guidott *
Thomas Guidott (1638 - 1706); English physician, writer, and antiquarian; MD Oxford; documented the mineral properties of the water from the hot springs at Bath
Guiffartus *
Pierre Guiffart (1597 - 1658), Belgian physician and author, Latinized as Petrus Guiffartus Vallonianus (from Wallonia); books include Remarques considérables sur la connaisance et la guérison de l'hydropsie (1658) and Dissertatio medica utrum chylus vel sanguis sit proxima lactis materia (1652)


Haddock *
Richard Haydock or Haydocke (1569/70 - c. 1642), BA New College, Oxford, 1588; MA 1591/2, B. Med. 1601, physician in Salisbury; also a draftsman, and translator of G. P. Lomazzo's A Tracte Containing the Artes of Curious Paintinge, Carvinge and Buildinge (1598), the first treatise on painting to be published in English; also known for preaching in his sleep; his daughter married the anatomist Nathaniel Highmore, q.v., noted in Va.288, 102v
Haly *†
'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi, or al-Masoudi (930 - 994); Persian physician, Latinized as Haly Abbas; for "pulvis Haly" see "John Ward's Latin" on Folgerpedia
Hamy, Hamey *
Baldwin Hamey (1600 - 1676), English physician; MD Leyden 1626 and Oxford 1629/30, FRCP 1633/34; delivered anatomic lectures at the RCP, 1647
Hartlib *
Samuel Hartlib (c. 1600 - 1662), German-English educational reformer, writer, polymath, and "intelligencer," set out to record all human knowledge and make it available to everone; facsimile images and transcriptions of his papers at the Digital Humanities Research Institute at the University of Sheffield
Hartmann *
most likely Johannes Hartmann (1568 - 1631), German chemist and physician; professor of medical and pharmaceutical chemistry at at Marburg (1609)
Harvey *
William Harvey (1578 - 1657), English physician and discoverer of the circulation of the blood, author of De motu cordis (1628); BA Oxford 1597, and MD Padua 1602 where he studied with Fabricius (see below under Hieronymus Fabricius)
Helmont *
Jan Baptist van Helmont (1580 - 1644), Belgian chemist, physiologist, and physician; founder of pneumatic chemistry, which studied the physical properties of gases; he was the first to use the word "gas," which he derived from Greek "chaos" (χᾰ́ος)
Henricus ab Heer *
Henri de Heer (1570 - 1636), Belgian physician, Latinized as Henricus ab Heer; author of Observationes medicae (1630) and Spadacrene, hoc est fons Spadanus accuratissime descriptus (1645), reporting the qualities of the mineral water at Spa
Henshaw, Dr. *
possibly Nathaniel Henshaw (bapt. 1628 - 1673), English physician; MD Leiden 1664, practiced in Dublin and London; one of the first members of the Royal Society; an acquaintance of Robert Boyle
Hermes Trismegistus *
"Hermes the Thrice Greatest," in Latin "Hermes ter Maximus," legendary Hellenistic figure, purported author of Hermetica, popular among alchemists
Hermolaus Barbarus *
Latinized form of Ermolao Barbaro (1454 - 1493), Italian Renaissance scholar and humanist; author of a definitive commentary (Castigationes Plinianae, 1492, Venice) on Pliny's Naturalis Historia
Heinsius *
Daniel Heinsius or Heins (1580 - 1655), Dutch scholar of the Renaissance
Heylin, Hylin, Heylyn *
Peter Heylyn (1599 - 1662), English ecclesiastic and prolific author of historical, political, and theological works; author of Cosmographie (1652); Chaplain to Charles I; anti-Puritan
Hieronymus Fabricius Aquapendente *†
Girolamo Fabrici d'Acquapendente (1537 - 1619), Italian anatomist and surgeon, Latinized as Hieronymus Fabricius ab Aquapendente; "father of embryology;" Acquapendente is a small town in the province of Viterbo
Highmore *
Nathaniel Highmore (1613 - 1685), English anatomist and chemical physician; author of Corporis humani disquisitio anatomica (1651), which contained the first description of the maxillary sinus (antrum); referred to by Harvey as "my learned friend"
Hildanus *
Wilhelm Fabry (1560 - 1634), first scientific German surgeon, the "father of German surgery," Latinized as Guilelmus Fabricius Hildanus (from Hilden) or Fabricius von Hilden; author of Observationum et Curationum Chirurgicarum Centuriae (1641, posthumously), with case records and accounts of new instruments and techniques
Hinton *
Sir John Hinton (1603 - ?), MD, probably from Leyden; a man-midwife; physician in ordinary to Charles II and Queen Catherine; attended the queen at the birth of her daughter Princess Henrietta
Hippocrates, Hyppocrates *†
Hippocrates of Kos (c. 460 - c. 370 BCE), Greek physician and one of the most famous and influential physicians in the history of medicine; the Hippocratic Corpus of approximately seventy works is attributed to him, including the Hippocratic Oath
Hobbes *
Thomas Hobbes (1588 - 1679), English philosopher, one of the founders of modern political philosophy; author of Leviathan (1651); JW met him on a trip through the eastern Midlands
Hodges *
Nathaniel Hodges (1629 - 1688), English physician; remained in London during the plague, of which he wrote a valuable account: Loimologia, sive, Pestis nuperae apud populum Londinensem grassantis narratio historica (1665); in it he notes Glisson's service during the plague
Hollerius *†
Jacques Houiller (c. 1498 - 1562), French physician; Latinized as Iacobus Hollerius Stampani (i.e., from Étampes); MD Paris 1536, later professor of medicine and Dean of the medical school; author of De morborum internorum curatione (1572)
Hollier, Hollyer, Holyard *
Thomas Hollier (bapt. 1609 - 1690), English surgeon, apprenticed under "Molins;" see Molines, below; the porter at St. Thomas' told JW that Hollier had cut thirty for (bladder) stone; the patients included Pepys, on 26 March 1658
Hook *
Robert Hooke (1635 - 1703), English natural philosopher, microscopist and polymath; scientific assistant to Willis and Boyle; curator of experiments to the Royal Society; first to visualize a microorganism; author of Micrographia; arrived at Christ Church, Oxford, in 1553, the year after JW received his MA degree
van Horne *
Johannes Van Horne (1621 - 1670), Dutch physician and anatomist, Latinized as Hornius; author of Microcosmus, an influential and popular introduction to human anatomy; friend of Th. Bartholin
Horsington *
probably Thomas Horsington (1619 - 1666), "chymical physician;" MD Cambridge Lit. Reg. 1663, with lodgings in Cloke Lane (mentioned by JW); another contemporary Horsington in London was William (d. 1665), a druggist and alchemist in St. Botolph Aldgate
Horstius *
Gregor Horst (1578 - 1636), German physician and anatomist, Latinized as Gregorius Horstius; professor of medicine at Giessen; personal physician to Landgrave Ludwig V of Hesse-Darmstadt
Hortensius *
Louis du Gardin (15?? - 1633), French physician; Latinized as Ludovicus Hortensius; spelled "Hottensius" by JW, V.a.287, 16r
Dr. How or How *
William How (1620 - 1656), English physician and botanist; BA 1641, MA 1645, St. John's College, Oxford; author of Phytologia Britannica, Natales Exhibens Indigenarium stirpium spone Emergentium (1650), one of the earliest studies on the plants of the British Isles
Hugh of Evesham *
English physician and cardinal (d. 1287); medical alchemist; king's clerk to Edward I
Hurnius *†
Jan van Heurne (1543 - 1601), Dutch physician and natural philosopher; Latinized as Johannes Heurnius; professor of medicine at Leiden; wrote a commentary on Hippocrates' aphorisms
Huttenus *
Ulrich von Hutten (1488 - 1523), German knight, scholar, poet, and satirist, Latinized as Ulricus Huttenus; JW refers to his Liber de Morbo Gallico sc. de Guiaco (1535)
Hyde *
James Hyde (1617 - 1681), English physician; Regius Professor of Medicine, Oxford 1665 - 81

I - J

Jackson *
Samuel Jackson (1614 - 1674/5), English physician; expelled from Oxford 1642 for fighting on the side of the Royalists; reinstated 1660, MD 1671
Jeamson *
Thomas Jeamson (? - ?), surgeon; reported to JW on Glisson's famous operation on Lord Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury; Ent, Sydenham, and others were consulted; no indication that Jeamson was directly involved in the case, however; detailed notes and account of the case made by John Locke
Ingrassie *
Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia (1510 - 1580), Italian physician, professor of anatomy at Naples and Palermo; student of Vesalius; protomedicus (chief medical officer) of Sicily 1563; established the first Board of Health and Sanitary Code in Sicily, managing the plague outbreak there in 1575/6
Johannes de Temporibus *
Master of Horse to Charlemagne, supposedly lived 361 years and died in the reign of King Stephen; JW quotes Sir Francis Bacon, who stated that this Johannes "lived three hundred Years, being asked by what means he preserved himself, is said to have answered, by Honey within, and Oil without"
Iohnson, Iohnston, Ionston, Iohnsonus *
Jan Jonston, (1603 - 75), Polish scholar, physician, botanist, and prolific writer; Latinized as Jo(h)annes Jonstonus; MA St. Andrews, MD Leiden and Cambridge; JW frequently quotes his Idea universae medicinae practicae (1625 - 28, translated into English 1652)
Johnson the Herbalist *
Thomas Johnson (c. 1595-1600 - 1644) English botanist and Royalist colonel; published an expansion of Gerard's Herbal in 1633, The Herbal or Generall Historie of Plantes: Very Much Enlarged and Amended by Thomas Johnson Citizen and Apothecarye of London, in which he added some hundreds of new species
Johnson *
William Johnson (? - 1665-6) apothecary and chemist for the RCP; stayed in London during the plague and perished
John of Gasden *
John of Gaddesden (1280 - 1361). medieval English physician; author of Rosa Anglica, considered to be the first English textbook of medicine; quite possibly Chaucer's inspiration for the Doctor of Physic
Iolivus *
George Joyliffe (1621 - 1658), English anatomoist and physician; Latinized as Iolivius or Jolivius, student and friend of Glisson; discovered the lymphatics of the liver and one of three (Rudbeck, Bartholine, and Joyliffe) to have discovered the lymphatic system at more or less the same time
Jorden *
Edward Jorden (d. 1632), English physician and chemist, MD Padua 1591; rejected the supernatural as a cause in nature; argued unsuccessfully at a witchcraft trial (1602) of a Mary Glover that her symptoms were natural and not supernatural


Kepler *
Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630), German astronomer, mathematician, natural philosopher and prolific author, Latinized as Keplerus; devised laws of planetary motion; described the supernova of 1604; author of Epitome Astronomiae Copernicae (3 vol., 1615 - 21) covering all the fundamentals of heliocentric astronomy
Kircher *
Athanasius Kircher (1602 - 1680), German Jesuit scholar and polymath; after observations with his microscope proposed that plague was caused by infectious microorganisms (1646); proposed anti-infection measures such as isolation, quarantine, and wearing facemasks


Lacuna *
Andrea Laguna (d. 1560) Segobiensi (of Segovia); anatomist and Latin translator of Galen
Lamphire *
John Lamphire (1614 - 1688), English physician; practiced in Oxford; Camden Professor of Ancient History; Head of New Inn Hall and Hart Hall (later Hertford College, Oxford); physician to Anthony Wood (q.v.)
Langius †
uncertain; likely Johann Lange (1485 - 1565), Silesian physician and opponent of uroscopy; or possibly Johann Christian Lange (1619 - 1662)
Laurentius *
André du Laurens (1558 - 1609), French physician and anatomist; Latinized as Andreas Laurentius; physician to King Henry IV of France; author of Historia anatomica humani corporis (1600)
Leoninus *
Niccolo Leoniceno (1428 - 1524), Italian physician and humanist, Latinized as Nicolaus Leoninus or Leonicenus; wrote first scientific paper on syphilis; translator of Galen and Hippocrates into Latin
Leplignius, Lepleignius *†
Thibault Lespleigney (1496 - 1550), French apothecary; author of De usu pharmaceutices (1543), one of the earliest pharmacological books, with around 250 receipts; name misspelled by Slee as "Lepleingius," V.a.398, p. 75 col. 2
Levinus Lemnius
Lievin Lemnes or Lemmens or Lemse (1505 - 1568), Dutch physician and author, Latinized as Levinus Lemnius; studied at Leuven with Dodoens and Gesner and at Padua with Vesalius
Libavius *
Andreas Libau (c. 1550 - 1616), German physician and alchemist; Latinized as Libavius; MA Jena 1581, MD Basel 1588; primarily remembered as alchemist through his Alchemia (1597), which can be seen as an early chemistry textbook
Liddelius *
Duncan Liddel or Liddell (1561 - 1613), Scottish physician, mathematician, and astronomer; Latinized as Liddelius; primarily known for mathematics and astronomy but was also author of medical books, e.g., Ars medica (1607) and De febribus (1610)
Linacer *
Thomas Linacre or Lynaker (1460 - 1524), English humanist scholar and physician; founder and first president of the Royal College of Physicians, 1518
Linus *
Francis Line, SJ (1595 - 1675), Latinized as Franciscus Linus; English Jesuit priest and scientist, for many years professor of Hebrew and mathematics at the Jesuit university at Liège; JW records that he Line wrote a quarto against Boyle and Torricelli, which appears to have been Tractatus de Corporum Inseparabilitate, London, 1661
Lobelius *
Mathias de l'Obel or de Lobel (1538 - 1616), Flemish physician and botanist, Latinized as Matthaeus Lobelius; practiced in London 1566 - 71; party to a controversy with Gerard in which he accused the latter of plagiarism
Locke *
John Locke (1632 - 1704), English philosopher, but also natural philosopher and physician; MB Oxford 1675; trained under and practiced with Sydenham; documented Shaftesbury's surgery, see Jeamson, above
Locqyer, Lockyer *
Lionel Lockyer or Lockier (c. 1600 - 1672), 17th c. British quack whose miracle pills (Pilulae Radiis Solis Extracta) contained, or so he said, sunbeams; JW reports visiting him (V.a.293, 106v) and learning something of the composition of the pills ("as Antimonie hee confesses and Nitre, and Mars, and gold") in addition to sunbeams, and how Lockyer had demonstrated the preparation of the pills to the King and other notables
Louel, Louell, Lovell *
Robert Lovell (1630? - 1690), English naturalist; author of Pambotanologia, a pharmacopoeia-herbal (1659); practiced physic in Coventry; at Christ Church as student 1648 - 53, contemporary with JW
Lower *†
Richard ("Dick") Lower (1631 - 1691), English physician and physiologist; FRS; royal physician 1675 though his fortunes suffered during James II because of his protestant views; in V.a.398 he is only mentioned as "Dr. Lower" at the beginning on f. 2r, and in a hand different from Slee's
Ludovicus Septalius *
Ludovico Settala (1552 - 1633), Italian physician, translator, prolific author, and academic, MD Pavia 1571; Latinized as Ludovicus Septalius
Lydall *
Richard Lydal or Lydall (c. 1620 - 1704), English physician; MD Oxford 1657, warden of Merton College 1693 - 1704
Lypiat *
Martin Lypiat, Lipyeatt, or Lypiatt (fl. early to mid-17th c.), Oxford apothecary who lived "against S. Marie's church" (noted by Anthony Wood) at 101 High St.; "Lypiat's pills" contained musk and ambergris


Macer *
Floridus Macer, pseudonym of Odo de Meung, also known as Odo Magunensis (fl. mid 12th c.); author of De Viribis Herbarum, written in verse apparently as an aid to memorization
Sir Théodore Turquet de Mayerne (1573 –1655), Swiss-born physician who treated kings of France and England and advanced the theories of Paracelsus; FRCP 1616
Manardo, Manardus *
Giovanni Manardo (1462 - 1536) of Ferrara, Latinized as Iohannes Manardus; physician to the Count of Mirandola and later to King Ladislaus of Hungary; follower of Hippocrates; referred to Avicenna as a mere compiler
Iacobi de Manlis †
Giovanni Giacomo (da) Manlio or de Bosco (fl. late 15th - mid 16th c.), Italian apothecary, Latinized as Ioannes Iacobus (de) Manliis or Manlius; author of Luminare maius (1490), the first pharmaceutical manual on the preparation of herbal remedies, oils, syrups, pills, and unguents
Maplet *
John Maplett (c. 1611 - 1670), English physician; MD Oxford 1647, practiced at Bath and Bristol
Massaria *
Alessandro Massaria (1510 - 1598), Italian physician and physicist; professor of medicine at Padua, wrote a textbook on pathology; Galenist; stated that it was better to err with Galen than to maintain the right with the moderns
Matheus de Gradi †
Giovanni Matteo Ferrari de Gradi (d. 1472), Italian physician, professor of medicine at Pavia (1432 - 72)
Mathiolus, Matthiolus †
Pietro Andrea Mattioli (1501 - 77), Italian physician and naturalist; Latinized as Matthiolus; translator of Dioscorides' De materia medica (1544); made the first report of a case of allergy to cats
May *
Edward May (fl. mid-17th c.), "Doctor of Philosophy and Physick, and professor Elect of them, in the Colledge of the Academy of Noble-men, called the Musaeum Minearvae: Physitian also extraordinary unto her most Sacred Majesty, Queene of great Brittany, &c."; not mentioned by JW by name; see under Novum lumen, below; there is no likely candidate in the Alumni Oxonienses or Alumni Cantabrigienses
Sir Theodore Mayerns *
Sir Theodore Turquet de Mayerne (1573 - 1655), Swiss Huguenot physician; chief physician to James I, also the King's confidential agent in "various literary, diplomatic, and political affairs" (DNB); practiced in Paris with Rivière (Riverius) and du Chesne (Quercitanus)
Mayo *
John Mayow (bapt. 1641 - 1679) "of All Souls," English physiologist and chemist; author of Tractatus quinque medico-physici (1674); had a medical practice in Bath despite not having taken a medical degree (like JW)
Meara *
probably Edmund O'Meara (Éamonn Ó Meadhra) or Meara, (1614 - 1681), Irish physician and physiologist, MD Rheims 1636; practised at Bristol with great success; one of the last defenders of Galen; rejected the concept of circulation of the blood set out by Harvey
Mercurialis *†
Girolamo Mercuriali (1530 - 1606), Italian philologist and physician, Latinized as Mercurialis; prolific author, especially about the plague in Venice (De pestilentia, 1577); which as a member of a medical advisory board he mishandled by recommending against quarantines
Mercatus *
Luis (de) Mercado (1525 - 1611), Spanish physician, author, and hygienist, Latinized as Ludovicus Mercatus; physician to Philip II of Spain, and possibly the subject of El Greco's Retrato de un médico (c. 1582 - 85)
Merret *
Christoper Merret or Merrett (1614 - 93), English physician, MD Oxford, naturalist and scientist; first to document adding sugar for production of sparkling wine in 1662; author of The Art of Glass and Pinax Rerum Naturalium Britannicarum, one of the first lists of the flora, fauna, and minerals of England
Mes., Mesue *†
Yuhanna Ibn Masawaiyh (c. 777 - 857), Persian physician, called Mesue "the Elder," director of a Baghdad hospital and personal physicians to four caliphs, wrote the first systematic treatise on ophthalmology; also possible and more likely because of the many receipts quoted by Slee, Yahya ibn Masawaih al-Mardini, called Mesue "the Younger" (d. 1015), Assyrian physician and possibly a pupil of Avicenna, author of a pharmacopoeia and a treatise on purgatives and emetics, De medicinis laxativis
Meverell, Meverill *†
Othowell Meverall (1585 - 1648), English physician; MD Leiden 1613; Reader of anatomical lectures and director of dissections for the Barber-Surgeon's Company from 1637
Millington *
Sir Thomas Millington (1628 - 1703/4), English physician; MD Oxford 1659; attended final illness of Charles II, Physician-in-ordinary to William III and Queen Anne
Mills *
described by JW as "an Essex physitian," possibly Walter Mills (1623 - ?), "a Londoner" (RCP biography); MD Leyden, incorporated MD at Oxford, 1653; FRCP 1664
Mnesitheus Atheniensis *
Mnesithenus of Athens (fl. 4th c. BCE), Greek physician; wrote a treatise on diet and also one On Tippling, quoted by Athenaeus: "Mnesitheus said that the gods had revealed wine to mortals, to be the greatest blessing for those who use it aright, but for those who use it without measure, the reverse"
see Robert Morison, below
Molines *
likely either Edward Molines (Moleyns, Mullins) (d. 1663), surgeon at St. Thomas's, London; or James Molines, his son (1628 - 86), MD Oxxford 1681, also surgeon at St. Thomas' Hospital jointly with Hollier, and surgeon-in-ordinary to Charles II and James II
Montagnana †
Bartolomeo da Montagnana (d. 1460), Italian physician, professor of medicine at Padua
Montaigne *
Michel de Montaigne (1533 - 1592), French philosopher, author, and statesman
Montanus *†
Giovanni Battista Monte or Gian Battista da Monte (1498 - 1551), Italian physician, Latinized as Johannes Baptista Montanus; promoted revival of Greek and Islamic texts, with revisions of Galen, Rhasis, and Avicenna; established the first permanent anatomic theater, where Vesalus, Fallopius, and Fabricius studied; introduced clinical medicine into the curriculum
Morellus *
probably Pierre Morel (fl. late 17th c.), French apothecary, Latinized as Petrus Morellus; author of a book of receipts, Methodus praescribendi formulas remediorum elegantissima (1645)
Morgan *
Edward (Ned) Morgan (c. 1619 - c. 1685), English or Welsh herbalist, director of the Westminster Physic Garden (later the Chelsea Physic Garden), est. c. 1657
Morinus *
undoubtedly either Rene Morin (fl. mid-17th c.), Latinized as Renatus Morinus, or his brother Pierre (c. 1590 - ?), Latinized as Petrus; when Richard Symonds visited the Morins' Paris garden located near the Holy Innocents' Cemetery, he noted that Morin was "a man that got his present Riches from Alternus which he brought out of Province & sold here & wherewith all walls are lyned;" JW mentions (V.a.295 73v), "Dr. Morini att paris made 500li of Alaternus arbors when they first came vp;" see P. Leith-Ross, "A Seventeenth-Century Paris Garden," Garden History Vol. 21, No. 2 (Winter 1993)
Morison *
Robert Morison (1620 - 1683), Scottish physician, botanist and taxonomist; developed the first systematic classification of plants; physician and botanist to Charles II and supervisor of the royal gardens; was director of the royal gardens at Blois for ten years; he is also referred to by JW as Dr. Modessey, Modesie, Modesay, or Modesy, said to be an approximation of the French pronunciation of his name
Moseley *
possibly Humphrey Moseley (d. 1661), London publisher and bookseller; books included the first Beaumont and Fletcher folio, also Sir Francis Bacon and alchemical works including Robert Fludd
du Moulin *
possibly James (or Jaques) du Molins, du Moulin, or Molines, FRS (1628 - 86); surgeon to the household of Charles II and to the person of James II; trepanned the Duke of York, later James II, without killing him; or Lewis du Moulin (1603 - 80), French physican and religious controversialist, practiced in London
Musa †
Antonius Musa (fl. 23), Greek botanist and physician to Emperor Augustus
Musaeus *
Musaeus of Athens, legendary or semimythological Greek polymath, philosopher, historian, prophet, etc.
Mynsicht *
Adrian von Mynsicht (1603 - 1638), German alchemist, author of Aureum Saeculum Redivivum (1621/2) under the pseudonym Henricus Madathanus, and of Thesaurus et Armamentarium Medico-Chymicum (1631)


Nardus *
Giovanni Nardi (1585 - 1654), Italian physician, Latinized as Nardus; friend of Harvey
Needham *
Marchamont Nedham (1620 - 1678), English journalist, publisher, and pampleteer; anti-Galenist; JW identifies him as the author of Medela medicinae, A Plea for the Free Profession, and a Renovation of the Art of Physick, 1665
Needham *
Casper (or Jasper) Needham (1622 - 1679), English physician; MD Cambridge 1657, an early FRS
Needham *
Walter Needham (bap. 1632 - d. 1691), highly regarded English physician and anatomist, FRS; Sydenham was an admirer; wrote Disquisitio anatomica de formato foetu (1667) on the anatomy and physiology of the human fetus
Nicolai †
Nicola Deoprepio, a.k.a. Niccolò da Reggio (1280 - ?), Italian physician, scientist, and translator; on faculty at Salerno; translator of Aristotle and Galen
Notteradamus *
Michel de Nostredame (1503 - 1566), French physician and astrologer, Latinized as Nostradamus; author of Les Prophéties, 1555; JW refers to him as "physitian in provance," where he was born, practiced, and died
Novum lumen *
not a person, but a book, mentioned by JW in V.a.287, 44r; an EEBO search yields either Novum lumen chymicum by Michał Sędziwój (1566 - 1636, see Sendivogius, below); or Novum lumen medicum (1662) by Joachim Poleman after the system of van Helmont. The quotations from the book as given by JW are as follows: "That part of the sperme which truly conduces to the making of man (as novum Lumen) says, canne bee no greater att first .. then the 8200th part of a graine of wheat/ That of Aristotle is provable, that the 40th day after Conception, homo formica non major." Neither appears in the English translation of Sendivogius nor in Poleman; they appears to come instead from A Most Certaine and True Relation of a Strange Monster Serpent Found in the left Ventricle of the heart of Iohn Pennant (1639) by Edward May, "Doctor of Philosophy and Physick," etc.: "it can be no greater at first moment of conception, then in proportion to the 8200 part of a grain of wheate;" and "that the fortieth day after conception, homo formica non major," which appears directly after the "8200" quotation in May


Octavianus Roboretus *
Ottaviano Roboreto or Rovereti (fl. late 16th c.), Italian physician and philosopyer, MD Padua; Latinized as Octavianus Roboretus; styled either "da Trento" (the city) or "da Trentino" (the region); author of De peticulari febre
Orbasius *
Oribasius or Oreibasius (c. 320 - 404), Greek medical writer and personal physician to Emperor Julian; wrote two collections (Collectiones medicae) of excerpts of earlier writers, a collection of excerpts from Galen
Owen *
a contemporary of JW's at Christ Church; the only likely candidate in Alumni Oxonienses is George Owen (d. 1690), matric. February 1650/1, BA Merton College March 1650/1, MA Christ Church 1656, Archdeacon of St. David's, Pembrokeshire


Paedomontanus *
probably Girolamo Ruscelli (1500 - 1566), Italian mathematician and cartographer, pseudonym Alessio Piemontese, Latinized as Alexius Pedemontanus; author of The Book of Secrets of Alexis of Piedmont, which features in "The book thief," Heather Wolfe's 9 December 2021 post in The Collation
Palmarius *†
Pierre le Palmier or Paulmier, (1568 - 1610), French physician, Latinized as Petrus Palmarius; author of Lapis Philosophicus Dogmaticorum, 1608, which attacked Paracelsus and supported the older medicine and pharmacy
Papinius *
uncertain, possibly Ambrosius Papen (fl. mid-late 16th c.); Papenius and Guiffartus are described by JW as "Medici praestantissimi" in V.a.287, 79r; this Papen is listed in J. H. Baas' Outlines of the History of Medicine as the author of a book on midwifery; there is a Papinius listed in the Catalogue of the Library of the Royal College of Surgeons of England (vol. 3, 1853) under discovery and controversies on the circulation of the blood
Paracelsus *†
(Philippus Aureolus) Theophrastus (Bombastus) von Hohenheim (1493 - 1541), Swiss physician, alchemist, and philosopher; "father of toxicology;" Paracelsianism is the early modern medical movement inspired by him, which values clinical observation in conjunction with received wisdom
Park., Parkinson *
John Parkinson (1567 - 1650), English apothecary, herbalist, and botanist; apothecary to James I and royal botanist to Charles I; author of Theatrum botanicum (1640), describing some 3800 plants, the most highly regarded botanical treatise of its time
Parry, Paraeus (a Chirurgion) *
Ambroise Paré (1510 - 1590), French barber-surgeon, Latinized as Paraeus; served as surgeon to Henry II, Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III; one of the fathers of modern surgery and forensic pathology; pioneer in surgical techniques and wound care
Paulmier *
Julien Le Paulmier de Grantemesnil (1520 - 1588), French Prostetant physican, Latinized as Iulianus Palmarius; author of several medical works, including De morbis contagiosis libri septem; JW mentions a powder of his formulation used against rabies
Peachi *
John Peachi or Peachie (fl. late 17th c.) MD Caen, Extra-Licentiate of RCP 1683; apparently not the same person as John Pechey (1654 - 1718), RCP 1684, see DNB
Pequet, Pecquett *
Jean Pecquet (1622 - 74) of Dieppe, French anatomist and physiologist, Latinized as Pecquetus; MD and professor at Montpellier; discoverer of the cisterna chyli or reservoir of Pecquet
Petrus Severinus *
Peder Sørensen (1542 - 1602), Danish physician, Latinized as Petrus Severinus; author of Idea medicinae philosophicae (1571), which asserted that Paracelsus' ideas were superior to those of Galen and of the concept of the four humors
Phavorinus *
Giuseppe Favorino de' Clavari (fl. early 16th c.), Italian physician, Latinized as Josephus Phavorinus a Clavariis; author, inter alia, of Medicarum Exertitationum (1594)
Philonium †
not a person per se but an electuary, possibly referring to Johann Philonius Dugo Tilianus (d. 1553) or Philo of Tarsus (fl. 1c)
Pink *
referred to by JW (V.a.295 52r) as Dr. Pink of New College, possibly Robert Pincke (c. 1575 - 1647); MA 1601-2, BMed 1612, warden of New College 1617-47, Vice Chancellor at times between 1634 and 1645
Platerus *
Felix Platter (1536 - 1614), Swiss physician, Latinized as Platerus; MD Montpellier 1557, professor at Basel; known for classification of psychiatric diseases and first description of an intracranial tumor
Pledwel *
likely Richard Pleydell or Playdell, Alumni Oxonienses lists two men of the same name; one (c. 1622 - 1694) recorded as a privilegiatus 1666, aged 42, licensed to practice surgery the same year; and the other listed as a "chirurgeon," matriculated St. Mary Hall 1666, aged 17, BA 1669, MA 1672
Plinius *
Gaius Plinius Secundus or Pliny the Elder (c. 23/24 - 79), Roman author and naturalist, military leader, and friend of Emperor Vespasian; wrote the Naturalis historia, by some considered to be the first encyclopedia
Plot *
Robert Plot (1640 - 96) "of Magdalen Hall," Oxford, English naturalist; first Professor of Chemistry at Oxford, first keeper of the Ashmolean Museum
Poleman *
Joachim Poleman, German physician and chemist in Amsterdam, corresponded with Hartlib; see Novum lumen, above
Politian *
possibly Angelo Ambrogini (1454 - 1494), Italian classical scholar, humanist, and poet, also known as Poliziano after his birthplace of Montepulciano
Ponteus *
John Punteus, q.v.
Prideaux *
likely John Prideaux or Prydeaux (1578 - 1650), DD Exeter College, Oxford, 1612; Regius Professor of Divinity (1615 - 42), Christ Church
Priest *
Robert Priest (c. 1550 - c. 1590) BA 1569-70 MA 1573, MD 1580 (all at Cambridge), RCP 1582; commissioned by publisher John Norton to translate Dodoens' (q.v.) Stirpium Historiae Pemptades sex, but Priest died before completing it; the translation was finished by Gerard (q.v.); with the death of Priest, Gerard stated of Priest's work, "Doctor Priest one of our London Colledge hath (as I heard) translated the last edition of Dodonaeus, and meant to publish the same; but being prevented by death, his translation likewise perished. Lastly my selfe, one of the least among many, haue presumed to set forth vnto the view of the World, the first fruits of these myne owne Labours;" Priest's work is thus foundational to Gerard's Herball
Primirosius *†
James Primrose or Primerose (d. 1659), English physycian, Latinized as Primirosius; defender of Galen and opposed to Harvey's theory of blood circulation; described by Haller as "contensiosus veterum defensor"
Prujean *
Sir Francis Prujean or Pridgeon (c.1593 - 1666), English physician; MD Cambridge 1625; cured Queen Catherine of typhus, 1663; President of the RCP 1650 - 54
Provotius *
Jean Prevost (1585 - 1631), Swiss physician, Professor of medicine at Padua; Latinized as Johannes (Rauracus) Prevotius; author of one of the first reference books for diseases of the poor, Medicina Pauperum (1664)
Punteus *
Johannes Puntaeus (fl. mid-17th c.); according to Anthony à Wood in Fasti Oxonienses for 1649, the "famous Mountebank of his time," an "Italian and a Chymical Physitian, who, for many years before this, had exercised his Art in several places within this Kingdom, had license given to him to practice chirurgery throughout all England;" and who "lived at Salisbury and died rich and full of years;" one of his specialties appears to have been a multi-ingredient patent medicine/panacea called orvietan


Quercetanus *†
Joseph du Chesne (q. v.), Latinized as Iosephus Quercetanus
Quercetanus Redivivus *
"Quercetanus Alive Again," not a person but a book of du Chesne's writings published posthumously (1648) and apparently compiled or edited by Schröder
Quintus Serenus Sammonicus *
Roman savant (d. 212 CE) and tutor to the Emperors Geta and Caracalla; author of De medicina praecepta saluberrima, which recommends the famous triangular ABRACADABRA for use as a magic amulet


Radulph. Holland. †
Radulphus Hollandicus (? - ?); appears only in "Pulv. Radulph. Holland." in V.a.398, p. 43 col. 2, and in J. Quincy, Pharmacopoia Officinalis & Extemporanea (1742) mentioning a "Pulvis Radulphi Holandicus from its first Contriver"
Rausetus *
Franciscus Rausetus (? - ?); author of De partu Caesareo, mentioned by Cappocius (1686)
Read, Reade *†
Dr. Alexander Read(e), Reid(e), or Rhead (1580 - 1641), Scottish physician, surgeon, and anatomist; MD Oxford 1620; author of A Description of the Body of Man (1616), The Chirurgicall Lectures of Tumors and Ulcers (1635), and A Treatise of the First Part of Chirurgerie (1638)
Remmelinus *
Johann(es) Remmelin or Rümelin (1583 - 1632), German physician and anatomist, philosopher, and mathematician, Latinized as Remelinus; MD Basel 1607; state physician in Ulm (his hometown), Schorndorf, and Augsburg; author of inter alia An exact survey of the microcosmus or little world being an anatomie, of the bodies of man and woman..., "Englished by John Ireton, Chirurgeon," London, 1670; this is likely the edition mentioned by JW in V.a.291, f.163r
Renodaeus *†
Jean de Renou (1568 - c. 1620), French physician, Latinized as Renodaeus or Renodeus; French physician; author of Dispensatorium medicum, translated in to English as A Medical Dispensatory, 1657
Rhas., Rhasis *†
Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (854 - 925), Persian physican, philosopher, and alchemist, Latinized as Rhazes, Rhasis, or Rasis; prolific and influential author, including a home medical manual directed at the general public: For One Who Has No Physician to Attend Him
Riolanus *
Jean Riolan the Younger (1577 or 1580 - 1657), French anatomist and physician, Latinized as Riolanus; Galenist; personal physician to Marie de Medici; author of Anthropographia (1618); remembered today with the "arc of Riolan," the mesenteric connection between the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries
Riverius *
Lazare Rivière (1589 - 1655), French physician and surgeon, anatomist, and pharmacologist, Latinized as Riuerius or Riverius; professor at Montpellier; author of Praxis medica cum theoria, 1640-55, popular, influential, and often reprinted
Rondolet *†
Guillaume Rondelet (1507 - 1566), French physician, anatomist, and naturalist, Latinized as Rondeletus or Rondeletius; author of a treatise on marine animals, Libri de piscibus marinis (1554); friend of fellow physician Rabelais at Montpellier, and, while serving as the medical student registrar ("procurator"), he expelled Nostradamus for being an apothecary and slandering physicians
Rudbeck *
Olaus Rudbeck (1630 - 1702), Swedish scientist and writer, professor of Medicine and rector of the University of Uppsala, Latinized as Olaus Rudbeckius; anatomist and botanist; established the first botanical garden in Sweden at Uppsala; Linnaeus was a student of his son, Olof Rudbeck the Younger
Rudius *
Eustachio Rudio (1551 - 1611), Italian physican, Latinized as Rudius; MD Padua 1574; trained with Massaria in Venice; author of Ars medica (1608), an enormous compilation of medical practice
Ruffus, Rufus *†
Rufus of Ephesus (fl. late 1st - early 2nd c.), Greek physican and writer; appears only in reference to "pilulae Ruffi," Rufus' pills
Rulandus *†
Martin Ruland or Rulandt; probably the Elder (1532 - 1602), German physician and Paracelsian; or his son, Martin Ruland the Younger (1569 - 1611), German physician and alchemist; both Latinized as Martinus Rulandus; one of them published Curationum empiricarum et historicarum Centuria in ten volumes (1578 - 1596)


Sadler *
John Sadler (c. 1615 - 1664) MD, "Dr. of physick in London;" author of Praxis medicorum vel Formula remediorum, 1637, and Enchiridion Medicum, 1657; likely not the John Sadler (1615 - 1674) MP, lawyer, political theorist, and reformer, since his DNB entry mentions no medical training, practice, or publications
Sala, Angelus †
Angelo Sala (1576 - 1617), Italian physician and chemist; medical training not recorded, but served Wanderjahre in Dresden, Sondrio, Ponte, Nuremberg, Frauenfeld, and Geneva before settling down in The Hague and subsequently in Oldenburg as a court physician; author of Anatomia vitrioli (1609)
Sanctorius *
Santorio Santorio (1561 - 1636), Italian physician and physiologist, Latinized as Sanctorius; author of De Statica Medicina (1614), an influential and much reprinted compendium of aphorisms
Santorelli *
Antonio Santorelli da Nola (c. 1581 - 1653), Italian physician, Latinized as Santorellus Nolanus; author of Antepraxis medica (1622) and Postpraxis medica (1629)
Sayer *
Henry Sayer (Sayre, Sawyer) (? - ?), MB 1642 Magdalen College
Saxonia *†
Ercole Sassonia (1551 - 1607), Italian physician, Latinized as Hercules (de) Saxonia or Hercules Saxonia Patavinus (of Padua), Anglicized as Hercules of Saxony; chief works involved diagnostics and skin and venereal diseases; wrote Opera Practica (1589)
Scaliger *
Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540 - 1609), Franco-Italian Calvinist religious leader, scholar, and historian
Scarborough *
Sir Charles Scarborough or Scarburgh (1615 - 1694) FRS FRCP MP, English physician and mathematician; anatomist, author of Syllabus Musculorum; physician to Charles II and attended him at his death, also physician to James II and William III and Mary II; mentioned by Pepys (diary entry 27 February 1662/3)
Schonbornius *
possibly Samuel Schönborn (1608 - 1664), German physician at Danzig, author of Manuale Medicinae Practicae Galeno-Chymicae (1657); or else Bartholomäus Schönborn (1530 - 1585), German physician, mathematician, philologist, and naturalist, author of De Peste Grassante Anno 1582 (1613); both Latinized as Schonbornius
Schroderus *
Johann Schröder (1600 - 1664), German physician and pharmacologist, Latinized as Schroderus; first to recognize arsenic as an element; author of Pharmacopoiea medico-chymica sive thesaurus pharmacologicus (1644)
Scribonius Largus *
(c. 1 - c. 50) court physician to Emperor Claudius, compiled a list of 271 prescriptions in De compositione medicamentorum liber
Selden *
John Selden (1584 - 1654), English jurist, parliamentarian, and polymath; Milton called him "the chief of learned men reputed in this land"
Senchez *
probably Francisco Sánchez or Sanches (1551 - 1623), Spanish physician and philosopher; called "The Skeptic;" wrote Quod nihil scitur (1581), using skeptical arguments showing that finding necessary reasons in the behavior of nature is not possible; also Opera medica (published posthumously 1636)
Sendivogius *
Michał Sędziwój (1566 - 1636), Polish alchemist, physician, and philosopher, Latinized as Sendivogius; author of Novum lumen chymicum (1650); there is a reference by JW to a book titled novum lumen in V.a.287, 44r, see "Novum lumen," above
Sennert. or Sinnert. *†
Daniel Sennert (1572 - 1637), German physician; commonly Latinized as Sennertus or Sinnertus; prolific and influential medical writer, frequently quoted by JW and often abbreviated "Sen." or "Sin."
Sharrok *
Robert Sharrock (1630 - 1634), Fellow of New College, Oxford; gardener at New College, author of The History of the Propagation and Improvement of Vegetables by the Concurrence of Art and Nature (1660)
Siluius, Silvius *†
Franciscus Silvius (1614 - 72) (né Franz de le Boë), Dutch physician and scientist (chemistry, physiology, anatomy), Latinized as Silvius or Sylvius; founded the first academic chemical laboratory; remembered today in the aqueduct of Sylvius and the Sylvian fissure; in his Opera medica (published posthumously, 1679) he recognized scrofula as a form of tuberculosis
Simeon Metaphrastes *
Symeon the Metaphrast (fl. late 10th c.), Byzantine writer (notably a μηνολόγιον or menalogion, a hagiography in ten volumes), venerated as a Saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church
Simpson *
William Simpson or Simson (c. 1640 - 1680), English physician, MD Leiden 1670; author of Hydrologia chymica, or The chymical anatomy of the Scarborough, and other spaws in York-Shire
Slegelius *
Paul Marquard Schlegel (1605 - 1653), German physician and botanist, Latinized as Slegelius; MD Padua 1636; prolific author; studied at Wittenberg when Sinnert was on the faculty
Smith *
Francis Smith (fl. mid-17th c.), Oxford surgeon, also referred to as "Mr. ffrancis" and "Mr. Smith;" R. G. Frank describes him as one of JW's "most constant medical companions;" lived in St. John's parish, near Thomas Willis
Smitzius *
Johann Andreas Schmitz, Latinized as Smitzius or Schmitzius (1621 - 1652); German physician, author of Medicinae Practicae Compendium, published posthumously,

Geneva 1659

Solinos *
probably Gaius Iulius Solinus (fl. middle 3rd c.), Latin grammarian, geographer, and compiler; wrote De mirabilis mundi, largely taken from Pliny's Naturalis historia, which mentions a cure for impetigo; in Va286, JW states "Impetigo apud plinium et solinos idem est ac lichen Graecorum"
Solenander *
Reiner Gathmann (1524 - 1601), German physician, Latinized as Rainerus Solenander; personal physician to Duke Wilhelm IV of Jülich-Kleve-Berg; early balneologist, author of De caloris fontium, 1558
Solomon *
unknown; described by JW as an "opposition practitioner in the town;" but likely not William Salmon (1644 - 1713), contributor (with Culpeper) to Pharmacopoeia Londinensis
Sprackling *
Robert Sprackling or Sprakling (d. c. 1670), English physician; author of Medela Ignorantio (1665), "a just and plain vindication of Hippocrates and Galen"
Spigelius *
Adriaan van den Spiegel or Spieghel (1578 - 1625), Flemish anatomist, Latinized as Spigelius; updated Vesalius in his book De humani corporis fabrica (published posthumously in 1627), with the title borrowed from Vesalius; remembered today in the Spegelian line and hernia
Sprat *
Thomas Sprat (bapt. 1635 - 1713), English churchman and writer, Bishop of Rochester from 1684; wrote first history of the Royal Society, 1667
Stahl or Stall *
Peter Stahl (d. c. 1675), German (Alsatian) alchemist and physician; employed by Boyle as laboratory technician; first private tutor of chemistry at Oxford; notable students included Locke, Wallis, Wood, and Wren
Starkey *
George Starkey (né Stirk) (1628 - 1665), alchemist, physician, and writer, born in Bermuda; BA 1646 and MA c. 1649 Harvard University; emigrated to England 1650, practiced in London near St. Thomas Apostles; remained in London during the plague and perished
Steno *
Niels Steensen or Stensen (1638 - 1686), Danish anatomist and geologist, Latinized as Nicolaus Steno; discovered duct of the parotid salivary gland, still referred to as Stensen's duct
Stephens *
Philip Steephens (c. 1620 - 1679), MD Oxford 1655; wrote a catalog of the Oxford Botanic Garden (Catalogus Horti Botanici Oxoniensis, 1658), based on Bobart's catalog
Strada *
Famiano Strada (1572 - 1649), Italian Jesuit and historian; in Prolusiones Academicae (1617) he conceived the idea of the telegraph using a lodestone and needles
Stubbes, Stubbs *
Henry Stubbe (Stubbes, Stubbs) (1632 - 1676), English political pamphleteer and physician; critic of the Royal Society
Stuckius *
Johann Wilhelm Stucki (1542 - 1607), Swiss theologian, philologist, and professor; Latinized as Ioannes Guilelmi Stuckius
Sturmius *
likely Johann Christoph Sturm (1635 - 1703), German philosopher, astronomer, mathematician, physicist, and clergyman; author of Transfusi sanguinis historiam methodum et artificium, 1676
Suertzius, Swertzius *
Emanuel Sweerts (1552 - 1612), Dutch Painter and nurseryman, Latinized as Emanuel Sweertzius; JW mentions his Florilegium Amplissimum et Selectissimum (1612)
Swan, Swanne *
William Swan (? - 1679), English physician, A.B Cambridge, practiced at Chadwell, Essex; Extra-Licentiate of the RCP 1664; JW says that he cured fevers by letting the patient eat what the patient desired, in moderation, whereas with a strict diet the patients died
Sydenham *
Thomas Sydenham (1624 - 1689), English physician; author of Observationes Medicae, a standard textbook for 200 years; known as the English Hippocrates and the Father of English Medicine; remembered today also for his discovery of Sydenham's chorea
Sylvius *
Franz de la Boë, Latinized as Franciscus Sylvius (1614 - 1672), Dutch physician, also chemist, physiologist, and anatomist (the Sylvian fissure in the brain is named after him)


Tenzelius *
Andreas Tentzel or Tenzel (fl. early 17th c.), Paracelsian physician, Latinized as Tenzelius; author of Medicina Diastatica (1629), concerning the art of healing at a distance
Tabernamontanus *
Iacobus Theodorus (1525 - 90), German physician, botanist, and herbalist; a "father of German botany;" styled Tabernaemontanus (of Bergzabern in the Palatinate); his Neuw Kreuterbuch (1581) was one of Gerard's (unacknowledged) sources
Terne (or possibly Tearns) *
Christopher Terne (1620/1 - 1673), English physician and anatomist; MD Leiden, lecturer to Barber-Surgeons Company 1656; Pepys attended one of his lectures (diary entry 27 February 1662/3) and spells his name Tearne
de Ternham *
apparently the same as Nicholas Farnham, q. v.
Terry *
possibly Edward Terry (1590 - 1660), English travel writer, chaplain in the East India Company; or Edward Terrey (d. 1716), an English "nonconformist divine," and a contemporary of JW at Christ Church (MA 1653)
Thessalus *
Thessalus (Θεσσαλός), Greek physician, fl. 5th - 4th c. BCE; son of Hippocrates
Theophrastus *
given name Tyrtamus (c. 371 - 287 BCE), Greek philosopher; nicknamed Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος), "godly phrased;" successor to Aristotle in the Peripatetic School
Tomlinson *
JW connects him with botany, so possibly Richard Tomlinson (fl. 1657), English apothecary; translated Renodaeus (de Renou), A Medicinal Dispensatory, Containing The whole Body of Physick: discovering The Natures, Properties, and Vertues of Vegetables, Minerals, & Animals, 1657
Toon(e) *
Stephen Toone (c. 1633 - 1681), Oxford apothecary, matriculated 1666; JW lodged with him and performed physiological experiments with him, and collected many receipts
Torricellius *
Evangelista Torricell (1608 - 1647), Italian physicist and mathematician, Latinized as Torricellius; student of Galileo; inventor of the barometer; discovered Torricelli's Law regarding fluid flow; also worked on projectiles, the cause of wind, and mathematics
Trincavel, Trinchavel †
Vettore Trincavella or Trincavelli (1496 - 1568), Italian physician and philosopher, Latinized as Trincavellus; editor of Greek classics
Tulp *
Nicolaes Tulp (1593 - 1674), born Claes Pieterszoon, Dutch surgeon, anatomist, and mayor of Amsterdam, author of Pharmacopoiea Amstelredamensis, 1636, and Observationes Medicae, 1641; subject of the famous Rembrandt painting, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632
Turner *
John Turner (fl. early 17th c.); English physician; MD Leiden, Licentiate of the RCP 1630; JW refers to a Dr. Turner being examined for admission into "the Colledg" (V.a.287, 48v)
Turner *
William Turner (1509/10 - 1568), English divine, naturalist, and physician; author of the herbarial Libellus de Re Herbaria Novus (1538); friend of Gessner (see Gesnerus, above); sometime Dean of Wells Cathedral
Turnhaser *
Leonhard Thurneysser (or Thurneisser) zum Thurn (1531 - 1595 or 1596), Swiss scholar, alchemist, and metallurgist; miracle doctor at the court of Elector John George of Brandenburg
Tydeman *
Robert Tideman or Tydman de Winchcombe (d. 1401), English clergyman, bishop of Llandaff & Worcester, physician to King Richard II; as a Cistercian he had been expelled from Hailes Abbey for "the evil arts of brewing charms and weaving spells" (The Chronicle of Adam of Usk) but was taken in by Netley Abbey

U - V

Ulmus Medicus *
Marco Antonio Olmo (fl. late 16th - early 17th c.), Italian physician, Latinized as Marcus Antonius Ulmus Patavinus (of Padua); author of Physiologia Barbae Hunamae, a treatise on the true nature of hair and beards; professor of medicine and natural philosophy at Bologna; one author refers to him as "the Copernicus of beard science"
Valesco, Valescus, or Valescus de Tar(r)anta †
Vasco, Velasco, or Valescus de Taranta or Tarenta (fl. 1382 - 1417), Portuguese physician and author of a brief treatise on the plague, De epidemia et peste, published 1494
Valesius *
Francisco Valles (1524 - 1592), Spanish physician and humanist, Latinized as Franciscus Vallesius; prolific author and commentator on Aristotle, Galen, Hippocrates, inter alia
Valleriola *
Francois Valleriole or Valleriola (1504 - 1580), French physican and commentator on Galen
Velthusius *
Lambert van Velthuysen (1622 - 1685), Latinized as Lambertus Velthusius; Dutch physician, theologian, and philosopher
Vesalius *
Andreas Vesalius (1514 - 1564), Belgian/Italian anatomist and physician; author of one of the most important anatomy books, De humani corporis fabria libri septem (1543); "Father of Human Anatomy"
Vesling *
Johann Vesling (1598 - 1649), German anatomist and botanist, Latinized as Veslingius; Th. Bartholin was one of his students at Padua; author of a popular textbook from his lectures, Syntagma anatomicum (1651)
Vigo *
Giovanni da Vigo (1450 - 1525), Italian surgeon and anatomist, Latinized as Johannes de Vigo; official surgeon to Pope Julius II; author of Practica in arte chirurgica copiosa, 1514
Villula, John de *
John of Tours (d. 1122), Anglo-French physician to King William I, and attended the King at his death; he had been a priest before entering the King's service and later became Bishop of Wells, a misreading of which apparently was the origin of "de Villula"
Vincent *
a contemporary at Christ Church; possibilities include John, matriculated 1649, BA 1650, MA 1652; and Thomas (1634 - 78), BA 1651/2, MA 1654, clergyman and ejected minister
Volcherus *
Volcher Coiter (1534 - 1576), Duch anatomist, Latinized as Volcherus; first to describe meningitis


Walbius, Willius *
de structura wheel barriorum, V.a.287 44r, unknown, perhaps a joke; there is a William Walby, sometime Canon Regular of Oseney or St. Frideswid, who was installed a Canon of Christ Church Cathedral and was buried there without memorial in 1554 (Anthony Wood, The History and Antiquities of the Colleges and Halls in the University of Oxford, 1786, p. 507) but is not listed as a graduate in Alumni Oxonienses
Wecker, Weckerus (one instance of "Vecker" in V.a.398 p. 2) *†
Johannes Jacob Wecker (1528 - 1586), Swiss physician and philosopher; medical works include Medicae Syntaxes, 1562, and Antidotarium speciale, 1574
Wharton *
Thomas Wharton (1614 - 73), English physician and anatomist; remembered today for Wharton's duct (for the submandibular salivary gland) and Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord
White *
Thomas White (1593 - 1676), English Catholic priest and scholar, alias "Blackloe;" wrote Scire, sive sceptices (1663) against Joseph Glanvill's The Vanity of Dogmatizing (1661)
Wilden *
William Wilden, Weldon, or Wildan (fl. 1667), chemistry teacher in Oxford at 80 High St.; Robert Plot took his course in 1667
Wilkins *
John Wilkins (1614 -72), English natural philosopher and clergyman; one of a group of intellectuals in Oxford including Ent, Glisson, Merret; friend of Harvey; Bishop of Chester from 1668 until his death
Williams, Ralph *
English practioner and clergyman; no dates or further information; author of the amibitiously titled Physical Rarities Containing The Most Choice Receipts of Physick Chirurgery For The Cure Of All Diseases Incident to Mans Body: being a Rich Jewell Kept in the Cabinet of a Famous Doctor in this Nation: Stored with Admirable Secrets and Approved Medicines, 1651; see footnote for advice concerning sexually transmitted disease
Willis *
Thomas Willis (1621 - 1675), English physician and anatomist; founding member of the Royal Society; author of Cerebri anatome, 1664, and demonstration of the anastomotic arteries at the base of the brain, remembered as the Circle of Willis; Wren provided drawings for the book; he numbered the twelve cranial nerves in the order still taught today
Wing *
"Wing the Almanack maker;" Vincent Wing, (1619 - 1668), astronomer, astrologer, and land surveyor; prolific author; inventor of the forty-two link pole chain for measuring tracts of land in rods or poles; JW states (V.a.295 53v) that Wing was a freemason, which is not attested in the DNB
Winterton *
Ralph Winterton (1600 - 1636), English physician; author of Hippocratis Magni Aphorismi; Regius Professor of Physic at Cambridge, 1635
Wiseman, Dr., "a chyrurgion" *
Richard Wiseman (1622 - 76), English surgeon; first consultant surgeon in London; personal surgeon and serjeant-surgeon to Charles II; author of Severall Chirurgical Treatises, 1676, Samuel Johnson used terminology from this book for a source for his dictionary
Witherburne *
likely Sir John Wedderburn, Wedderbourne, or Witherbourne (1599 -1679), Scottish physician; MD Oxford 1646; physician to Charles I and II; was in the Netherlands with the then Prince Charles, 1646 - 7
Wood *
Anthony Wood (or "à Wood") (1632 - 1695), English antiquary; works on Oxford including Historia et antiquitates Universitatis Oxoniensis and Athenae Oxonienses, published posthumously 1786 - 90 and 1792 - 96, respectively
Woodall *
John Woodall (1570 - 1643), English surgeon; first surgeon general to the East India Company; author of books intended for naval surgeons, The Surgions Mate, Or, a Treatise Discouering Faithfully and Plainely the Due Contents of the Surgions Chest, 1617, and Viaticum, the Path-Way to the Surgeon's Chest, 1628
Wren *
Christopher Wren (1632 - 1723), English architect, anatomist, physicist, astronomer; well known as architect of St. Paul's; illustrator of Willis' Cerebri Anatome, 16
Wright *
probably Laurence Wright (1590 - 1657), MD Padua, practitioner in London, a "die-hard Galenist" and physician-in-ordinary to Oliver Cromwell (DNB)


Yerbury *
Henry Yerbury (1628 - 1686), English physician; MD Padua 1654; practiced in Oxford but apparently withdrew from practice when he was reinstated in his fellowship at Magdalen College


Zacutus Lusitanus *†
Abraham Zacuth (1575 - 1642), Portuguese physician, Latinized as Zacutus, "Lusitanus"= Portuguese; also known as Manuel Alvares de Tavara; moved from Lisbon to Amsterdam 1625 and had an extensive practice; prolific author, including De medicorum principium historia, published posthumously 1642; NB don't confuse with Abraham Ben Samuel Zacuto, Spanish historian and astronomer
Zwelfer *
Johann Zwelfer (Zwelifer, Swölfer) (1618 - 1668), German physician and chemist; made corrections to the Pharmacopoiea Augustana and composed an original one, Pharmacopoiea Regia seu Dispensatorium Novum, 1693

Unidentified physicians and apothecaries

Alphons Ferrarius, p. 25 c. 2 †
possibly Alfonso Ferrarri (?) of Cremona; also "Ferrarius," ibid.
Dr Bar, p. 16 c. 3 †
Dr Baron, p. 19 c. 1 †
Dr. Betone, p. 19, c.2 †
Dr. Butcher Ipswicens (from Ipswich?), f. 1v †
Dr. Collins, p. 48 c. 2 †
Euonimus, p. 77 c.2 †
Fienus, p. 18 c. 1 †
Gheselli, p. 60 c.2 †
Mo Goad, p. 48 c. 2 †
Dr. Goldsmith, p. 52 c. 1 †
Dr. Hale Chyrurgicus, p. 34 c. 2 †
Dr. Harvey, p. 87 c. 2 †
(possibly the William Harvey of De motu cordis fame (1578 - 1657))
Hast., Haust., p. 61 c. 1, p. 62 c. 1 & c. 3 †
Iohanni, p. 17 c. 1 †
Dr. Lister †
(not the 19th c. pioneer of antisepsis), p. 19 c. 1
Radulph. Holland. †
Radulphus Hollandicus (see above)
Dr. Reade, p. 33 c.2, p. 69 c. 1 †
(likely the same as Alexander Read, above)
Roberto, p. 19 c. 2 †
("experto crede Roberto," = "trust Robert the Expert")
Saxonius, pp. 27, 30, 68 †
(scattered occurrences; likely in error for Saxonia)
Dr. Stephani, p.24 c.1 †
Dr. Stookes, p. 48 c. 1 †
Vraliano, p. 15 c. 3 †
Dr Walletus, p. 68 c. 2 †

Referred to by initials only

D. L., p.29
"Syr. Casselanus D. L." †
Dr. L. p. 44, c. 2 †
Sir R. L S., f. 1r †
Dr. W., p. 22 c. 1 †
R. W.
"Syr: Pectoralis R. W.," p. 27 c 1. †


Aug., August., Augustan., Augustana, Augustina †
Pharmacopoeia Augustana; many editions, earliest 1573
Casselanus †
from or related to the city of Kassel in Hesse