John Ward's Latin
This article features two glossaries of the Latin words and abbreviations in the diaries of John Ward, Folger MS V.a.284 -299. The words are all associated with medical receipts. At the bottom of the article are links to a cribsheet for John Ward's handwriting, several sites that depict alchemical symbols, and a Greek keyboard.
The first glossary was compiled by Dr. Robert Tallaksen, a reader and transcriber at the Folger Shakespeare Library. It is regularly updated with new words. Last update was June 6, 2023.
The second glossary is the work of Callum Simms, a transcriber on Shakespeare's World (a crowd-sourced project between the Folger Shakespeare Library, Zooniverse and the OED, sponsored by EMMO). Some of John Ward's diaries have been transcribed by volunteers on Shakespeare's World. On Shakespeare's World's talk feature, Callum Simms is known as @IntelVoid.
John Ward was the vicar of Stratford-upon-Avon from 1662 to 1681. The Folger Shakespeare Library has 16 of his 17 diaries. More information on John Ward can be found in A Semi-Diplomatic Transcription of Selections from the John Ward Diaries.
John Ward's Latin medical words and abbreviations (Dr. Robert Tallaksen, compiler)
coch., cochlear -aris = a spoonful; abl. cochleare, by spoonful(s); NB distinguish from cochlearia, the scurvy-grass plant
cong., congius -i = gallon
cuspis -idis cultelli = point of a knife; as much medicine as will lie on a knife point; a small but uncertain amount, likely a few grains
gran., granum -i = grain (apothecary measure)
gt, gutt., gutta -ae = drop
NB the abbreviations for grain, "gr," and guttae (drops), "gt," can look similar; if unclear, if the ingredient is a liquid, e.g., a syrup, suggest using "gt;" if a dry substance, e.g., saffron, use "gr."
lb = pound; sometimes crossed, "℔," or "lib," which may also be crossed; liquid measures often given in pounds instead of volume; NB the unit of weight, not money, which is written as "pounds" or "£"
M = handful
no. or no. = numero, ablative of numerus -i, for the number of specified things; e.g., succus Limonum no. (numero) ii, juice of two lemons (of lemons in the number of two), with the item in the genitive
p = pugil, the amount that can be picked up with the thumb and two fingers; a pinch
s. or ss., semis = one half (see note below)
semicoch., semicochl., semicochlear -aris = half a spoonful
The following symbols are in the EMROC toolbar in Dromio:
- ℥ = ounce (Unicode ℥); f℥ = fluid ounce, though the "f" is generally omitted
- ʒ = dram, drachm (symbol unicode ʒ)
- ℈ = scruple (symbol unicode ℈)
℔, the crossed symbol for pound, is not in the EMROC toolbar and is not used
- 20 grains = 1 scruple;
- 3 scruples = 1 dram;
- 8 drams = 1 ounce
Numerical amounts are most often given in minuscule Roman numerals; e.g., iiii. The last "i" is very often written as a "long i" or "j," e.g., iiij, but should be transcribed as a minuscule: iiii
When "s" or "ss" is used for one half, it follows the last character, e.g., ℈s = 1/2 scruple, ℥iiis = 3 1/2 ounces, ʒiss = 1 1/2 drams; the "s" can look like a long "i" but will lack a dot
Ward occasionally used alchemical symbols; see the last section of this list
Descriptions, ingredients, instructions, types of receipts, and Anatomic References
ā, āā, ān., ana = of each; e.g., folia senae et folia acetosae ana Mi, senna leaves and sorrel leaves, of each one handful
aaron -onis = the wild arum or cuckoo pint, Arum maculatum; many common names, e. g., Adam and Eve, friar's cowl, jack in the pulpit; see also faecula aaronis, below
abies -etis = genus of evergreen conifers, including the silver fir tree, Abies alba
abietinus -a -um = of, pertaining to, or resembling a fir tree
abrotan., abrotanum -i = artemisia or southernwood, Artemisia abrotanum
absynth., absynthium -i = wormwood, Artemisia absinthium; sal absynthii = salt of absinth, impure potassium carbonate (K2CO3) obtained from wormwood ashes; see also vinum absinthites, below
a. c., p. c., ante/post cibum = before or after a meal
acetos., acetosa -ae = sorrel or sour dock, Rumex acetosa; fol. acetos., folia acetosae, leaves of this plant
acet., acetum -i = vinegar; acetum theriacale, treacle vinegar
acetum -i bezoardicum, bezoarticum = bezoar vinegar; the "magistral" bezoar vinegar recipe included sulfur, rue, garlic, cloves, saffron, and walnuts
acetum -i scilliticum = squill vinegar; vinegar infused with squills
acori., acorus -i = sweet flag plant, Acorus calamus
acredo -inis = sharp or pungent taste; ad mediocrem acredinem, to a moderate sharpness
adamas or lapis -idis adamas = diamond; from α (not) + δάμαζω (conquer, break) because it cannot be broken
ad. grat. acid., ad gratem aciditatem = to an agreeable sourness
adeps adipis (or pl.) adipes = the soft fat or grease of an animal, with the name of the animal as an adjective or in the genitive; NB adeps is a common noun that can appear as a masculine or feminine; e.g., adeps suilla, pork fat, adeps anserinus, duck fat, adeps cuniculi, rabbit fat
adiant., adianth., adiantum -i = maidenhair fern, Adiantum capillus-veneris; A. album, white maidenhair or wall-rue
adonis -is or -nidis = the plant pheasant's eye, Adonis annua; its red flowers are said to have grown on Adonis' grave
aegilops -opis = see fistula lachrimalis, below
aerugo -inis aeris = see next entry
aes aeris = brass, copper; aerugo -inis aeris, or aes viride, rust of copper, verdigris; see also unguentum Egyptiacum, below
aetites -ae = eagle stone (Pliny the Elder), "a hollow nodule or pebble of hydrated iron oxide containing a loose kernel that makes a noise when rattled" (OED); said to be helpful in avoiding miscarriage, in pregnancy generally, and in childbirth
agalloc(h)um = see lignum aloes, below
agaric., agaricus -i = originally the bracket fungus, Formitopsis officinalis, later any mushroom with a cap, various species including Agaricus cantharellus, the chanterelle; trochisci de agarico, agaric lozenges, for headache, poisoning, asthma, and many other afflictions
agaricus -i Rudii = an unknown mushroom or fungus used by or otherwise associated with Eustachio Rudio (1551 - 1611), Italian physician, Latinized as Eustachius Rudius
ageratum -i = sweet maudlin, sweet yarrow, or English mace, Achillea ageratum; a flowering plant in the sunflower family
agni cast., agni casti = chaste tree, chasteberry, Abraham's balm, etc., Vitex agnus-castus; may also appear as viticosum rubrum, see vitex, below
agrimon., agrimonia -ae = a genus of perennial herbaceous plants, especially common agrimony, Agrimonia eupatoria
agrimonia -ae odorata = fragrant agrimony, also known as A. procera
alabastrites -ae =alabaster stone
albedinem = accusative of albedo -inis, whiteness; occurs in the phrase ad albedinem calcinati, calcined to whiteness, in this case hart's horn
alb., albus -a -um = white
alb. graec., album graecum = the dry white excrement of a dog, hyena, or other bone-eating carnivore, especially when used as an ingredient in medicinal preparations (OED)
albugo -inis = a white spot and a film on the eye; JW states that it is the same as the affliction called "pin and web"
alcanna -ae = alkanet, Alkanna tinctoria, an herb in the borage family; the root of which yields a red dye; used for infections
alchermes, alkermes (confectio -onis) = confection of kermes (pregnant female of the crimson insect Coccus ilicis), formerly supposed to be a berry; widely used as dye-stuff and in medicine
alchymilla -ae = genus of herbaceous perennials in the rose family, especially lady's mantle, Alchemilla mollis; the species used for the herbal tea used in gynecology was A. xanthochlora or A. vulgaris
aleophanginae = see pilulae aleophanginae, below
alexitericus -a -um = alexipharmic, a "medicine or treatment believed to protect against, counteract the effects of, or expel from the body a noxious or toxic substance... an antidote" (OED)
alexiterium -i = an alexipharmic medicine, antidote; alexiterium D. Stephani, Stephanus's antidote, possibly from Stephanus Atheniensis (c. 550 - 630), Greek physician and commentator on Galen
alezeteris = likely a misspelling for "alexiteris," see above entry
alhandal = Arabic name for colocynth (q. v.); troches of alhandal also contained bdellium & gum tragacanth
alipta -ae = see alyptae moschata, below
alkakeng., alkekengi = winter cherry, Physalis alkekengi, a diuretic
alleluia = same as lujula, see below
allium -i = garlic, Allium sativum; digitus allii, a finger (clove) of garlic
alnus -i = alder, a tree of genus Alnus; cort. alni nigri = black alder bark, from A. glutinosa
aloe -es = aloe; especially the true aloe, Aloe vera; more than 500 species; distinguish from lignum aloes, q.v.
aloe -es depurata = extract made by boiling aloe with water and then concentrating the liquid; if the water was replaced with juice of violet flowers, "aloe violata;" if with juice of rose leaves, "aloe rosata"
aloe -es hepatica = hepatic, Bombay, or Barbados aloes; used as a cathartic
aloe -es lota = washed aloe; apparently dissolved in the juice of roses and then dried
alsine -es = bog stichwort, Stellaria alsine, or possibly chickweed, Stellaria nemorum
alth., althe., althea/althaea -ae = mallow or marsh-mallow, Althea officinalis; also called malvaviscus
althea -ae lutea = yellow mallow; Culpeper states that "[t]he seede drunke in wine preuaileth mightily against the stone;" perhaps the same plant as the one that Avicenna called Abutilon
altile = possibly ablative form of the adjective altilis -is -e, fattened, rich, abundant, nourishing; JW states (V.a.291, 48r), "Altile est uinum dulce coctum, nam Altil apud Arabes dulce sonat," Altile is boiled sweet wine, for Altil among the Arabs sounds sweet
alviducum -i = "opener of the belly;" i.e., a laxative
alumin., alumina -ae, alumen -inis = alum; argil or argillaceous earth
alum., alumen -inis = alum; aluminum hydroxide, AlOH3, used as an antacid, or hydrated aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3•nH2O), where n is the number of water molecules (papermaker's alum)
alum. rup. = alumen -inis rupes, alum (see above entry) in crude or unrefined rock form, i. e., roch(e) alum; may also be designated alumen ruparum, alum of the rocks
aluta -ae = a kind of soft leather, originally prepared with alum, used to apply a medication externally; e.g., emplastrum extendatur super alutam, let the plaster be spread out on a (piece of) leather
alypta -ae moschata = a compounded lozenge containing ladanum (q. v.), styrax calamita, red sytrax, aloe, ambra, camphor, nutmeg, and rosewater; for asthma and chest constriction
amaracus -i = dittany of Crete, Dictamnus (Origanum) creticus
ambra -ae = amber, or a balsam from Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), or ambergris
ambra -ae grisea = ambergris
amethystus -i = amethyst, a purple or reddish form of quartz; the semi-precious stone, "to which the ancients attributed the property of preventing drunkenness" (Dunglison's Medical Lexicon)
ammeos sem. = semina ameos, the seeds of the ammi plant, see next entry; Gerard states that they are good "drunken in wine against the biting of all manner of venomous beasts," as well as against all manner of poisons, pestilent fevers, and the plague
ammi -ii = an umbelliferous plant, Ammi vulgare (maius), common bishop's weed or herb-william; also A. creticum, candy bishop's-weed, or A. perpusillum, small bishop's-weed
ammoniac., ammoniacum -i = gum ammoniac, gum resin of Dorema ammoniacum
amomi., amomum -i = genus of aromatic plants including black cardamom, Amomum sublatum; JW mentions A. virginiatum and states that it is "very like if not the same with Cornus"
amylum -i = white starch
anacollema -ae or -i = a term used by Galen for a plaster applied to the forehead and intended to prevent defluxion of humors into the eyes, also any substance producing rapid healing; especially for treatment of a headache or nosebleed; for a headache, ingredients included mastich, red bole, myrrh, tutty, saffron, egg white, etc.; for a nosebleed, acacia juice, vinegar, bole armeniac, vitriol, and egg white
anagallis -idis = common or "scarlet" pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis
anas -atis = duck, various birds of family Anatidae, genus Anas; genitive plural anatum, as in iecores anatum, duck livers; adjective anatinus -a -um, of or pertaining to a duck, e.g., axungia anatina, duck fat; cygnus inter anates, a swan among ducks
aneth., anethum -i = dill, Anethum graveolens
anglicus -a -um, anglicanus -a -um = used when an ingredient is specified to be of English origin; e. g., croci anglicani, (of) English saffron
anis., anisum -i = anise, Pimpinella anisum; semina anisi, aniseed
anodin., anodyn., anodynos -us = a pain reliever, anodyne
anserin., anserinus -a -um = of, relating to, or obtained from a goose; adipes anserinus, goose fat
ante caenam, pastum, prandium = before supper, before food (unspecified), before lunch
antepileptic., antepilepticus -a -um = anti-epileptic, against the falling sickness; e.g., aqua antepileptica
anthora -ae = anthora, yellow monkshood, or healing wolfsbane, Aconitum anthora
anthos = rosemary flowers; anthosatus -a -um, infused with rosemary flowers; e.g., mel (honey) anthosatum
antibyssus = see pulvis antibyssys, below
antidotum -i or antidotus -i = an antidote or counterpoison
antidotum -i haemagogum = the adjective "haemagogum" indicates that it is a material which promotes menstrual or hemorrhoidal discharge of blood; numerous ingredients including lupins, pepper, licorice, long birthwort, etc.; Culpeper says that it "provokes the Terms, brings away both birth and afterbirth"
antidotus -i Matthioli = Matthiolus' Great Antidote, some recipes call for more than 300 ingredients; in the Pharmacopoiea Londinensis, William Salmon (1644 - 1713) terms it "one of the greatest Galli-maufries that ever I saw"
aparine -ines = cleavers, clivers, catchweed, sticky willy, or velcro plant, Galium aparine
aphtha -ae = stomatitis; usually in the plural, see next entry
apthae -arum = thrush, the oral infection caused by the fungus Candida albicans; NB not the bird (genus Turdus)
apium -i = smallage or any of several kinds of celery or parsley, especially wild celery, Apium graveolens dulce; apium caulis, the stock or stem of one of these plants; A. risus, laughing parsley, because it produces a contraction of the mouth resembling laughter
apocynon -i or apocynum -i cannabinum = a perennial herbaceous plant, known as dogbane, hemp dogbane, Indian hemp, etc.; used in herbal medicine for fever and to slow the pulse; the seeds when powdered are a source of food
apozema -atis = an infusion or decoction; or concentration by boiling
applic., applico -are = apply; e.g., applica ventre, apply to the abdomen
aqua -ae aluminosa = a solution of alum in water; see alumen, above
aq., aqua -ae = water; if an infusion, distillation, or decoction, with the name of the source in the genitive, e.g., aqua hordei, barley water; or with an adjective, e.g., aqua fortis, strong water or nitric acid
aq. calc., aqua -ae calcis = lime water (whitewash)
aqua -ae caponis = capon water; made by boiling a capon with raisins, pine nuts, licorice, and herbs, mixed with wine and other herbs, and distilled; a pectoral
aqua -ae chrysulca = see aqua regia, below
aqua fontis, aqua fontana = spring or well water
aq. fort., aqua -ae fortis = nitric acid, HNO3; may also be called "spirit of niter"
aq. histeric., aqu -ae histerica = anti-hysteric water; receipts vary
aq., aqua -ae hordei = barley water
aqua -ae imperialis = a drink made from water mixed with cream of tartar and lemon, and sweetened to taste
aq. naphae, aqua -ae naphae = orange flower water
aqua -ae protheriacalis = "a water serving in stead of treacle water," V.a.288, 103r
aqua -ae regia = a mixture of nitric (HNO3) and hydrocholoric (HCl) acids which can dissolve gold and platinum
aqua -ae stygia = same as aqua fortis, q.v.; the name is from the adjective stygius -a -um, of or belonging to the river Styx; hence, infernal, deadly, pernicious, etc.
aq. vit., aqua vitae = distilled spirit
aquilegia -ae = genus of perennial plants, including various species of columbine, e.g., Aquilegia alpina, alpine columbine
arc(h)onticon = see pulvis arconticon, below
argentina -ae = genus of plants in the rose family, especially silverweed, Argentina anserina
argentum -i = the element silver (Ag); argentum vivum ("alive") = mercury (Hg), see hydrargyrus, below
argill., argilla -ae = argil, argillaceous earth, alumina
arillus -i = seed/stone; uva passa detractis arillis, dried grapes with the seeds removed
aristoloch., aristolochia -ae = many species, including birthwort, Aristolochia clematitis; JW also mentions A. rotunda, smearwort or round-leaved birthwort; see also serpentaria, below
aromat. rosat., aromaticum rosatum = aromatic medicine containing roses
artemis., artemisia -ae = mugwort, Artemisia vulgaris; also other species including southernwood,(A. abrotanum), wormwood, tarragon
artanit., artanita -ae = probably sow-bread, Cyclamen purpurascens
arum -i = common arum or aron, Arum maculatum; also known as wake-robin, cuckoo-pint; a stimulant
arundo -inis = genus of grasses; Arundo donax, giant cane; A. plinii, Pliny's reed; A. vallatoria, bankside reed; A. saccharina, sugar cane, now genus Saccharum
asa dulcis = benzoe siamensis, a resin gum from Styrax tonkinensis, used for skin irritation; possibly also used as a purgative , diuretic, or antispasmodic, and identical to benzoin
asar., asarum -i = asarabacca or hazelwort, Asarum europaeum; also known as nardus celticus
asclepiadis = genitive of genus Asclepias; various species, including milkweed.; mentioned as radix asclepiadis, the root of such a plant
asell., asellus -i = wood louse, Oniscus asellus; pulv. (onisc.) asell., powder of wood lice
aspalathus -i = genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae (beans), numerous species
asparag., asparagus -i = asparagus, Asparagus officinalis; the root was used as a diuretic
asperula -ae odorata = sweet woodruff; also called Gallium odoratum; JW mentions A. quinta Gerardi, small red-flowered woodruff
asphodel., asphodelus -i = genus of flowering plants mythologically connected with the underworld and said to cover the Elysian fields; the white asphodel, A. albus, is also known as King's spear; the roots were compounded into a cataplasm and applied to scrofulous ulcers
ass. foetid., assafoetida -ae = asafoetida, dried gum of root of Ferula foetida or F. assa-foetida
assaireth = in pilulae Assaireth (Avicenna); pills containing hiera picra, mastich, myrobalans, etc.; a cholagogue
athanasia -ae = genus of flowering plants in the daisy family; in ancient times a kind of antidote; "athanasia magna" was thought to be useful in dysentery and hemorrhages
atriplex -icis (olida) = orache or arrach, an emmenogogue and used for disorders of the uterus generally; Culpeper defines A. olida as "stinking arrach"
aurum -i = gold; appears passim as "fol. auri," gold leaf, used (e. g.) for gilding pills; though possibly leaves of Aurus brasiliensis, also known as Calamus aromaticus asiaticus, Asian sweet-scented flag; see also pillulae aurae below
auriculus -i muris = mouse-ear or mouse-ear hawkweed, Pilosella officinarum
aurant., aurantior., aurantium -i = orange, Citrus aurantium; cortex aurantiorum, orange peel
aurant. chinens., aurantium -i chinense = Chinese (sweet) orange, Citrus sinensis
auriculum -i = gold calcined to powder
auripigment., auripigmentum -i = auripigment, arsenic trisulfide (As2S3), used by painters under the name of King's Yellow (OED); also appears as arsenicum auripigmentum
aurora -ae = dawn, daybreak, sunrise; in the ablative (aurora) in directions for the time when a medication should be given, i.e., at dawn; cf. diluculum
aurum -i = metallic gold
aurum -i fulminans or volatile = fulminating (explosive) gold, a mixture of compounds of gold, ammonia, and chlorine; seems primarily to have been seen as a curiosity; Glauber used fumes produced by its detonation to gold-plate objects
aurum -i potabile = potable gold; an alchemical preparation of uncertain components (in addition to gold), a cordial with many purported virtues
aurum -i vitae = a mixture of gold, mercury, and antimony complexes; an antidote for plague; described in a small monograph, The Cure of the Plague by An Antidote Called Aurum Vitae (1640), where it is described as being invented and produced by one John Woodall, "Master in Surgery"
authepsa = from αὐθέψης, a "self-boiler" or "self-cooker;" a vessel used for heating water and keeping it hot, likely a metal pot with a central tube filled with coals, similar to a modern samovar
avellan., avellanus -a -um = relating to hazel-nut or filbert; nux avellana, hazel-nut; from the name of the town Avellana in Campania, known for its fruit and nut trees
aven., auenaceae, avena -ae = oats, Avena sativa; wild oats, A. fatua
avenac., avenaceus -a -um = of or relating to oats; oaten
axung., axungia -ae = lard or fat of an animal with the name of the animal as an adjective; e.g., axungia porcina, hog lard
bacc., bacca -ae = berry (any)
bacill., bacillus -i = a small stick; e.g., bacill. glycirriz., a stick of licorice
bacon., baco -onis = bacon
balaust., balaustium -i = flower of pomegranate, Punica granatum
ballota -ae = black or stinking horehound, Ballota nigra
balneum -i = bath; balneum vaporis, steam bath; balneum Mariae, bain-marie; e.g., BV, balneo vaporoso, in a steam bath; BM, balneo Mariae, in a bain-marie; balneum roris (ros roris, dew), apparently similar to the balneum vaporis, in which a distilling vessel is suspended over steam and not in hot water
balsam., balsamum -i = balsam, balm, any strongly scented resin, many types; can be solid or liquid; e.g., balsam of Tolu, of Gilead (from tree Balsamodendron gileadense or B. opobalsamum)
balsamum -i copaiva = balsam of copaiba; an oleoresin from the trunk of any of several species of South American trees of genus Copaifera, also known as copaifera officinalis; used for urinary diseases including gonorrhea
balsamum -i Lucatelli = Lucatellus' balsam; olive oil, Venice turpentine, yellow wax, and powdered dragon's blood (see sanguis draconis, below)
barba -ae iovis = Jupiter's beard, Anthyllis barba-iovis; also known as silverbush
bardana -ae = burdock; see lappa, below
basilic. = see ung., vng. basilic. below
bechicus -a -um, bechinus -a -um = for treatment of a cough
bechion bechii = coltsfoot, Tussilago farfara
bdell., bdellium -i = gum resin from shrubs of Balsamodendron species, used as pectoral (for diseases of the chest) and emmenagogue
becabung., beccabunga -ae = water pimpernel, brooklime; Veronica beccabunga
behen = uncertain identification because early herbalists used the name from Arabic sources, not knowing what plant it referred to; in England the name chiefly affixed to two types: white (bladder campion, Silene inflata) and red (sea lavender, Statice limonium)
bellis -is = the common or English daisy, Bellis perennis; also known as woundwort or bruisewort
bened. laxat., benedicta laxativa or benedictum laxativum = another name for rhubarb, or the laxative electuary made from it; or a compound of turbith, scammony and spurge
benedict. = carduus benedictus, q. v.
benedictum -i = see vinum benedictum, below; may be designated benedictum of crocus
benzoes = benzoe siamensis; see asa dulcis, above
benz., benzoin., belzuinum -i = benzoin, gum benzoin; gum obtained from Styrax benzoin
berber., berberis -is = barberry tree, Berberis vulgaris, or the berry itself
beta -ae = beetroot, Beta vulgaris; also appears as "rad. (radix) betae"
beton., betonic., betonica -ae = betony, Stachys betonica
betonica -ae Pauli = St. Paul's betony, Veronica serpyllifolia, a small species of speedwell
bezoar (indecl.); bezoart., lapis bezoarticum -i = a stone or concretion found in animal intestines; eight types are described (including mineral, biliary, resinous, fibrous) and these may be described with an adjective, e.g., bezoart. minerale, animale; a particular type comes from the pazan (pasang), the wild or bezoar goat, Capra aegagrus
bezoardicum -i ioviale = the Jovial bezoar or bezoar of Jupiter, a diaphoretic; butter of antimony (q.v.) and nitric acid, distilled; unrelated to "bezoar," above
bezoard., bezoardic., bezoardicus -a -um = relating to or in description of a bezoar
bezoarticum -i Mathioli = the bezoar of Pietro Andrea Mattioli (1501 - 77), Italian physican and naturalist, Latinized as Matthiolus; precise description of this bezoar unknown
bezoarticum -i solare = the "solar" or "golden" bezoar; leaf gold, nitric acid or aqua regia, and butter of antimony (q.v.); a diaphoretic and treatment for syphilis; not related to "bezoar," above
bib., bibo -ere = drink; bibit (she/he drinks), bibat (let her/him drink) or bibatur (let X be drunk )
bismalv., bismalva -ae = althea, marshmallow, see above; or related species Malva bismalva or M. moschata, musk-mallow
BM = balneum mariae; see balneum, above
bocheti, bochetum -i = a liquid thus produced: after a decoction of woods, roots, and/or barks, fresh water is added to the same ingredients to make a second decoction for ordinary drinking
bol. armen., bolus -i Armeniae = Armenian bole, bole armoniac; an argillaceous earth
bolus -i carabe = see carabe -bes, below
bombac., bombax -acis (?) = cotton, cotton-wool, stuffing (in CL, an interjection meaning splendid! marvelous!)
borac., borax -acis = borax (sodium borate, disodium tetraborate), Sodae biboras
botryos = Jerusalem oak, Dysphania botrys; also known as sticky goosefoot or feathered geranium
brachiale -is = a bracelet or armlet; see pericarpium, below
brassica -ae = genus of numerous cruciferous plants, incl. cabbage, turnip, rape, etc.
bryon., bryonia -ae = briony, Bryonia dioica, may also be denoted red or white; black bryony, lady's seal
bubula -ae = beef
bubulus -a -um = consisting of or derived from beef; medulla bubula, beef marrow
bugloss., buglossa -ae = bugloss (various species of Anchusa, Echium, and others)
bugul., bugula -ae = numerous herbaceous plants including common bugle, Ajuga reptans
bullio -ire = boil; bulliant, they should boil or let them boil, bulliantur, let them be boiled, bulliuntur, they are boiled
bupthalmi., bupthalmum -i, bupthalmus -i = common ox-eye, Bupthalmum salicifolium
butyr., butyron -i = butter; butryr. rancid., rancid butter; butyr. recens, recent, fresh butter
butyrum -i antimonii = "butter of antimony," antimony trichloride, SbCl3, so called because it resembles a fatty mass
buxus -i = common or European box, Buxus sempervivens, an evergreen shrub or small tree
BV = balneum vaporis; see balneum, above
calamint, calaminth., calamintha -ae = calamint; various species of Calamintha, e.g., C. officinalis, sylvatica, nepeta, montana
calcino -are = to calcine; reduce by roasting or burning to a powder or friable substance; una calcinentur, let them be calcined together
calc., calx calcis = lime, limestone, chalk; calc. viv., calx vivum, unslaked lime; see also unguentum de calce, below
calendul., calendula -ae = garden or common marigold, Calendula officinalis
caltha -ae = genus of perennial flowering plants in the buttercup family, with star-shaped flowers; e.g., Caltha palustris, the marsh-marigold or kingcup
cambogia -ae = see gambogia, below
campana -ae = a cover in the shape of a bell, used in the manufacture of sulfuric acid; "Oil of Sulphur is extracted per campanam that is with a glass still resembling a Bell" (V.a.291, f.118r)
campan., campanula -ae = throat-wort, bell-flower; Campanula trachelium
camphir., camphor., camphora -ae = camphor, from Laurus camphora or Dryobalanops camphora
camphoratus -a -um = camphorated, treated or impregnated with camphor
canabini, cannabini = see Apocynum cannabinum, above
cancror., cancer -eris = crab; cancrorum vivorum, (of) live crabs; see also "oculi cancri," below
candi = candy; essentially always appears in association with sucrum or sacch., saccharum; etymology from Anglo-Norman sucre chandi, Middle French sucre candi and post-classical Latin sucrum candy, with earlier roots in Occitan, Catalan, Spanish, and Italian
canell., canella -ae = canella tree; Canella alba, wild cinnamon
cantharid., cantharis -idis = blistering fly or Spanish fly, Musca hispanica; decoction of the insects used externally and internally as powder or tincture; can be poisonous in overdose
caphura -ae = see camphor, above
capill. vener., capillus veneris = maidenhair fern, Adiantum capillus-veneris
cap., capio -ere = cape, take; also capiat (let him/her take X) and capiatur (let X be taken)
cappar., capparis -is = caper, Capparis spinosa; ol., oleum capparibus, oil of capers
capra -ae = she-goat; pinguedo caprae, she-goat fat
caprifolium -a = Italianate woodbine or perfoliate honeysuckle, Lonicera caprifolium
caput capitis cati = a cat's head; typically, it seems, a black cat's head burned to ashes
caput -itis mortuum = material left over after such chemical processes as distillation or sublmation, sometimes indicated by a stylized drawing of a skull; Dr. Willis says that it is "good for nothing but to be flung away, all vertue being extracted" (Dr. Willis's Practice of Physick Being the whole Works of that Renowned and Famous Physician...; Dring, Harper, and Leigh, London, 1684)
carabe, -bes = likely a name for white amber (V.a. 298, f. 161r, receipt in Latin, "Carab. pulueriz.," followed by receipt in English, "the white amber powderd")
caranna = an aromatic resin from the West Indian flowering tree Bursera acuminata and/or the South American trees Protium carana, P. altissimum, and Pachylobus hexandrus
cardamantice = see iberis cardamantice, below
cardiac., cardiacus -a -um = cordial, for stimulating, invigorating, or restoring the heart; aqua cardiaca, cordial water
cardam., cardamomum -i = cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum
carduncellus -i = uncertain; either Carduncellus, a genus of flowering plants in the aster family; or Carthamus carduncellus, one of the distaff thistles, see carthamus, below
card., carduus -i = thistle (various species)
card. ben., card. bened., card. benedict., carduus -i benedictus = holy or blessed thistle, Cnicus benedictus, (or Centaurea benedicta) widely used as an antidote
carduus -i Mariae = Marian, milk, or St. Mary's thistle, Silybum marianum
carellorum = plural genitive of the diminutive of carus -i, "little seed;" refers to the seed of hypericon, St. John's wort
caric., carica -ae = fig, Ficus carica; may be described as ficus pinguis, a fat or ripe fig
carlin., carlina -ae = carline or silver thistle, Carlina vulgaris
carminativus -a -um = serving to expel flatulence, as in "emplastrum carminativum"
caro carnis = meat, flesh (any kind), with the source as an adjective or in the genitive; e.g., haedina, kid; vitulina, veal; perdicum, of partridges
carthami., carthamus = the genus of distaff thistles with many species; best known is the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius
carui., carvi., carum -i = caraway, Carum carui
caryocost., caryostinum -i = caryocostinum, an electuary so called because it contains cloves and costus, Saussurea costus, also known as costus, kuth, and putchuk, a species of Indian thistle
caryophill., caryophillus -i = clove, Caryophyllus aromaticus
caseum -i = cheese (any kind)
cass., cassia -ae = cassia (various species; e.g, Cassia fistula, purging cassia)
cass. lign., cassia -ae lignum = cassia wood
castanea -ae = chestnut or chestnut-tree, Castana vesca
castoreum -i = castoreum; beaver musk
cataplasm., cataplasma -is = poultice or plaster
catapsoras = see unguentum catapsoras, below
cataputia -ae = from cataputium -i, a pill, because the seeds were swallowed like pills; can refer to the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis or Cataputia media, also called palma Christi from the palmate shape of its leaves; or caper spurge, Euphorbia lathyris (Cataputia minor)
catholicon, catholicum -i = a universal purging electuary; see diacatholicon, below
C.C. = cornu cervi (deer or hart's horn), a source of ammonia; distinguish from the plant buck's horn plantain, Plantago coronopus
cattaria -ae = catnip, Nepeta cataria
cauda -ae equina = horsetail or mare's tail; various species of ancient genus Equisetum, e.g., E. arvense, common horsetail or the aquatic flowering plant Hippuris vulgaris; NB distinguish from cauda equina, the bundle of spinal nerves in the lower lumbar region
caulis -is = cabbage, or its stalk or stem; see also apium caulis, above
centaury = English name applied to two different plants, including: a plant of the gentian family (Gentianaceae), Centaurium erythraea, common centaury (formerly Gentiana centaurium); yellow-wort or yellow centaury, Blackstonia perfoliata; both, like many gentians, are extremely bitter in taste, and were formerly often used in tonics and febrifuges
centaurea -ae = genus in the familiy Asteraceae, including cornflowers, knapweends, and star thistles; JW mentions Centaurea media, C. spicata, and C. minima, the last also known as herba impia
centinodii, centinodium -i = common knotgrass, birdweed, pigweed, or lowgrass, Polygonum aviculare; post-CL "centinodia," Anglo-Norman "centinodie"
cepa -ae = onion, Allium capa
cera -ae = wax; cera alba or citrina = beeswax
ceras. nigr., cerasum -i nigrum = black cherry, Cerasum nigrum; aq. cerasorum nigrorum, black cherry water; gummi cerasi, (black) cherry tree gum
cerat., ceratio -onis = covering or smearing over of a portion of the body with wax
ceratum -i = cerate, an unctuous material for external application, made of wax mixed with oil, lard, or similar, and other medicinal substances; consistency between ointment and plaster
ceratum -i santalinum = cerate containing two or more of the santals or saunders
ceratum -i stomachicum = a cerate for the abdomen made from roses, mastich, wormwood, spikenard, wax, and oil of roses (Mesue)
ceratum -i oesypatum = cerate containing oesypus (unrefined lanolin), oil of chamomel and iris root, yellow wax and rosin (Galen)
cerebrum -i = brain; e.g., cerebrum leporis (rabbit brain) for hair loss, cerebrum. passeris (sparrow) for "seed increasing"
cerefolium -i = chervil, Anthriscus cerefolium; also cheraefolium
cerevis., cerevisia -ae, cervis., cervisia -ae = beer or ale; cervisia tenuis, thin (i.e., weak or inferior), or small beer
ceroma -ae = in CL, a mixture of oil, wax, and earth with which wrestlers rubbed themselves; apparently now synonymous with ceroneum, see next entry
ceroneum -i = emplastrum ceroneum; containing pitch, yellow wax, sagapenum, ammoniacum, turpentine, etc.; an emollient
ceronia -ae = St. John's bread; fruit of the carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua
ceruss., cerussa -ae = ceruse or white lead; a mixture of lead carbonate and hydrate PbCO, and lead hydrate, PbH2O>sub>2; used in paint and as a white paint or cosmetic for the skin
cervin., cervinus -a -um = of or pertaining to a deer or stag
cervus -i = a deer or stag; cornu cervi, see C. C., above
ceterach. = spleenwort or rustyback fern, Asplenium ceterach
chalcitis -idis = copper pyrite, chalcopyrite, CuFeS2; also synonym for colcothar, q.v.
chalyb., chalybs chalybis = steel; chalybeate or ferruginous waters were made (as opposed to those naturally occurring) by quenching steel or infusing powdered steel in water; Dr. Willis had a proprietary solutio chalybis, the receipt for which appears to have died with him
chamaelea = Microstachys chamaelea, "creeping sebastiana"
chamamel., chamaemel., chamaemelum -i = chamomile, Anthemis nobilis
chameleon -ontis = genus of thistles in the Asteraceae family (daisies, sunflowers); C. niger, the black chamaeleon thistle; C. albus, white chameleon or little chardon
chamaepit., chamaepitys, chaemeptytys -yos = common ground pine, Teucrium chamaepitys
chamedr., chaemedr., chamaedrys = germander speedwell, Veronica chamaedrys, or wall germander, Teucrium chamaedrys
chartula -ae = a small piece of paper; specifically, such a piece of paper twisted or folded, containing a single dose of medicinal powder
chebula -ae = black or chebulic myrobalan, Terminalia chebula
chel. 69., chelae -arum cancri = crab's claws; for explanation of "69," see oculi cancri, below
chelidon., chelidonium -i = common or greater celandine, Chelidonium magnus
cheraefolium -i = chervil, Anthriscus cerefolium
chia, chio., terebinth. chia = turpentine from the tree Pistacia terebinthus, also called Cyprus, Chio, or Chian turpentine
chin., china -ae = china root, Smilax china, similar to sarsaparilla
cholagog., cholagogum -i = cholagogue, a medication that promotes discharge of bile
chrysocolla -ae = borax, q.v.
chrystallus -i = crystal, e.g., of vitriol
cicer -i = chickpea, Cicer aristinum; several varieties, including white (album), red (rubrum), and black (nigrum)
cicerbita -ae = genus of flowering plants including C. alpina, alpine sow-thistle
cich., cichor., cichorium -i = wild chicory or succory, Cichorium intybus; C. endivia, endive
cicuta -ae = various species of hemlock; e.g., water hemlock, Cicuta virosa or palustris; common greater hemlock, C. vulgaris major
cinamomi., cinnamomum -i = true cinnamon, bark of Cinnamonum zeylanicum; wild cinnamon, Canella alba
cinabrii., cinabrium -i = cinnabar or vermilion; mercuric sulfide, HgS
ciner., cinis -eris = ashes (of anything); e.g., coquantur per 3 horas super cineres calidos, let them be cooked for three hours upon hot ashes; coque sub cineribus, cook under ashes
cistus -i = genus of flowering plants in the rock rose family with about 20 species; JW mentions (V.a.291, 67r) C. anglicanus, not a currently recognized species; resin-bearing species, e.g., C. ladanifer, are a source for labdanum (q.v.)
citrin., citrinula -ae = a small citron or lemon
citrium -i = the citron tree, genus Citrium; species include C. vulgare, C. dulci medulla, and C. magno fructu
citrullus - i = a genus of desert vines, including C. lanatus, watermelon, and colocynth
clarific., clarifico -are = clarify
claviculata -ae = probably Ceratocapnos claviculata, the climbing corydalis
clematis -idis daphnoides = a genus of about 380 species in the Ranunculaceae family (buttercups); C. daphnoides, periwinkle (Vinca minor); C. indica, Indian clematis
clyptica = medicines to beautify and cleanse the skin (singular presumably clypticum -i)
clyster -eris = enema
cnidium = spurge flax or mezereum, Daphne cnidium
coccinel., cocinella -ae = cochineal; the red dye from the insect Coccus cacti, or the insect itself
cochlear -aris = a spoon or spoonful
cochlear., cochlearia -ae = genus of approximatey 30 species in the Brassicaceae family; includes common scurvy-grass, Cochlearia officinalis, also C. anglica and C. danica; sal cochleariae, salt of scurvy-grass; NB distinguish from coch., cochlear -is, see above entry
coculus -i indi = India berries; from the tree Anamirta cocculus; source of picrotoxin
colatura -ae = a substance which has been or will be strained; from colo -are
colatus -a -um (also incolatus) = strained, filtered, purified (from colo -are = strain, filter)
colcothar = iron peroxide, jeweller's rouge, from ML calcatar; also called crocus martis
collutio -onis = a rinse, generally an eye-wash or mouthwash
colocynth., colocynthis -idis = bitter-apple (a purgative), Citrullus colocynthis
colophon., colophonia -ae = resin obtained by distillation of turpentine with water
colubrinum -i = snake-wood, Rauvolfia serpentina; from colubrinus -a -um, snake-like
columba -ae = dove, pigeon; a bird of the Columbidae family, containing 50 genera and over 300 species
colutea -ae = a genus of about 25 species of flowering shrubs, Parkinson states that it is used as an emetic and as a purge; common name, bastard senna; C. arborescens, bladder senna; JW mentions C. vesicaria, apparently the same as C, arborescens, but adds maior and minor
combustus- a -um (perfect participle of comburo -ere) = burnt up, reduced to ashes
commun., communis -e = common; also expressed as vulgaris -e
compos., compositus -a -um = adj., compound; composed, prepared
concha -ae = mussel, pearl-oyster
concisus -a -um = cut up, cut off, broken
cond., conditus -a -um = preserved; e.g., nuces juglandis conditae, preserved walnuts; if the word appears with sacch., saccharum, likely "candi" (q.v.)
contund., contunde = beat, break up, pound to pieces, from contundo -ere; contundantur in mortario, let them be broken up in a mortar
conf., confect., confectio -onis = compound of vegetable, fruit, etc., with sugar; same as conserva
confectio -onis Hamech = named after an Arabian physician; contains myrobalan, violets, rhubarb, absinthe, etc., made up with honey
confectio -onis Humain = to preserve sight; containing eyebright, fennel seeds, cinnamon, etc.
confectio -onis hyacinthi = not from the flower, but an astringent containing many ingredients including zircon (called hyacinth from its color), red coral, bole armoniac, myrrh, alkermes, etc.
confectio -onis liberans = name derives from its property of delivering the patient from the plague; as many as thirty ingredients including Armenian bole, terra sigillata, pearls, coral, &c.
cons., conserv., conserva -ae = compound of vegetable, fruit, etc., with sugar; same as confectio
consolid., rad. consolid., radix -icis consolidae = larkspur (root), Delphinium consolida
consolida -ae saracenica = goldenrod, Virga aurea or Solidago virga-aurea, same as solidago saracenica, below; a vulnerary
contrayerv., contrayerva -ae = contrayerva; the root stock and rhizome of Dorstenia contrayerva, D. brazilensis, or D. virginiana (= Aristolochia serpentaria); used as an antidote to snakebite
contund., contundo -ere = bruise, crush, beat; contundantur in mortario, let them be crushed in a mortar
coq., coqu., coque, coquo -ere = boil; coquuntur, they are boiled; coquantur, let them be boiled
contus., contusus -a -um = adj., bruised, crushed, beaten; from contundo -ere, crush, grind, pound
convall., convallaria -ae = lily of the valley, Convallaria majalis; or Solomon's seal, C. polygonatum or Polygonatum solomonis
copaiva = see balsamum copaiva, above
cor., corium -i = leather
coral., corallium -i = general name for coral; most commonly red (rubr.), but also black (nigr.) and white (alb.)
corallina -ae = coralline or corallin, a genus of seaweeds having a calcareous jointed stem, especially Corallina officinalis; a vermifuge, e.g., treatment for "maw worm," V.a.291, 81r
coran. = currants, the black, red, or white fruit of a shrub in the genus Ribes, containing about 200 species, also including gooseberries; most often refers to Corinthian raisins, see uvae Corinthiacae, below
cord., cordial -is = cordial, a drink with medicinal or health-giving properties, especially one that is thought to invigorate the heart (cor cordis), stimulate the circulation, or provide comfort; see also flores cordiales, below
coriand., coriandrum -i = coriander, Coriandrum sativum
corium -i = leather; per corium trajectus - a -um, passed or filtered through leather
cornus -us = the cornel cherry tree, Cornus mascula
coronopus -i = either Lepidium coronopus, swinecress or wartcress; or Plantago coronopus, buck's-horn plaintain
cort., cortic., cortex -icis = bark of any tree; occasionally described as cortex medius or cortex interior, middle or inner bark, especially of the ash tree, Fraxinus excelsior
cortex -icis peruvianus = Peruvian bark, from the tree Cinchona officinalis, the source of quinine, and a treatment for malaria; also known as cortex Iesuiticus or Jesuit's bark; see also pulvis Iesuiticus, below
cort. winteran. = cortex -icis Winterani, Drimys winteri, a tree in the familiy Winteraceae, native to southern South America; an antiscorbutic; named after a Captain Winter (or Wynter), who accompanied Sir Francis Drake in part of his voyage of 1577-80; Winter discovered the tree after rounding Cape Horn and before he turned back
costus -i = an essential oil extracted from the root of a species of thistle, Dolomiaea (previously Saussurea) costus, known as costus, Indian costus, kuth, or putchuk; a diuretic and emmenagogue, and for convulsions, worms, etc. (Parkinson)
coton. = cotton, the fibrous substance which clothes the seeds of the cotton plant, genus Gossypium
cotonaria -ae = cottonweed or cudweed, species of genus Gnaphalium
cotul., cotula -ae = mayweed, stinking chamomile; Anthemis cotula
cranium -i humanum = human skull, pulverized; used for treatment of stroke, epilepsy, paralysis, etc.
crassula -ae = a genus of succulent plants, e.g., Crassula ovata, the jade plant, and C. aquatica, pigmyweed
crebro = adv., frequently, repeatedly
crem., cremor -oris tartari = cream of tartar, potassium bitartrate, KC4H5O6; Ward occasionally uses the alchemical symbol for tartar, a square or rectangle with a cross below it (🜿); see Alchemical Symbols, below
cremor -oris silicum = crystals prepared by Glauber by melting potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and sand in a crucible and keeping the mixture molten until the carbon dioxide was driven off, then allowing it to cool and then grinding to a fine powder; if kept in moist air it would absorb water (see per deliquium, below) and form a viscous liquid, which Glauber called oleum silicum
crepitus -us lupi = the puff ball mushroom, genus Lycoperdon, with about 50 species; the Greek λύκος πέρδω name derives from the words, and the Latin name is translated as, "wolf's farts"
cret., creta -ae = chalk
creticus -a -um = chalky
cribratus -a -um = strained, sieved, sifted
crithmus -i = probably samphire, otherwise sea or shoreline purslane, Crithmus indicus, C. maritimum, or Sesuvium portulacastrum
croc., crocus -i = saffron, from the crocus flower, Crocus sativus; an adjective may be added to indicate origin, e.g., austriacus, from Austria, or anglicanus, English
croc. ♂is = crocus Martis, "saffron of Mars," iron peroxide, colcothar, or jeweler's rouge
croc. metall., crocus -i metallus -i = any of several preparations of metals; e.g., crocus antimonii (antimony), crocus veneris (copper), crocus martis (iron)
crocatus -a -um = of a saffron-yellow color
crocomagma -atis = dregs of the oil of saffron, or an ointment made with it; mentioned by Pliny the Elder as being useful for cataracts and stangury
cruciata marina = Alsine cruiciata marina, sea pimpernell, also known as Anthyllis lenitifolia
crud., crudus -a -um = raw, unrefined
cubeba -ae = Java pepper, Piper cubeba; used as a spice and as an antiseptic for treatment of gonorrhea
cucum., cucumer. agrest., cucumis -eris agrestis or c. asinius = wild cucumber, Momordica elaterium, a purgative
cucupha -ae (also cucufa) = a cap with spices quilted in it, worn for certain nervous disorders of the head (OED)
cucurbita -ae = any of various gourds of genus Cucurbita; approximately 95 species, including pumpkins and various other squashes
cucurbita -ae = a cupping glass; diminutive cucurbitula -ae; or the lower part of an alembic
cucurma -ae = genus of plants in the family Zingiberaceae; the powdered rhizome of Curcuma longa is the source of turmeric
cum = with; very often abbreviated with macron: cū
cumin., cuminum -i = cumin, Cumin cyminum
cuniculus -i = rabbit
cupressi., cupressus -i = cypress-tree; nux (pl. nuces) cupressi, the fruit or cone of the cypress
cupul. gland., cupula -ae glandis = the cupule, or cap, of the acorn
cuscuta -ae = dodder, a parasitic twining plant; genus Cuscuta has more than 200 species
cyanus -i = cornflower or bachelor's button, Centaurea cyanus
cyclamen -inis = many species of genus Cyclamen; e.g., C. purpurascens (see artanita, above) and C. hederifolium, ivy-leaved cyclamen or sowbread
cydon., cydonium -i = quince; Cydonium oblonga or C. malum; or Pyrus cydonia
cydoniac., cydoniacus -a -um = of or relating to quince; consistentia cydonaci, the consistency of a quince
cynoglossum -i = common hound's tongue, Cynoglossum officinale
cynorrhod., cynorrhodon -i = cynorrhodon, the dog rose, Rosa canina; fructes cynorrh., rose hips
cynosbat., cynosbati fructus = rose hips from Rosa canina
cyperus -i = genus of endogenous plants with around 700 species; Cyperus longus, or sweet cyperus, also called galingale
cytisus -i = a genus of shrub-like flowering plants, useful for fodder; Parkinson calls it the tree trefoile; JW mentions C. maranthi cornutus, possibly the C. galenicreditus marantha cornutus mentioned by Parkinson; also the varieties "common," procumbens, siliqua, and pubescente "which Ned Morgan hath"
d., da, datur detur = da, give; datur X, X is given; detur X, let X be given
d., dos., dosis -is = dose
dactyl., dactylus -i = date; fruit of the date palm, Phoenix dactylifera
dauci, daucus -i = garden carrot, Daucus carota; D. sylvestris or D. vulgaris, wild carrot
decoct., decoctio -onis = decoction; boiling in liquid to extract the soluble parts of a substance
decoq., decoquo -ere = boil down/reduce; decoquatur, let it be boiled down
deliquium -i = a melting or flowing down; per deliquium is spontaneous liquification (deliquescence) of a solid by its dissolving in moisture absorbed from the air; e.g., ol. tart. per deliquium, oleum tartaris per deliquium, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) in aqueous solution from water so absorbed
dens dentis leonis = "lion's tooth," dandelion; Taraxacum dens-leonis
dentaria -ae = toothwort; D. maior = Lathraea squamaria; or D. minor = D. pentaphylla; other plants using the same name include shepherd's purse, Capsella bursapastoris; D. bulbifera, so called from the tooth-like projections on the root-stock; and Plumbago europaea or P. scandens, used for toothache
depuratus -a -um = purified, refined (from depuro -are)
dessicativum -i rubrum = see unguentum dessicativum rubrum, below
detract., detractus -a -um = removed; e.g., uva detractis arillis, grapes with the seeds removed; similar to enucleatus -a -um
devoro -are = swallow, devour; 3 devorentur hora somni, let three be swallowed at bedtime
dia- = a preparation consisting of a main ingredient, usually alluded to in the name and tending to mean made, containing, or consisting of that ingredient, though receipts vary; the New Sydenham's Society's Lexicon names about eighty (OED); the ones mentioned by JW are included below
diambra -ae = powder containing cinnamon, angelica, cloves, nutmeg, galangal, etc. used for nervous afflictions and as an aphrodisiac
diabotanum = plaster of multiple herbs (Galen); resolvent (tissue softener) and suppurative
diacalciteos = chalcitis (an iron oxide), with plantain and nightshade juice; for cancer
diacarcinon = from crabs; antidote for rabies
diacarthamum = containing safflower (bastard-saffron), hermodactyl, ginger, etc.; a purgative
diachylon cum gummi or d. simplex = ointment containing juices of various herbs; may be designated "magnum," which included litharge of gold, oils of iris, chamomile, and aneth, turpentine, pine resin, yellow wax, etc.; may also be spelled diachylum
diacass., diacassia = a purgative electuary with senna; or the confection of senna; may be designated "cum manna," q. v.
diacatholicon or catholicon = purgative electuary containing senna, cassia, tamarinds, etc., named for its general usefulness
diacorallium = trochisci diacorallium (Galen), containing bole-armoniac, red coral, terra lemnia, etc.; to stop blood, including menstrual flow and the bloody flux (dysentery)
diacinamomum -i = a compound of cinnamon; an antidote
diaclysma, plural diaclysmata = mouthwash; for toothache, cleaning the gums; diaclysma ad scorbutum, an antiscorbutic
diacod., diacodium -i = electuary containing of poppy seeds or heads, used as an opiate
diacorum = electuarium diacorum, electuary of calamus; likely Acorus calamus, sweet flag
diacrocu = a dry collyrium (eye-wash or salve) in which saffron is an ingredient (New Sydenham Lexicon)
diacrocuma = an electuary for the stomach, abnormalities of the kidneys and bladder; many ingredients including saffron, asarabacca, parsley, carrot, anise, and smallage seeds, etc.
diacrydium = see diagrydium, below
diacurcuma = numerous ingredients, including saffron (crocus), asarum, rhubarb, phu, etc.; used as an antidote and for cachexia, dropsy, and diseases of the liver and spleen
diacydon. simpl., diacydonium -i simplex = conserve or marmalade of quinces (Cydonium oblonga)
diagalanga -ae = confection of galanga with "hot spices," useful for the wind cholic
diagrid., diagryd, diagrydium -i = electuary containing scammony, a purgative; also "diacrydium"
diair., diaireos = an electuary that contained orris (iris) root; an antidote
dialacca = electuary containing lacca, q. v.; an antidote
dialthaea (cum gummis) = ointment containing marsh-mallow root and seeds boiled with olive oil, beeswax, gums, and resins; for gout and as a suppurative
diamargarit. fr., diamargariton frigida = cooling powder of pearls, compound
diamoron or diamoron abbatis (the abbot's) = honey and mulberries, used as a gargle for throat diseases
diamoschu(s) -us = musk, saffron, galangal, zedoary, lignum aloes; for conditions affecting the head and brain, e.g., vertigo, epilepsy, palsy, also for the stomach, lungs, liver, and spleen
dianisum -i = a compound powder containing aniseed, licorice, mastick, caraway, fennel, mace, cinnamon, pepper, etc.; or an electuary made of the powder and honey
diapalma = desiccating plaster containing palm oil or animal fat, litharge, and zinc sulfate
diapampholigos = see unguentum diapampholigos, below
diapente = a medicine of five ingredients, made by adding ivory shavings to diatesseron (q.v.)
diaphoenicon = electuary made from cooked and strained dates; a purgative
diaprunum = electuary containing the pulp of damask prunes; a purgative
diareos = electuary of orris roots, with pennyroyal, hyssop, licorice, etc.; may be designated Solomon's (Solomonis); for respiratory afflictions such as asthma and cough
diarrhod. = either diarrhodomeli (juice of roses, scammony, agaric, pepper, and honey) or diarrhodon (several powders which contain roses); the latter may be designated as being The Abbot's, diarrhodon abbatis, attributed to Abbas Curiae, chaplain to Roger, Duke of Apulia
diascord., diascordium -i = an electuary made with scordium (Teucrium scordium) or germander leaves, roses, storax, cinnamon, etc.; named for Dioscorides, 1st c. Greek physician
diasena -ae = electuary or confection of senna; though it appears to have numerous ingredients, JW lists it as a "species"
diaspoliticum -i = diaspoliticon; electuary containing rue, cumin, pepper, honey, and saltpeter
diatessaron = a concoction of gentian, Aristolochia root, laurel berries, and myrrh, mixed with honey and juniper extract
diatragacanth = a preparation of tragacanth (q.v.), and may be denoted "cold," containing gum arabic, gum tragacanth, licorice, white poppy seed, and the four great cold seeds (see semina frigida majora, below); or "hot," containing gum tragacanth, cinnamon, hyssop, almonds, linseed, fenugreek, licorice, and ginger
diatrion., diatrium -i santalorum or santalon = an antidote made from three kinds of sandal-wood with other ingredients
diaturbith = contained turpeth, root of East Indian jalap, Ipomoea turpethum; a purgative
dictamn., dyctamn., dictamnus -i = dittany of Crete, Dictamnus (Origanum) creticus
dieta -ae = diaeta -ae, a mode of living prescribed by a physician related to eating and drinking; the word alone may refer to "diet drink," which is an unspecified decoction of medicinal herbs intended as a restorative; e.g., f. dietam de qua cap. ℥iiii mane, make a diet (drink), of which take four ounces in the morning
digitus -i = finger; digitus allii, clove of garlic
diluculi., diluculum -i = daybreak; in the ablative (diluculo) in directions for the time when a medication should be given, i.e., at dawn; cf. aurora; alternis diluculis, every other morning at daybreak
dispareo -ere = disappear, vanish; e.g., donec Mercurius dispareat, until the mercury should disappear
divide = divide, separate; from divido -ere; dividendus, it will be divided
doronicum -i = a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower family; leopard's bane
dracontium -i = named thus because its roots were said to resemble a dragon's tail; a genus of flowering plants; also known as serpentaria and arum polyphyllum; a stimulant
dryopteris -idis = the genus of wood ferns, with around 400 species; including D. lobelii, described by Gerard as being small and growing in marshy land
dulcamara -ae = see solanum dulcamara, below
dulcorand., edulcorand., dulcorandus -a -um = will be sweetened; from dulcoro -are
duplicatus -a -um = doubled
dypsacus -i = genus of plants including teasel; especially fuller's teasel, Dipsacus fullonum, and wild teasel, D. sylvestris
e, ex = from, out of
ebeni, ebenum -i = ebony (wood)
ebori., ebur -oris = ivory; ras. ebori, ivory shavings
ebull., ebullio -ire = boil
ebul., ebulus -i = danewort, dwarf elder, Sambucus ebulus
echium -i = a genus of plants in the borage family, e.g. Echium plantagineum, purple viper's-bugloss, Paterson's curse (poisonous to horses), or salvation Jane
eclegma, ecligma -atis = medicine to be taken by letting it melt in the mouth; same as lohoch or lambative
edulcorandus -a -um = will be sweetened
elaeosaccharum -i flavedinis citri = "oil sugar" (German Ölzucker), made by grinding an essential oil with eight or ten times the weight of sugar and used for making distilled waters; this particular one would likely have been made with the zest (yellow, flavedo -inis) of a lemon
elaterium -i = purgative made from seeds of the squirting or exploding cucumber, Ecballium elaterium
elatine -es = speedwell, various species of Veronica including V. faemina sive elatine, the Fluellen or female speedwell; or of genus Elatine, e.g., E. folio acuminato, E. flore ceruleo folioque acuminato, etc.; Parkinson says that it is useful for watery eyes, defluxions from the head, bruises and wounds, bleeding, etc.; Pliny the Elder identified it as a plant of the genus Antirrhinum (snapdragons)
elect., electuarium -i = electuary; a "medicinal conserve or paste, consisting of a powder or other ingredient mixed with honey, preserve, or syrup of some kind" (OED)
elephang., pill. de elephang = see "pillulae elephanginae," below
elescoph., elescophus -us = elescophus solidum, an electuary containing cloves, cinnamon, ginger, and nutmeg, said to be effective against colic and pains of gout; also known as the Bishop's Electuary, electuarium episcopi
elix., elixir (indecl.) = nondescriptive term for many different preparations, mostly compound tinctures
elix. proprietat., elixir proprietatis = proprietary elixir of special character; contained aloe, saffron, and myrrh
emblicum -i = a type of myrobalan, apparently the same as the one called belliricum; mel emblicorum, honey from this plant
embroc., embrocatio -onis = an embrocation; similar to a liniment but of a thinner consistency, many types; used for bathing or moistening any part, applied by rubbing
emmenagogum -i = emmenagogue, used to stimulate blood flow to the pelvis and uterus, in particular to promote menstruation
empetron = from empetros -i, apparently a form of saxifrage (Pliny the Elder)
empl., emplastrum -i = plaster; emplastrum Paracelsi (of Paracelsus) is one of many
emplastrum -i Caesaris = red roses, roots of bistort, sanders, and mint, coriander seeds, etc.; for strengthening the back and relief of back pain
emplastrum -i ceroneum = see ceroneum, above
emplastrum -i cochlearum ustis = plaster of burnt snail shells; mentioned by Pliny the Elder in Naturalis Historia; burnt snail shells, linseed oil, honey, nettles, etc.; another entity called emplastrum ex testis cochlearum ustis is probably similar, with "testis" the ablative plural of testa -ae, an earthenware jar or a vessel, or testum -i, a lid placed over food and then covered with hot coals, either word indicating the snails' shells; rather than testis -is cochlearum, snail testicles (which may not exist since land snails are hermaphroditic)
emplastrum -i e crusta panis = plaster of crust of bread; crust of bread toasted and steeped in red rose vinegar, with mastich, mints, spodium, red coral, all the sanders, etc.; to stop vomiting and strengthen the brain (when applied to the head)
emplastrum -i Cymino = cumin seeds, bay berries, yellow wax, pine resin; to "expel wind"
emplastrum -i epispasticum = a blistering plaster; several receipts, all containing cantharides with other ingredients, such as melilot plaster, burgundy pitch, Venice turpentine, vinegar, etc.
emplastrum -i gratia dei = herbs boiled in wine, the liquid strained and mixed with olive oil, beeswax, litharge, ceruse, and verdigris; also called emplastrum divinum or manus dei
emplastrum -i de janua = betony, plantain, smallage, with wax, pitch, rosin, and turpentine; for green wounds and ulcers
emplastrum -i metroproptoticon = mastic, galbanum, cypress turpentine, cypress nuts, oil of nutmegs, ship's pitch; Culpeper says it comforts and strengthens "the retentive faculty in the stomach and belly;" JW says it was invented "against the falling of the womb"
emplastrum -i nostratibus = "plaster for our people;" described by Culpeper as being called flos unguentorum, the flower of ointments; containing rosin, perrosin, yellow wax, sheep suet, olibanum, turpentine, etc.
emplastrum -i e ranis Vigonis = Vigo's (Giovanni da Vigo (1450 - 1525), Italian surgeon) plaster of frogs; ingredients from Culpeper's London Dispensatory, here given in full with spelling modernized: oil of camomile, dill, spicknard, and lillies of each two ounces, oil of saffron an ounce, hogs grease a pound, the fat of a calf half a pound, euphorbium five drams, frankincence ten drams, oyl of bays an ounce and an half, vipers fat or for want of it take a snake two ounces and a half, six live Frogs, earth worms washed in wine three ounces and a half, the juice of the roots of wallwort and elicampane of each two ounces, schoenanth, stoechas, mugwort, of each a handful, wine a quart, litharge of gold a pound, turpentine two ounces, yellow wax so much as is sufficient, liquid styrax an ounce and an half, quicksilver killed either with fasting spittle or juice of lemons four ounces; this is the manner of making it, let the frogs, worms, & herbs with their juices, the oyls of dill, camomile, lillies, grease and suet be boyled in a pound & an half of wine, strain it, then add the litharge, wax 4 ounces, and the remainder of the wine, then boyl it till all the wine be consumed and it stick not to your fingers, then add the oyl of bays, saffron, and spike, and the fat, afterward the euphorbium and frankincence, last of all the quicksilver, well mixed with the liquid styrax and turpentine, stir them all till they be incorporated, take heed you put not in the quicksilver while the mass is too hot lest it fly out; at the end of the receipt Culpeper states, "I have known it applied to the swelling in the throat called the King's Evil, but for my part I fancy not the Receipt, neither for that NOR ANYTHING ELSE" (emphasis added)
emplastrum -i sticticum = a wound plaster, also called Paracelsus' plaster; olive oil, yellow wax, litharge, ammoniacum, bedellium, etc.
emplastrum -i stomachicum magistrale = mint, wormwood, stoechas, bay, marjoram, etc., mixed with resin, wax, and labdanum
emplastrum ex testis cochlearum ustis = see emplastrum cochlearum ustis, above
emplastrum -i tonsoris = the barber-surgeon's plaster; pitch, wax, pine resin, fenugreek, bryony root, cumin seeds, etc.
emplastrum -i triapharmacum = a plaster made of flour, water, and oil; may be designated triapharmacum Galeni
emplastrum -i Vigonis = Vigo's plaster, various receipts for various disorders; e.g., fractures and hernias; Vigo, Giovanni da Vigo (1450 - 1525), Italian surgeon; see also emplastrum e ranis Vigonis, above
emuls., emulsio -onis = emulsion
ens ensis or ensis -is veneris = "essence" or "sword" of Venus; sal ammoniac with copper sulfate or "flores veneris," a copper oxide, used in cases of worms, rickets, and "vapors;" or flowers of steel, iron chloride, FeCl2, prepared by heating steel filings with sal ammoniac
enucl., enucleatus -a -um = with the nut or kernel removed; similar to detractus -a -um
enul., enul. campan., enula -ae = elecampane, Inula helenium or Enula campana
ephioglossum -i = misspelling for ophioglossum, q. v.
epithema -ae = "Any kind of moist, or soft, external application" (OED)
epithymi., epithymum -i = dodder of thyme or thyme dodder, Cuscuta epithymum
epotus -a -um = swallowed, quaffed, drunk up, drained
equiset., equisetum -i = mare's tail, Hippurus vulgaris; see also cauda equina, above
erasus -a -um = scraped; see also rasus -a -um, below
ering., eryngium -i = sea holly, Eryngium maritimum
erisimi, erisimum -i, erysimum -i = "irio grain" (Pliny the Elder), or Erysimum cheiri, wallflower
errhin., errhinum -i = errhine; medication to be applied into the nose to produce sneezing; sternutatory
eruca -ae = colewort, Brassica oleracea; genus Brassica comprises many common vegetables, incl. cabbage, broccoli, &c.
esula -ae = green or leafy spurge, Euphorbia esula
et = and
eupator., eupatorium -i = agrimony or hemp agrimony, Eupatorium cannabinum
euphorb., euphorbia -ae = spurge; a large genus of flowering plants, many of which have an acrid milky juice, used as a purge
euphorbium -i = gum resin from Euphorbia antiquorum
euphrasia -ae = eyebright, Euphrasia officinalis; also "ewphrasia"
exacin., exacinatus -a -um = with the seeds or stones removed; e.g., raisins
excipiat., excipio -ere = take out, remove; excipiatur, let it be removed
excorticatus -a -um = peeled, skinned, stripped of outer covering
exhilarans -antis = gladdening, cheering; see also syrrupus exhilarans, below
exicc., exiccatus -a -um = dried
extendo -ere = stretch out or over, smooth out; extendatur, let it be stretched out; extendendum, it will be stretched out, e.g., a bandage over a wound; with a form of esse, must be stretched out or over
extinguo -ere = quench; e.g., misceatur et exting. cum terebinth., let it be mixed and quenched with turpentine
extract., extractum -i = extract
extractum Rudii = see pilulae Rudii, below
fab., faba -ae = bean; farina faborum, bean flour
f. (face), from facio -ere = make
faex faeces, faecul., faecula -ae = sediment or dregs in general, e.g., wine dregs, or material that falls to the bottom of the vessel after grinding plant material in water, or from the infusion of vegetable substances; e.g., faecula a(a)ronis, sediment of Arum plants
faenic., faeniculum -i = fennel, Faeniculum vulgare
faenugraec., faenugraecum -i = fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum
far., farin., farina -ae = flour, meal; farina tritici, wheat flour ; far. hordei, barley flour; far. sem. lini, farina seminum lini, flour of linseeds
farfarus -i = colt's-foot, Tussilago farfara
febrif., febrifugia -ae = feverfew, featherfew; common centaury, Centaurium erythraea; see also centaurium, above
feculae bryoniae = powdered dried bryony root, a purgative
fel fellis = gall, bile; vesica -ae fellis, gallbladder
ferment. acrioris, fermentum -i acrius -oris = a sharper or more bitter fermentation (of ...?)
fiat X = let X be done/made
fic., ficus -i = fig, Ficus carica
filix -icis = fern or bracken, likely Pteris aquilina; filix mas = the male fern; F. mas aculeata, mentioned by Gerard as having a sharp prick at the top of the leaf (aculeatus -a -um = prickly, thorny)
filipendula -ae = meadowsweet, Filipendula ulmaria
fim., fimi, fimus -i = dung, excrement
fistula -ae lachrimalis = lacrimal fistula, a communication between the skin of the cheek and the lacrimal sac, a result of lacrimal abscess which has opened through the cheek instead of scarring; it is usually located just below the inner canthus of the eye, and fluid exudes constantly from it; also known as aegilops
flammula -ae Iovis = "little flames of Jupiter;" Clematis flammula, C. recta; in CL, periwinkle (Vinca species)
flaved., flavedo -inis = yellow color; when in reference to citrus fruit, the zest; e.g., flavedo aurantiorum, zest of oranges; may be spelled flavedins, flavedius; see also elaeosaccharum flavedinis citri, above
flor., flos floris = flower, with the plant name following in the genitive; e.g., flores nymphaeae, water lily flowers
fl. cordial., flores -um cordiales = the four "cordial flowers:" borage, bugloss, roses, and violets
fl., flos floris sulphuris = flowers of sulfur, sublimed sulfur; may appear in conjunction with alchemical symbol for sulfur, 🜍, as fl. 🜍is
flores -orum antimonii = flowers of antimony; antimony (III) oxide, Sb2O3, emetic and expectorant
flores Schoenanthi = flowers presumably from the so-called herba Schoenanthi, Cymbopogon schoenanthus, camel-, fever-, or West Indian lemongrass
fluviatilis -e = of a river or river-; e.g. cancri fluviatiles, river-crabs or freshwater crayfish, Astacus fluviatilis
foeniculum -i = faeniculum, see above
foetid., foetidus -a -um = stinking
fol., folium -i = leaf or leaves (folia) of any plant
fol. acetos., folia acetosae = leaves of common sorrel or sour dock
follicul., follicula -ae = a pericarp or seed pod
fomentum -i, fomentatio -onis = dressing, compress; usually with warm liquids (fomentation) and applied as a poultice or with a pad of material
fontan., fontana (aqua) = spring (-water)
fonticulus -i = diminutive of fons fontis, a fountain or spring; = a small artificial ulcer, seen in conjunction with scarification or with blistering substances
formicar. volant., formica -ae volans -antis = flying ant; there is a receipt that includes oleum formicarum volantium, oil of flying ants (V.a.298, f. 129v)
fotus -us = same as fomentum, above
foveo -ere = keep warm; foveatur, let her/him/it be kept warm
frag., fragar., fragaria -ae = strawberry, Fragaria vesca; roots (rad.), leaves (fol.) and fruit were used
fraxin., fraxinus -i = ash-tree, Fraxinus excelsior; cortex -icis fraxini, ash-tree bark; see also cortex, above
fraxinella -ae = dittany, gas plant, burning bush, or fraxinella, Dictamnus albus; produces volatile oils which may catch fire spontaneously in hot weather
frictus -a -um = rubbed, rubbed down (from frico -cui)
frictus -a -um, frixus -a -um = roasted, fried (from frigo -ere)
frigid., frigidus -a -um = cold; e.g., capiat frigida, let it be taken cold; see also semina frigida, below
frontale = a mixture or bandage to be applied to the forehead or brow (frons -ontis)
fucus -i = likely Fucus vesiculosus, a seaweed; common names include bladderwrack, rockweed, sea grapes; an original source of iodine and thus used to treat goiter
fumar., fumaria -ae = fumitory, Fumaria officinalis
gagat., gagates -ae = jet, the hard black semi-precious stone; from Greek γαγᾱ́της
galang., galing., galangala -ae = galangal, aromatic rhizome of plants of genera Alpinia and Kaempferia, of the ginger family; e.g. Alpinia galanga, greater galangal, A. officinarum, lesser galangal, and Kaempferia galanga; also spelled galingale
galban., galbanum -i = gum resin from Ferula gummosa or F. rubrucaulis
galega -ae = galega or goat's-rue, Galega officinalis
galion -i, galium -i = large genus of herbaceous plants, over 600 species, known as bedstraw
galla -ae = galls produced on the Chinese sumac or nutgall tree, Rhus chinensis, by sumac aphids, Melaphis chinensis
gallia moschata = see trochisci gallia moschata, below
gallinaceus -a -um = from or relating to poultry; adipes gallinaceus, chicken fat
gallus -i = relating to a cock or rooster; testicula galli, rooster testes
gamandra = see gummi Gamandra, below
gambogia -ae = gamboge, ultimately deriving from Gambogia, the Latin name for Cambodia; a gum resin obtained from trees of the Genus Garcinia, used as a purgative and as a yellow dye (e.g., for the robes of Buddhist monks)
gargarisma -ae = a gargle, throat-wash
genist., genista -ae = broom, genus Genista, many species; flores genistae, broom blossoms
gent., gentiana -ae = gentian, Gentiana lutea, officinal gentian; G. centaurium, common centaury
geranium -i columbinum = long-stalked crane's-bill; may also be listed as G. dissectum; G. noctu olens (full name given by Parkinson as G. triste sive Indicum noctu olens), "the sorrowful or Indian geranium [which is] fragrant at night," the sweet Indian cranes's bill, noted as having a tuberous root
gilla Theophrasti = sal vitrioli, i.e. zinc sulphate, ZnSO4; an emetic; origin of "gilla" unknown, but of itself signifies a solution of vitriol
gland., glans glandis = acorn
glaux -cis = sea milkwort, sea milkweed, or black saltwort, Lysimachia maritima; formerly Glaux maritima
glicirriz., glycheriz., glycheryz., glychyrriza -ae = licorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra; G. echinata, hedgehog, German, Chinese, prickly, Roman, or Hungarian licorice (echinatus -a -um, prickly)
gram., gramin., gramen -inis = grass, or any kind of grass-like herb
gramen -inis exile hirsutum = Gerard calls it "hairy grass," useful for green wounds and to stop bleeding; Parkinson lists it as gramen hirsutum sive exile ferrugineum, "small hairy brown wood grass"
gramen -inis caninum = dog grass, also known as Triticium caninum, reputed to be eaten by dogs to produce vomiting (OED)
gramen purpureum = purple grass or purplewort, Trifolium purpureum (purpureus -a -um, purple)
granatus -a -um = containing many seeds; see pomum granatum, below
gratia dei = see emplastrum gratia dei, above
guaiac., guaiacum -i = guaiac gum, guaiacum officinale; lignum guaiacum, guaiac wood
gumm., gummi = [tree] gum
gum. ammoniac., gummi ammoniacum = "gum of Ammon," from the herb Dorema ammoniacum
gumm. anim., gummi anime = gum anime, resin of various tropical trees, e.g., Hymenaea courbaril
gumm. arabic. = gum arabic or gum acacia, hardened sap of Acacia senegal or Vachellia seyal, the red acacia and source of shittah (shittim) wood
gumm. ceras. = gummi cerasi, gum of cherry tree (Prunus cerasus) or black cherry tree (Cerasum nigrum)
gum., gummi elemi = a resin from the tree Amyris rumieri or gum elemi tree
gummi gutta -ae, gummi de Gamandra, gummi gamba = gamboge or camboge, a gum resin from various trees of genus Garcinia; a purgative
gumm. tragacanth., gummi tragacantha -ae = gum tragacanth, obtained from shrubs of genus Astragulus, especially A. tragacantha; used to treat cough and diarrhea
haeder., heder., hedera -ae = ivy; Hedera terrestris, ground ivy; H. arborea, tree-climbing ivy
haedinus -a -um = of, relating to, or obtained from a kid
haemagogum -i = antidotum haemagogum, a concoction of Nicholaus's, with numerous ingredients, including black pepper, licorice, birthwort, mugwort, cassia, pellitory of Spain, etc.; a purgative, emmenagogue, and abortifacient
haematit., hematit., lap. hematit. = lapis haematites, hematite; iron oxide, Fe2O3
hallelujah = same as lujula, see below
hamech. = confectio hamech, purgative containing myrobalans, violets, colocynth, etc.
hauriatur = let it be drunk/swallowed (from haurio -ire)
haust., haustu., haustus -us = a drink or draught
hedycroi = hedychroi, i.e., "pleasant colored;" see trochisci hedychroi, below
heracleinus - a -um, heraclinus -a -um = relating to hazel-wood; oleum heracleinum, oil of hazelwood, from distillation of small pieces of the wood cut in spring or fall
hedysarum -i = genus of annual or perennial herbaceous plants; H. alpinum is an antiscorbutic
helenii., helenium -i, hinula -ae = elecampane, Inula helenium or Enula campana
hellebor., helleborus -i = hellebore, genus Helleborus, around 20 species; may be white, albus (probably used by Hippocrates as a purgative); black, niger, or Christmas rose (used by the Romans to treat paralysis, gout, and insanity); stinking, helleborus foetidus
helxine = Helxine soleirolii (Soleirolia soleirolii), a plant in the nettle family; many common names, including baby's tears, angel's tears, peace in home, Corsican creeper
hepar -atis = the liver (ηπαρ); with the animal source in the genitive; e.g. hepar anatis, duck liver
hepatic., hepatica herba -ae = liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, a lichen-like plant; or spring-flowering anemone, Anemone (Hepatica) triloba, whose three-lobed leaves were thought to resemble the liver
herb., herba -ae = herb; used to specify a plant when another substance has a similar name
herba -ae impia = cottonrose, Logfia filaginoides; the name "impia" means irreverent, wicked, impious; D'Arcy Power suggests that the name refers either to the fact that no animal will touch or taste it, or that the plant's small branches rise above the mother stock
herba -ae inguinalis = or argemo, mentioned by Pliny the Elder; identified by Culpeper as garden star-wort, which, "the ancient writers commended against buboes and swellings in the groin;" in The General Practise of Physicke, C. Wirsung identifies four types
herba -ae trinitatis = heartsease or wild pansy, Viola tricolor; so called because each flower has three colors
herba -ae paris = Paris quadrifolia; named for the regularity (par paris) of its leaves and petals; not for the city in France nor the son of Priam
herba -ae venti = rough-leaved phlomis, Phlomis herba venti
hermodact., hermodactyl., hermodactylus -i = the bulbous root of an unknown plant, probably Colchicum, used as an antiarthritic; the drug colchicine is derived from Colchicum spp. and is still used to treat gout, and new research suggests that it my be preventative for heart attacks
herniar., herniaria -ae = rupturewort, Herniaria glabra
hiera diacolocynthidos = an electuary containing colocynth, agaric, germander, white horehound, stoechas, opopanax, etc.
hiera Logaddi = an electuary containing numerous ingredients including colocynth, polypodium, euphorbium; among its virtues it "takes away by the roots daily evils coming of melancholly" (Culpeper)
hier. picr., hiera picra, or simply hiera/hierae = aloe powder made with honey into an electuary
hieracium -i = hawkweed; many species, e.g., Hieracium maius Dioscoridis, H. minus, JW mentions several, including: H. nigrum, H. longius radicatum (longer-rooted), H. chondrillae facie, H. dentis leoniz(atum?)
hippoglossum, hyppoglossum -i = spineless butcher's broom, horse tongue lily, or mouse thorn, Ruscus hypoglossum
hircinus -a -um = relating to a goat; especially hircin, a "peculiar substance existing in the fat of the goat (and in a less degreee, in that of the sheep) on which its strong odour depends" (OED); thus possibly describing goat suet
hirudo -inis = a genus of leeches, esp. Hirudo medicinalis, used for removing blood from a patient and "balancing the humors;" approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2007 to decrease vascular congestion, and as of 2023 still on the approved list
hirundo -inis, gen. pl. hirundinum = passerine bird of genus Hirundo, especially H. rustica, the barn swallow; but many other species
hollandic., hollandicus -a -um = Dutch; pulvis hollandicus, see below under pulvis
h. s., hora somni, hora somnj = at bedtime (at the hour of sleep)
hord., hordeum -i = barley, Hordeum vulgare; French barley, H. spelticum; aq. hordei, barley water
hordeum -i perlatum = pearl barley; barley processed to remove the outer fibrous hull, and polished
hormini., horminum -i = sage or clary sage, Salvia sclarea (Pliny the Elder); there is also a flowering plant, Horminum pyrenalcum, dragonmouth or Pyrenean dead-nettle, but which is apparently not used in medicine
hortensis -e = relating to, from, or grown in a garden; e.g., nasturtium hortense, garden nasturtium; from hortus -i, garden hortensius -a -um = same as above entry
hipposelinum, hypposelinum -i = alexanders or allisanders (black lovage), Smyrnium olusatrum
hydrarg., hydrargyrum -i, hydrargyrus -i = the element Mercury (Hg) in its liquid state; see also mercurius, below
hydrarg., hydrargyrum -i extinctum = elemental (liquid) Mercury mixed with a fatty material (e. g., lard or lanolin) and used topically
hydromel -itis = honey-water, which when fermeted is called mead
hydropiper -eris = water pepper, marshpepper knotweed, or tade, Polygonum hydropiper; or arsesmart, Persicaria hydropiper
hyoscyamus -i = henbane, Hyoscamus niger, or an extract or tincture of it
hyperi = misspelling for hyperici, see next entry
hyperici, hypericon, hypericum -i = St. John's wort, especially Hypericum perforatum; see also carellorum, above
hypocistis (-is?) = solidified juice of Cytinus hypocistis, a parasitic plant that grows on the roots of Cistus shrubs, used to treat dysentery; JW describes it as "a very great binder"
hydrops -opis = dropsy, edema
hyssop., hyssopus -i = hyssop, Hyssopus officinalis, for which H. montanus is a subspecies or an accepted synonym; also H. capitatus, wild thyme
I - J
jacobaea = a common wild flower, Jacobaea vulgaris or Senecio jabocaea, common names include ragwort, St. James-wort, staggerwort; a supposed aphrodisiac (satyrion) was made from it by the Greeks and Romans; it is the national flower of the Isle of Man
ialap., jalap., jalapa -ae, jalapium -i = jalap, Ipomoea jalapa; a purgative; NB distinguish from iulap., iulapium, q.v.
janua = see emplastrum de janua, above
iberis -idis cardamantice = sciatica cress; one of several plants of the family Brassicaceae, the roots of which were supposed to be useful in sciatica when made into a plaster
iecur, jecur -oris = liver; also hepar -atis, q.v.
ieiunus -a -um (jejunus) = fasting, abstinent, hungry; e.g., ieiuno ventriculo, on a fasting (empty) stomach
ilex -icis = Quercus ilex, the evergreen, holly, or holm oak; JW records (V.a.292, 34r) that at Ned Morgan's he saw four sorts: Ilex Coccigera, Ilex glandifera, Ilex aktae foliis, and the "Common;" Parkinson identifies Ilex aquifolia sive coccigera as the lesser or scarlet holm oak (and "aktae foliis" is possibly a misspelling for "aquifoliis"); Gerard identifies I. major glandifera (glandiferus -a -um = acorn-bearing) as the great scarlet oak; and the "common" is likely Q. ilex
ilex -icis = holly; a genus of more than 500 plants in the family Aquifoliaceae; I. aquifolium is the common, English, or Christmas holly
illino -ere = lay on, anoint, put on by spreading or smearing
imperatoria -ae = master-wort, Peucedanum ostruthium; same as ostruthium
in = with ablative, in or on, e.g., baculum in mensa est, the staff is on the table; with accusative, into or onto, e.g., pone baculum in mensam, put the staff onto the table
inaurentur = let them be gilded (pills), from inauro -are, to cover with gold
inauratus -a -um = gilded; some pills were gilded, denoted pillulae inauratae
incid., incido -ere = incise, cut open/into; past participle, incisus -a -um
indica -ae = Tylophora indica, the "purging Indian plum" (Parkinson)
infund., infundo -ere = pour in, into, or upon
infus., infusio -onis = infusion; steeping or dissolving of a substance in water or other liquid; cf. decoction
insideo -ere = sit in or upon anything; insideat, let her/him sit (in a bath)
inspissat., inspissatus -a -um = adj., thickened, condensed
inula -ae = elecampane, Inula helenium or Enula campana; horse-heal; a tonic and stimulant
inung., inungo -ere = rub on; e.g., salve or ointment
ireas., ireos., iridas = iris; probably from iris -idis = iris flower, Iris species; radix ireas, iris root or rhizome, also known as orris or orrice root
iris -idis = a genus of flowering plants with over 300 species; Iris persica, Persian iris
irroro -are = sprinkle with water; past participle. irroratus -a -um
isatis -is or -idis = genus of flowering plants including woad, Isatis tinctoria
iugland., jugland., iuglans -andis = walnut; iuglandes virides, green walnuts
jujuba -ae = jujube; or red or Chinese date, Ziziphus jujuba
iuiubinus -a -um = of, from, or related to jujubes, e.g., syrupus jujubinus, jujube syrup; see Ziziphus below
iulap., iulapium -i = a mixture, often sweet, used as a vehicle for other medicines
iulianizans -antis = occurs only in "oxymel julianizans," see below
juncellus -i omnium minimus = Juncellus, a genus in the family Cyperaceae, the sedges; from its name, this is the smallest of all; Camden's Britannia calls it the "least rush"
iuniper., juniper., iuniperus -i = juniper; granum juniperi, juniper berry (its seed cone)
iusculum, jusculum -i = broth
iuvenis -is -e = young, youthful
labdan., ladan(um -i)., labdanum = labdanum or ladanum, gum resin from plants of genus Cistus or Cystix, used in perfumes and for fumigation; NB distinguish from laudanum (q. v.)
labrum -i veneris = Venus' lip; the wild or fuller's teasel, Dipsacus silvestris or D. fullonum
lac., lact., lac lactis = milk; lac. rec. or recens (-entis), fresh milk, lac veterum, old milk
lac lactis sulphuris = liquid preparation of sulfur, quicklime, and salt of tartar, filtered and precipitated with spirit of vitriol
lacca = ingredient in trocischi de lacca, which contain the dark red resinous substance produced as a protective coating by the lac insect, Kerria lacca, used to make shellac
lact., lactuca -ae = lettuce, Lactuca sativa
ladanum -i = labdanum, see above
laevigatus -a -um = made smooth, pulverized
lagena -ae = a large earthen vessel with a neck and handles; also a flask, flagon, or bottle
lambatiuum, lambativum, lambitivum -i = same as linctus/lohoch, below
lambend., lambo -ere = lick/ lap up; sensim lambendus, should be licked up slowly
lapat., lappath., lapathum -i = dock or sorrel; genus Lapathum now included in genus Rumex
lapis -idis adamas = diamond; see adamas, above
lap. bezoard., lapis -idis bezoardicus = bezoar stone; see bezoar, above
lapis -idis bufonis = toadstone; a stone-like object found in the head of, or produced by, a toad (CL bufo -onis); supposed to have antidotal or therapeutic virtues and worn as a jewel or amulet
lapis -idis caelestis = artificial, Roman, or blue vitriol; copper sulfate, CuSo4
lapis -idis calaminaris = calamine, a zinc ore; zinc carbonate or silicate; still used as a component of a calamine lotion, to treat itchiness
lapis -idis contrayervae = same as pulvis contrayervae compositus, powder of contrayerva compounded with crab shells
lapis -idis hematitis = lapis hematites, hematite; iron (III) oxide, Fe2O3; so called from the Greek word for blood, αἷμα, because some varieties have a red coloration; other varieties may be a lustrous metallic grey
lapis -idis hirundinis = either a supposed stone from the stomach of a swallow, presumably something like a bezoar; or lapis icterias, the "jaundice stone" (Pliny the Elder) used for treating the same
lap. hyb., lapis -idis hybernicus = hibernicus lapis, Irish slate, said to be of a crumbly texture; powdered and mixed with spruce beer for inward contusions; also known as tegula (-ae) hibernica (-ae)
lapis -idis iaspis or jaspis = jasper, a semiprecious stone, red, green, or brown; a variety of silica
lapis -idis nephriticus = nephrite, jade; semiprecious stone of various colors
lapis -idis piperis = "pepper stone;" apparently the same as peppercorn; in V.a.286 44v JW states that it can cause sneezing (sufficit ad sternutationem)
lapp., lappa -ae = burdock, Arctium lappa; also called lapp. maj., lappa major, greater burdock; also known as Bardana
lard., lardum -i = lard, fat (also laridum, see next entry)
larid., laridum -i = bacon; larid. veter., laridum veterum, old bacon
later -eris = a brick or tile
latericium -i = brickwork; latericum philosophorum, see oleum philosophi, below
latericius -a -um = made of or consisting of bricks; e.g., pulvis latericia, powder of bricks
lateritium -i = brick cap, cinnamon cap, or chestnut mushroom, Hypholoma lateritium
laudan., laudanum -i = laudanum; alcoholic tincture of opium, also known as tinctura thebiaca; NB distinguish from ladanum, see "labdanum"
laudan. paracels., Paracelsi = Paracelsus' laudanum; opium and alcohol plus various other ingredients, incl. gold, amber, pearl, musk
lauendul., lavendula -ae = lavender, Lavandula angustifolia (or Spica foemina, spike)
lauri., laurus -i = genus of evergreen trees including the bay tree, Laurus nobilis; L. alexandrina, laurel of Alexandria, uncertain but Culpeper thought it might be the same as the hippoglossum described by Dioscorides
laurinus -a -um = of or pertaining to the laurel; e.g. oleum laurinum, laurel oil
lenit., lenitiv., lenitivus -a -um = soothing, gently laxative
lens -tis maior = the great lentil; there is also a lesser or little lentil, L. minor
lentiscus -i = the mastic tree, Pistacia lentiscus; mastic is the resin from this tree
lentiscinus -a -um = of or derived from the mastic tree
leon., leonurus -i = lion's tail; motherwort, Leonurus cardiaca
leporinus -a -um = of or relating to a hare; pilus leporinus or leporis, hair of a hare, hare hair
lepidium -i = plants of genus Lepidium, of the Brassicaceae family, including L. densiflorum, common pepperweed
lepus -oris = hare; lepus combustus, hare ashes (in a receipt for treatment of urinary stone)
leucoium -i, leucojum -i = genus of plants in the amaryllis family, including Leucojum aestivum, summer snowflake or Loddon lily; L. vernum; spring snowflake, snowbell, dewdrop, St. Agnes' flower; L. bulbosum, bulbous violet
leuisticum, levisticum -i = lovage, Levisticum officinale; see also Siler montanum
lichen -enis arborum = tree lungwort, Sticta pulmonaria, known as lungs of oak; also a similar North American plant, Mertensia virginica
lign., lignum -i = wood, with the name of the source in the genitive; e.g., lignum fraxini, ash wood
lignum -i aloes = a fragrant dark resinous wood, agarwood or aloeswood, from the heartwood of the aquilaria tree; genus Aquilaria, many species, especially A. malaccensis, used in incense production; also known as xyloaloes or agaloc(h)um; NB distinguish from the succulent aloes plant, Aloe vera
lign., lignum -i nephriticum = traditional diuretic derived from wood from narra (Pterocarpus indicus) and Mexican kidneywood (Eysenhardtia polystachya) trees
lign. rhod., lignum -i rhodii = rosewood; rose-scented wood from Convolvulus floridus or C. scoparius
lign. sanct., lignum -i sanctum = guiacaum, holy wood; Guiacum officinale
lill., lillior., lilliorum., lilium -a = lily; flores/folia/radix liliorum, flowers/leaves/root of lilies; lilium dierum, lily of days, presumbably a short-lived lily but of uncertain identity
limac., limacum, limax -acis = snail, slug; aqua -ae limacum, snail water, made from snails (washed), mint, hart's tongue, various flowers, nutmeg, egg whites and milk, distilled; with Canary wine added, stronger snail water
limatur = third person singular present active subjunctive of limo -are, file or file down; limatur chalybs, let the steel be filed down (for a steel-containing electuary)
limonium -i = genus of flowering plants known as sea-lavender, statice, caspia, or marsh-rosemary; over 100 species; also, any plant of genus Pyrola, especially P. rotundifolia, wintergreen
lin., linum -i = flax, Linum usitatissimum; semen or semina lini, flaxseed, linseed; far. sem. lini, farina seminum lini, flour of linseeds; Linum catharticum, purging or fairy flax
linaria -ae = toad-flax or wild flax, Linaria vulgaris
linctus -a -um = medicine taken by licking (same as lohoch); past participle of lingo -ere
lineus -a -um = made of linen, flax, lint (synonymous with linteus)
liniment., linamentum -i = liniment; l. arcei, liniment of Arceus; l. elemi, see below under gummi
linteus -a -um = relating to or made from linen cloth (linteum -i)
lippitudo -inis = a sore condition of the edges of the eyelids with copous secretions from the Meibomian glands and conjunctiva; rheum, blear-eyed-ness
liquidambar -i = sweetgum tree; various species, including Liquidambar orientalis, oriental or Turkish sweetgum; also several others native to eastern and southeast Asia
liquirit., liquiritia -ae = licorice, Glychyrrhiza glabra
liquor -oris = liquid, liquor
liquor possetic., posseticus -a -um = posset drink; milk curdled with treacle, wine, or any acid substance
litharg., lytharg., lithargium -i, lithargyrum -i = litharge, lead oxide, PbO; may be white, a byproduct of separation of lead from silver ("litharge of silver") or colored ("litharge of gold") with red lead, lead tetraoxide, Pb3O4
lithontribon -i (Lugdunensis) = urinary stone-breaking powder (of Lyon); spikenard, ginger, cinnamon, black pepper, cardamom, saxifrage, etc.
lithontriptic., lythontriptic., lithontripticus -a -um = lithontriptic; having the property of breaking up bladder stones
lixivium -i = water containing alkaline salts leached from wood ashes (OED), used to make soap
lohoch = medicine taken by licking or by letting it melt in the mouth
lohoch sanum = "the healing lohoch;" hyssop, calamint, jujubes, sebestens, raisins, dates etc.; "succors the breast, lungs, throat, and trachea" (Culpeper); may be titled lochoch sanum et expertum
lot., lotus -a -um = washed, bathed; e.g., cum terebinth. Lot., washed with turpentine
lotus -i = various species of genus Lotus, e.g., L. urbana and L. sylvestris
lucis majores = see pilulae lucis maiores, below
lujul., lujula -ae = wood sorrel, Oxalis acetosella; also called alleluia or hallelujah because it flowers between Easter and Pentecost
lumbricus -i = worm; when the common earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, so designated; or an intestinal worm, e.g., Ascaris lumbricoides
lupinus -i = lupin, flowering plants of genus Lupinus; numerous species, including the bluebonnet
lupul., lupulus -i = the hop plant, Humulus lupulus
lychnis -idis = the campion, flowering plants in the genus Silene, numerous species; JW mentions L. noctiflora (V.a.291, 67r), which is not included in Parkinson or Gerard, but there is a Silene noctiflora, night-flowering catchfly
lysimachia -ae = Lysimachia, genus of flowering plants with nearly 200 accepted species, including many varieties of loosestrife, and L. arvensis, scarlet pimpernel
m., misc., misce, misceo -ere = mix; misceantur, let them (ingredients) be mixed
m. f. = misce face, mix (the ingredients) and make X; or misceat or misceant fiat, let it/them (the ingredients) be mixed and let X be made (e.g., pills, an electuary)
mac., macis -idis = mace, the covering of the seed in the fruit of Myristica fragrans, the nutmeg tree
macer -eris = the inner bark of the nutmeg tree, M. fragrans (Culpeper)
macri = see pilulae macri, below
madefac., madefact., madefacio -ere = moisten, soak, make wet; past participle madefactus -a -um
magdaleones -um = masses of plaster, or of other composition, in cylindrical form
majoran., majorana -ae = marjoram; see Origanum, below
magistral., magistralis -e = related to magister -tri, a master or teacher; can refer to something that is a practitioner's own formulation (as opposed to available in the shops, officinalis -e, see below), or a remedy that is supremely effective
magistrantia -ae = masterwort, Astrantia maxima
malabathrum or malobathrum -i = aromatic leaf of one of several oriental trees, e.g., Cinnamomum tamala, or the ointment prepared from it
malicorii, malicorium -i = pomegranate rind
malvatic., malvaticum (vinum) = Malmsey (wine of the Malvasia grape); Madeira/sack
malva -ae = common, field, or wild mallow, Malva silvestris; also other species of genus Malva
malva -ae horaria = Venice mallow
malv., malvavisc., malvaviscus -i = marshmallow, Althaea officinalis
malus -i persica = peach tree, Malus persica
mane (indecl.) = in the morning; multo mane, very early in the morning
manica -ae hyppocratis = Hippocrates' sleeve, a kind of conical strainer made of linen or flannel; e.g., clarificetur per manicam hyppocratis, let it be clarified through a Hippocrates' sleeve
man., manna -ae = condensed juice of the manna ash tree, Fraxinus ornus; a purgative; may be designated as being from Calabria (manna calabrina), from F. ornus or F. excelsior
manus -us Christi = a cordial used for debilitated patients containing sugar with rose water or violet water; formulations included manus Christi perlata, lozenges containing rose water, sugar, and pearls; and manus Christi simplex, the same without pearls; in the Pharmacopoiea Londinensis, Culpeper had strong views on the naming of this cordial by the Royal College of Physicians: "Here the Colledg have left out that blasphemous speech, which I cannot write without horror, nor an honest man read without trembling, viz. To call a little Rose-water and Sugar boyled to∣gether, THE HAND OF CHRIST: The truth is, if they had left out the rest of the blasphemies, I should have had some hopes they would in time turn honest, but I see to my grief they remain: especially that abominable blasphemy in their Dedicatory Epistle to King James, which they having not enough to alter, let stand, or else it was because like Sodom, they would declare their sin and hide it not, but manifest to the world in the sight of the Sun, that they are not a Colledg of Christians, but of RANTERS, by calling KING JAMES their GOD; blush O Sun at such blasphemy. It may be they left it out because King Charls is dead, for worshiping old Jemmy for God, 'tis more than probable they worshiped his Son for Christ; and their Tubelary (sic) gods being apud Inferos, gives me some hopes they will follow them quickly, and so all the Tyrants will go together."
margarit., margarita -ae = pearl; prepared pearl is a common ingredient
marina ambra -ae grisea = ambergris
marrub., marrubium -i = common horehound, Marrubium vulgare; other species also; may be designated nigrum (black horehound, Ballota nigra) or foetidum (stinking)
martiat., martiatus -a -um = pertaining to soldiers; unguentum martiatum, soldiers's ointment
mass., massa -ae = the quantity of combined ingredients out of which pills, etc., are formed
mastich., masticha = mastic, resin of Pistacia lentiscus
matricar., matricaria -ae = feverfew, Matricaria or Tanacetum parthenium
matrisilv., matrisylv., matrisylva -ae = woodruff, Asperula matrisylva or A. odorata
Matt(h)iolus -i = relating to or invented by Pietro Andrea Mattioli (1501 - c. 1577), Italian physician and naturalist; e.g.unguentum Matthioli, leontopodium (edelweiss) Matthioli
matut., matutinus -a -um, matutine = in the (early) morning
mechoach., mechoacan = root of a variety of morning glory, Ipomoea macrorhiza or I. jalapa, from Michoacán (Mexico); may be identified as black (nigr.)
mecon., meconium -i = opium
medull., medulla -ae = the pith or pulp of any vegetable; also bone marrow: medulla spinalis, spinal cord
mel., mel mellis = honey; (e)dulcorandus melle, sweetened with honey; the name of the source plant may be mentioned in the genitive, e.g., mel emblicorum, or a descriptive adjective may be added, e.g. mel rosatum, "rosated" honey with addition of oil of roses
melilot., melilotos -i = melilot, Trifolium melilotus officinalis
meliss., melissa -ae = balm, especially lemon balm, Melissa officinalis; several other species, also including common, field, & mountain calamint
melissophyllum -i = bastard balm, Melittis melissophyllum
menstruum -i = in medicine, the menses; in alchemy, a solvent, often corrosive, or a liquid medium for administration of medications
merc. dulc., mercurius dulcis = mercurous chloride, Hg2Cl2; calomel; a purgative
mercur., mercury = annual or French mercury, Mercurialis annua; used in clysters; NB don't confuse with the element Mercury (Hg), usually referred to as hydrargyrum
mercurius -i = the element Mercury in its liquid form, also referred to as hydrargyrum; m. dulcis, calomel or mercurous chloride, Hg2Cl2, a purge; m. duplicatus, an alchemical substance of uncertain character, described in some references as a "celestial salt;" JW mentions mercurius quadruplicatus, identification uncertain, perhaps just four times the usual amount
mespil., mespilus -i = medlar, fruit of medlar tree, Mespilus germanica; resembles a small apple
metrenchyta -ae = an injection ("clyster") for the uterus
metroproptoticon = see emplastrum metroproptoticon, above
meum -i = spignel, Aethusa meum or Meum athamanticum
mica -ae = crumb, morsel, grain; micae panis triticei, crumbs of wheat bread
micleta -ae = an electuary for treatment of diarrhea, bloody flux, homorrhoids, and stomach afflictions; contained myrobalan bark, watercress, cumin, anise, fennel, ammi, etc., all fried in rose oil and mixed with myrtle syrup; JW refers to it as "a very great binder"
microcosmi = see spiritus microcosmi, below
millefolium -i = common yarrow, Achillea millefolium, a flowering plant in the aster family
milii., milium -i = millet seed, Panicum mileaceum; also P. italicum, Indian millet seed
mill., milliped., millipes -pedis = pill-millipede or wood-louse; pulv. milliped., powdered millipede; also prepared by soaking in wine with or without crushing in a mortar; JW mentions a spiritus millipedum in V.a.288, presumably from distilling them
minium -i = native vermilion, read lead; emplastrum de minio, plaster of red lead and olive oil
mithridat., mithridatium -i = mithridate; complex and variable recipe, up to 60 ingredients, including opium
miva -ae = listed (by JW and by Lovell) as miva vel gelatina, quince jelly
mixae -arum, myxae -arum = sebesten plum (tree), Cordia myxa; see sebesten, below
mola -ae = a uterine mass, especially hydatidiform mole, a gestational trophoblastic disease arising from the placenta; usually benign but may become invasive and metastasize
mollis -e = soft, flexible, loose; emplastrum molle, a soft plaster
monach., rhab. monach., rhabarbarum -i monachorum = monk's rhubarb, Rumex patientia
mortarium -i = mortar; tunde or contunde in mortario, crush in a mortar
morum -i = mulberry; many species, including Mora nigra, black or common mulberry; also as "Celsus's," as in succus mororum Celsi, from Aulus Cornelius Celsus (c. 25 BCE - 50 CE)
morus -i = mulberry tree
mosch., moschat., (nux) moschata = nutmeg; seed of Myristica fragrans
moschelaeum -i = see oleum moschaelum, below
mucilag., mucilago -inis = viscid aqueous solution of one or more ingredients made by soaking or heating parts of certain plants in water; e.g., mucilage of gum, mucilago arabaci gummi; of althaea and fenugreek roots, mucil. rad Alth. et faenugr.
mummia -ae = a substance prepared from mummified flesh, usually human; or may indicate a liquid bituminous substance, also known as pissasphalt (from Greek pitch + asphalt); this latter may also be termed mummia from Arabic mūmiyā, a type of resinous bitumen used for embalming and as an aphrodisiac and general antidote
mundat., mundatus -a -um = cleaned (from mundo -are, make clean, cleanse)
muscus -i = (sphagnum) moss
musc. pyxidat., muscus -i pyxidatus = a type of lichen (Lichen pyxidatus), used in a decoction for whooping cough
must., mustum -i = must; pressed grapes before fermentation into wine; also mustum cervisiae, beer wort
myristic., nux myristica, myristica -ae = nutmeg, Myristica moschata
myrobalan., myrabalan., myrabalanum -i = myrobalan = Indian gooseberry, Phyllantus emblica; may be designated myrobalan omnium; chebulae refers to the so-called "black myrobalan," Terminalia chebula; indicae (q. v.) refers to a different plant; may be designated myrobalanum indorum
myrtill., myrtillus -i = myrtle berry, black whortle berry, or bilberry; Vaccinium myrtillus
myrtin., myrtinus -a -um = of or made from myrtle, myrtle-; e.g., syrupus myrtinus, myrtle-syrup
narcissus -i = any of numerous spring-flowering bulbous plant of genus Narcissus; especially N. poeticus and N. tazetta; many uses, including emetic, emollient, and treatment for cough, baldness, dysentery, etc.
nard, nardin., nardus -i , adj. nardinus -a -um = nard, a fragrant oil or perfume; or the aromatic plant from which the ointment was prepared, Nardostachys grandiflora; spikenard, N. jatamansi
nardinus -a -um = of, made from, flavored with, or smelling like nard (see previous entry)
nasturtium -i = genus of watercresses; JW mentions nasturtium aquaticum, probably common watercress, Nasturtium officinale, also known as Sisymbrium nasturtium, and nasturtium hortense, or gardencress, N. hortense
nepetha -ae = genus of flowering plants; especially catmint/catnip, N. cataria
nervin., nervinus -a -um = pertaining to nerves; e.g., unguentum nervinum, nerve ointment
nicotiana -ae = tobacco, genus Nicotiana; many uses, including unguentum nicotianae, see below
nig., nigr., niger -gra -grum = black
nocte = at night (from nox noctis)
nodulo, nodulus -i = a little knot, from nodus -i; in nodulo ligat., tied in a little knot
novum lumen -inis = not a medication but a book, mentioned by JW in V.a.287, 44r, and in V.a.292, 101r; EEBO search yields Novum lumen medicum (1662) by Joachim Poleman (? - ?, named in V.a.292), after the system of van Helmont. The quotation from the book as given in V.a.287 is as follows: "That part of the sperme which truly conduces to the making of man (as novum Lumen) says, canne bee no greater att first .. then the 8200th part of a graine of wheat/ That of Aristotle is provable, that the 40th day after Conception, homo formica non major." This passage does not appear in this book by Poleman, but appears to come instead from another work, A Most Certaine and True Relation of a Strange Monster Serpent Found in the left Ventricle of the heart of Iohn Pennant (1639) by one Edward May, "Doctor of Philosophy and Physick," etc.: "it can be no greater at first moment of conception, then in proportion to the 8200 part of a grain of wheate;" and "that the fortieth day after conception, homo formica non major," appearing directly after the "8200" quotation
nubiae = granum nubiae; the seed of an unknown plant from Ethiopia, apparently a powerful poison
nuc., nucl., nucleus -i = nut
nucleus -i pinei = pine nuts (pignoli), edible seeds of pine, various species of genus Pinus
nummularia -ae = Lysimachia nummularia; creeping jenny, moneywort, or herb twopence
nux nucis = nut; e.g., nux moschata, nutmeg; nux pinea, pine nut; nux avellana, hazelnut; nux persica, walnut (see also iuglans, above)
nymph., nymphaea -ae = water lily; Nymphaea alba, white; other species may have blue, red, or yellow flowers
oculus -i = eye
ocimastrum -i = common witch herb or broadleaf enchanter's nightshade, Ocimastrum verrucarium; or Italian hedgenettle or hairy wondwort, Stachys ocymastrum
ocul., oculi cancri = crab's eyes; "A round concretion found in the stomach of crayfish and some other crustacea, consisting mainly of carbonate of lime; it has been used, finely powdered, as an absorbent and antacid" (OED), or possibly Abrus precatorius, the (poisonous) rosary pea; more likely the former, conclusion based on receipt in V.a. 298, f. 160r, calling for "ocul. 69" probably the same as "ocul. Cancri" on the same page, with "69" the astrological symbol for Cancer (♋︎) rotated 90° ( ); see entry on the last page of this list
ocymi., ocymum -i = basil, Ocimum basilicum
officin., officinalis -e = from officina -ae, a shop; any standard medicine or ingredient kept in apothecary shops
ol., oleum -i = oil; many varieties, with a descriptive adjective or with the source in the genitive
oleum -i croci = oil of saffron; in the Pharmacopoiea Londinensis it is stated that some prepare it by distilling a mixture of saffron, turpentine, and spirit of wine with frequent cohobation (redistilling); in The London Dispensatory, Culpeper asserts that there is no such thing
oleum -i chrysomelinum = oil of the kernels of apricots; JW says that it is "of the same uertue with that of sweet Almonds" (V.a.292, f. 40av)
ol. dulc., oleum -i dulcis = sweet oil; usually olive or rapeseed
oleum excestrense = oil of Exeter; contains wormwood, lesser centaury, eupatorium, fennel, hyssop, etc., infused in oil
oleum -i fuliginis = oil of soot (fuligo -inis), made by distilling soot
oleum -i heracleoticum = hazelnut oil
oleum -i lapivum = from persian cyclamen, Lapivum persicum or Cyclamen persicum
ol. lumbric., oleum -i lumbricorum = oil of earthworms; from worms boiled in wine and oil and strained
oleum -i moschaeleum = oil of musk, from secretions of a gland of various animals, especially the male musk deer, Moscus moschiferus; plus nutmeg, mace, costus, styrax, other herbs, and oil; the animal source of the musk may be named in the genitive, e.g., oleum moschelaeum vulpinum, oil of fox musk; used for treatment of deafness, cold diseases of the heart, strangury, etc.
oleum -i nucistae = oil of nutmeg
ol., oleum -i Nicodemi = leaves of St. John's wort (species of Hypericum), turpentine, litharge, aloes, tutty, saffron, white wine, etc.
ol. philosoph., oleum -i philosophi = philosopher's oil, made from distilling pieces of brick soaked in oil; same as latericium philosophorum
oleum -i rosae = oil of rose, volatile oil distilled from Rosa damascena; still appears in the U.S.P.
oleum -i sabinae = oil of savine (Juniperus sabina); an abortifacient
oleum -i salis = "oil of salt;" the common oil of salt (oleum salis commune) is made from bay salt dissolved in water and mixed with three times its weight of powdered tiles or bricks, evaporated, and distilled (Pharmacopoeia Londinensis); there are also red and black varieties
ol. sulph., oleum -i sulphuris = oil of sulfur, various receipts; possibly sulfuric acid, H2SO4; modern definition is concentrated or "fuming" sulfuric acid, the same with added concentrations of sulfur trioxide
ol. vulpin., oleum -i vulpinum = fox oil; made from a skinned and gutted fox boiled with oil and herbs and pressed; Culpeper specifies a "fat fox of middle age, wearied with hunting and new killed"
olilban., olibanum -i = aromatic resin from trees of genus Boswellia, especially B. sacra; frankincense
onon., ononis -idis (spinosa) = restharrow, Ononis repens
ophalmicum = see unguentum ophalmicum, below; distinguish from ophthalmicum
ophioglossum -i = adder's tongue fern; genus of about 50 species; used as an ointment on wounds and burns
opiat., opiatus -a -um = opiated; any preparation containing opium; or other medicines that produce sleep but which may or may not contain opium
opiatum -i astringens = properly electuarium opiatum astrigens; contains diascordium, red roses, bistort
opobalsamum -i = Mecca balsam, balm of Gilead; resin produced by the tree Commiphora opobalsamum
opopanax -acis = the "fetid" (OED) gum resin from Opopanax chironium, a spiny acacia
opt., optim., optimus -a -um = best
origan., origanum -i = oregano; several species, incl. Origanum vulgare, common Mediterranean oregano or wild marjoram; O. creticum, (Spanish) oregano; O. marjorana, sweet marjoram; O. heracleaticum, winter sweet marjoram; O. dictamnus, dittany of Crete
ornithopodium -i = alternate name of Ornithopus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae, the legumes; e.g., O. sativus, common bird's foot
orthopnea -ae = shortness of breath, dyspnea, asthma; technically, shortness of breath while lying down relieved by sitting up or standing, commonly seen in patients with heart failure (from Greek ὀρθό-, combining form of ὀρθός, straight, erect, upright; + πνέειν, to breathe)
os ossis = bone; oss. sep., ossa separata, separated bones, but precise definition uncertain
osmunda -ae regalis = the royal fern, also called flowering fern or buckhorn, called "royal" because of its large size; root used as a demulcent, astringent, and emmenagogue; the name is thought possibly to derive from Osmunder, a Saxon name for the Norse god Thor
ostrea -ae = oyster, mussel, sea-snail
ostrutii., ostruthium -i = master-wort, Peucedanum ostruthium
ovin., ovinus -a -um = relating to or belonging to sheep; e.g., sebum ovinum, sheep suet or tallow
oxycrat., oxycratum -i = oxycrate; mixture of vinegar and water, sometimes with a little honey
oxycroceum = as emplastrum oxycroceum, plaster made with saffron and vinegar
oxylapathum -i = sharp-pointed dock; Lapathum acutum, or Rumex acutus
oxymel = honey and vinegar boiled to a syrup
oxymel Julianiz., oxymel Iulianizans -antis = the Julian (or Julianized) syrup of honey and vinegar, a syrup containing oxymel, with the addition of caper root bark, iris root, fennel, rock parsley, endive, and many other ingredients; Julian may refer to Julian the Elder (fl. mid-2nd c. CE), who had studied with Galen but later became his enemy
paeon., paeonia -ae = peony, P. officinalis; used by Galen for treatment of epilepsy
palma Christi = see "cataputia," above
pampholix -icis = crude zinc oxide, ZnO, same as tutia; can also refer to vesicles or small blisters on the skin, esp. of the palms and digits
paludapium -i = another term for smallage or water-parlsey; from palus -udis, a swamp or marsh, + apium -i (q.v.)
panacea -ae = an herb healing all diseases; specificially, an extract of opopanax (q.v.), allheal, woundwort, or various other herbs; e.g., betony, yarrow, mistletoe
pannus -i = cloth, rag, garment
papav., papaver -eris = poppy; many species, including P. somniferum, opium poppy; P. rhoeas or P. erraticum, red corn poppy
paralyseus -a -um = relating to the cowslip, Primula species; e.g., take/use flores paralyseos
paralys., paralysis -is = cowslip, e.g., Paralysis fatua (Gerard); also in the usual sense of loss of function
paratur = it is prepared; e.g., paratur vnguent., an ointment is prepared
paregoricus -a -um = alleviating, assuaging; the noun paregoric refers to the camphorated tincture of opium, formerly used as an anti-diarrheal and cough medicine
parietar., parietaria -ae = pellitory of the wall, Parietaria officinalis; may be designated "herb. parietar."
part., pars partis = part, side
parum = a little; e.g., ol(eum) Iasmini parum, a little oil of jasmine
passer -eris = sparrow, especially the house sparrow Passer domesticus
pastillus -i = a small flat tablet, may be coated with sugar; similar to a pill, troche, or lozenge
passul., passula -ae = a small raisin; passulae enucleatae/exacinatae, stoned raisins; passulae solis, raisins of the sun; passula Corinthiaca, Corinthian raisin, alias uvae Corinthiacae, Corinthian grapes, q.v.
pastinac., pastinaca -ae = parsnip, Pastinaca sativa or P. sylvestris
pauxillus -a -um = little, small; also as substantive: pauxillum, a little, with the material in the genitive; e.g., pauxillum aceti, a little vinegar
pauxill., pauxillatum = adv., little by little, by degrees
pectoral., pectoralis -is -e = a pectoral; for diseases of the chest
penid., penidium -i = appears as in sacch(arum) penid(ium), a stick of boiled sugar used as a cold remedy
pentaphyll., pentaphyllon, pentaphyllum -i = cinquefoil, Potentilla reptans; Pentaphyllum purpureum, purple cinquefoil, P. rubrum palustre, marsh cinquefoil, etc. (Gerard)
peplium -i = peplion, a species of spurge, probably Euphorbia esula; a purge for bile and phlegm
pepo -onis = pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo
per deliquium = by dissolution; describes hygroscopic materials which will absorb water from the atmosphere and dissolve into an aqueous solution
percepier anglorum = the plant parsley piert, Aphanes arvensis; percepier is from French perce pierre, split stone
pericarpium -i = a plaster applied to the wrist, from Greek περικάρπιον, a bracelet; used for various disorders including ague and "Defluxions and Fumes in the Eyes" (R. Boyle)
periclymenum -i = common honeysuckle, Lonicera periclymenum
perineum -i = the space between the genitals and the anus
perlarum mater -tris = mother of pearl
permisceo -ere = mix or mingle together; permisceantur, let them (the ingredients) be mixed
peru., peruvianus -a -um = Peruvian; e.g, Cortex peruviana (Cinchona), source of quinine
persicaria -ae = spotted persicaria, a common weed; Persicaria maculosa
pes pedis columbinus = dove's foot, Geranium molle; also some other species of cranesbill
pessarium -i = a pessary
petasititid., petasites -idis = butterbur, Petasites fragrans
petroselin., petroselinum -i = parsley, Apium petroselinum; from Greek πετροσέλινον, rock celery; P. crispum, (curly) garden parsley
petroselin. macedonic., petroselinum -i macedonicum = Macedonian parsley, Bubon macedonicum
petum -i = the tobacco plant, see nicotiana, above; possibly an indigenous name via French or Portuguese
peucedani, peucedanum -i = peucedanin, a "colourless crystalline compound... occur[ring] in the root of hog's fennel, Peucedanum officinale" (OED)
philonium -i persicum = a compound medicine including opium, saffron, white pepper, pearls, and amber; named after Philo of Tarsus, 1st c. BCE Greek physician;
philonium -i romanum = a compound medicine containing white pepper, hyoscalmus, saffron, spike, pyrethrum, castor, etc.
phlegma -atis vitrioli = very dilute aqueous solution of sulfuric acid
phu (indecl.) = "any of several species of valerian having rhizomes used medicinally" (OED); possibilities include Valeriana officinalis, V. dioscoridis, V. phu; mentioned by Pliny the Elder
phyllit., phyllitis -is = hart's tongue fern, Scolopendrium vulgare
pileum -i = felt cap
pilosella -ae = genus of flowering plants, numerous species, especially P. officinarum, mouse-ear hawkweed; same as auriculus muris
pil., pill., pillul., pil[l]ula -ae = pill, modified with an adjective, or with the source in the genitive or ablative with "de," in the ablative
pilulae agregativae = aggregative pills, so called because they aggregated many effects; ingredients included aloes, turbith, scammony, rhubarb, myrabalans, agaric, etc.
pilulae aleophanginae = aromatic pills of Mesue; contain aloes, cinnamon, cardamom, nutmeg, mace, etc.; similar to if not identical to pilulae elephanginae, below
pilulae aurae = "golden pills," so called from their color; contained aloes, scammony, roses, smallage seed, etc., but no gold (unless gilded)
pilulae Barbaros(s)ae = an anti-syphilitic, containing mercury; apparently named after an Algerian king and not the Holy Roman Emperor
pill., pilulae Catholicae = compounded of pilulae sine quibus (see below), aurea, cochia (see next entry), hellebore, colocynth, spirit of vitriol, etc.; a universal purge, probably the source of the name
pilulae cochiae = cochiae pills; may be denoted "majores," the greater cochiae pill (hiera picra, alhandal troches, diagrydium, turpentine), or "minores," the lesser cochiae pill (aloes, scammony, colocynth, syrup of buckthorn, oil of cloves)
pilulae de colocynthide Alexandri = aloe, euphorbium, colocynth, scammony, black hellebore, nitric salt of Alexander (Alexandros) of Tralles (potassium nitrate, KNO3); Alexandros was a Byzantine physician (c. 525 - c. 605)
pill. elephang., pilulae elephanginae = an Arabic term; purging pills containing cinnamon, nutmeg, and other aromatics; also, according to JW (Va293, 71r), "of Diacrydium... a considerable quantitie"
pilulae foetidae = "stinking pills;" containing asafoetida, galbanum, myrrh, confection of roses
pilulae lucis majores = "pills of greater light;" roses, violets, wormwood, colocynth, turbith, cubebs, etc.; for poor vision (hence the name, presumably)
pilulae Macri = Macer's (Aemilius Macer, 1st c. CE) pills, aloes, mastich, marjoram, salt of wormwood, etc.; the poem De viribus herbarum is probably a medieval invention attributed to him
pillulae de nitro = see pilulae de colocynthidae, above
pill. palmarii = Palmarius' pills, or pilulae Cretae Palmarii; aloes, gentian, amber, aristolochia, myrrh, etc.; named after Pierre le Paulmier or Palmier (1568-1610)
pilulae Rudii = black hellebore, colocynth, aloes, scammony, oil of cloves, sulfate of potash
pilulae Scribonii = Scribonius Largus's pills; sagapenum, myrrh, opium, cardamom, castoreum, etc.; good for fluxes, dysentery, hemoptysis, gonorrhea, consumption, and many more afflictions
pilulae sine quibus (esse nolo) = "pills without which (I do not wish to be);" a purgative containing aloe, myrobolans, rhubarb, senna, agaric, etc.
pilulae e tribus = "pills of three things;" RCP Dispensatory lists seven ingredients including mastich, aloes, agaric, hiera picra, rhubarb, cinnamon, and syrup of chicory
pimpinella -ae = burnet saxifrage, Pimpinella saxifraga, or great burnet, Sanguisorba officinalis
pinear., pineus -a -um = of, from, or related to the pine; nuces pinearum, pine nuts
pingued., pinguedin., pinguedo -inis = fat (noun); e.g. pinguedo vulpis, fox fat, pinguedo taxi, badger fat
pingu., pinguis -is = fat (adjective); e.g. ficus pinguis, a fat (ripe) fig
piper -eris = pepper; various species of genus Piper, e.g. Piper nigrum, black pepper, P. longum, long pepper, etc.
pisto -are = pound, stamp, crush; pistentur, let them be pounded
pic., pix picis = pitch; pix Burgundia, Burgundy pitch, from the Norway fir, Picea abies
pixis -idis = a small box (originally boxwood) for carrying medicine; circumferendae in pixide, they (e.g., pills) should be carried around in a box
plantag., plantago -inis = plantain; broad-leaved plantain, Plantago major; JW mentions P. aquatica minor, the lesser water-plantain; and P. aquatica stellata, star-headed water-plantain
pleres-archonticon = pulvis pleres-archonticon, called by Bates "The great Restorative Pouder;" containing cinnamon, cloves, galangal, nutmeg, ginger, red roses, Indian spikenard, etc.; also known as the Restorative of Nicholas
plumbeus -a -um = made of or derived from lead
plumbum -i = the element lead, Pb
podagra -ae = gout, especially in the feet
polii., polium -i = felty germander, Teucrium polium
polyidae = see trochisci polyidae Andromachi, below
polypod., polypodium -i = polypody, a genus of fern; e.g., polypody of the oak, Polypodium quercinum or P. vulgare, or polypody of the wall, P. murinum
polytrich., polytrichum -i = golden maidenhair, Polytrichum commune or Adiantum aureum
polyurus -i = Christ's thorn or Jerusalem thorn, Paliurus spina-christi; JW reports it as being in the Physic Garden
pompholix, pompholyx -ygis = zinc oxide, same as tutia (tutty)
pom., pomum -i = apple, many species of genus Malum
pomat., pomatus -a -um = of, containing, or relating to apples; see unguentum pomatum, below
pomeridiane = adv., in the afternoon; from postmeridianus -a -um
pomum -i alterans = see syrupus de pomis alterans, below
pomum -i granatum = pomegranate, fruit of Punica granatum
pomum -i purgans = a "purging apple," intended to purge phlegm; an apple stuffed with polypodium and agaric wrapped in a crust and baked; also known as pomum laxativum purgans
pontic., ponticum = Roman wormwood, Artemisia ponticum
popul., populus -i = poplar tree
populeon, populneum = see unguentum populeon, below
porcin., porcinus -a -um = of or relating to a hog or pig
porrum -i = the graden leek, Allium porrum
portulaca -ae = garden purslane, Portulaca oleracea
posset., possetum -i = posset, milk curdled with treacle, wind, or any acid substance; may also appear as liquor posseticus
potio -onis = drink
potus -us = drink
potus -us ordinarius = the "usual drink;" receipts vary widely and appear to depend on the population consuming it
praecipit., praecipitat., praecipitatum -i = precipitate; p. rubrum = red mercuric oxide (HgO); p. album = ammoniated mercury or mercuric amidochloride (HgH2ClN); p. opt., optimum, "the best;" unknown and possibly a description and not an ingredient per se
prasius -i = prase, a green quartz
prasium, prassium, -i = white horehound, Marubium vulgare or M. album; a syrup called syrupus de prassio is a pectoral (for chest ailments or as an expectorant) and vulnerary (for wound healing)
ꝑreꝑ. or preꝑ.= prepared; from preparatus -a -um (conjectured); e.g., corallium preꝑ., corallium preparatum, prepared coral
priapus, pryapus -i cervi = a stag's penis
primula -ae veris = cowslip (common cowslip, cowslip primrose)
prunell., prunella -ae = self-heal or bugle, Prunella vulgaris
prunum -i = plum; prunum coctum, cooked plum, possibly used as a sweetener; prunun -i damascenum, damson
prunus -i = genus of trees and shrubs, including plum, cherry, peach, nectarine, apricot, and almond
prunus -i silvestris = blackthorn (Pliny the Elder)
psyllium -i = common name for several members of the genus Plantago (plantain) used to produce mucilage, as a source of dietary fiber, and as a food thickener; used to treat mild constipation or diarrhea; psyllium seed husks are used in the manufacture of the trademarked laxative Metamucil
ptarmaca, ptarmica = leaves (folia) of sneezewort, Achillea ptarmaca
ptisan., ptisana -ae = decoction of vegetable matters, e.g., barley, licorice, or raisins; a tisane
puleg., pulegium -i = pennyroyal, also fleabane or fleawort, Mentha pulegium; or wild thyme, Thymus serpyllum; also known as puliol
pulicaria -ae = fleabane, Pulicaria dysenterica
pulm., pulmon. vulp., pulmones vulpis = fox lungs
pulmonaria -ae = lungwort, Pulmonaria officinalis; distinguish from tree lungwort, Sticta pulmonaria
pulpa -ae = pulp (of anything)
puls -tis = porridge or mush; used in sacrifice and given as food to the sacred chickens
pulv., pulvis -eris = powder
pulverizatus -a -um = powdered, pulverized
pulvis -eris ad casum = a powder against inward bruises by falls (Bate); contained terra sigillata, sanguis draconis, mummy, spermaceti, rhubarb; casum from casus -us, a fall, falling down, accident
pulvis -eris antibyssus = a powder against rabies, also known as Paulmier's powder; contained 12 plants including rue, vervain, sage, plantain, oakfern, etc., and was taken mixed with wine three hours before meals; but if the patient had already developed symptoms, it was then applied externally as a plaster
pulvis -eris comitis = pulvis comitis Warvicensis, the Earl of Warwick's powder; scammony, diaphoretic antimony (also known as tartar emetic), tartarate crystals (potassium bitartarate, KC4H5O6, the crystals sometimes found in wine); used as a purge for watery humors, also for rheumatism, dropsy, and pox
pulvis -eris digestivus = a digestive powder of variable compsition
pulvis -eris Haly = Haly's powder, named after 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi, or al-Masoudi (930 - 994), Latinized as Haly Abbas; white poppy seeds, gum arabic, starch, tragacanth, etc.
pulvis -eris hollandicus = a powder invented by a Dr. Holland, identified in A Compleat English Dispensatory (1719) as another name for pulvis senae compositus maior (senna, anise, caraway, fennel, cumin, spikenard, cinnamon, galangal, licorice and gromwell) and described therein as "an indifferent cathartick, and too much loaded with insignificant Ingredients, therefore little now in use"
pulvis -eris Iesuiticus = Jesuit's powder, powdered bark of Cinchona officinalis and a souce of quinine; see also cortex peruvianus, above
pulvis -eris Iohannis de Vigo = Vigo's powder, mercuric oxide, HgO
pulvis -eris laetificans Galeni = Galen's gladdening powder, apparently actually invented by Niccolò da Reggio (1280 - ?), a translator of Galen; multiple ingredients, including basil, cloves, saffron, zedoary, nutmeg, styrax, ivory shavings, etc.
pulvis -eris odoratus = sweet, perfumed, or fragrant powder; iris root, rosewood, cloves, lemon peels, etc. (Bate); used as a moth deterrent
pulvis -eris pleres-arc(h)onticon = "the great restorative powder" (Bate); numerous ingredients including cinnamon, cloves, xyloaloes, galangal, nutmeg, ginger, and many others
pulv. sanct., pulvis -eris sanctus = holy powder; recipes vary but usually include senna and cream of tartar, with cloves, cinnamon, ginger, etc.
pulvis -eris saxonicus = the Saxon powder, from its use as an antidote by Christian I, Elector of Saxony (1560 - 1591); angelica, swallow-wort, valerian, polipodium of the oak, marsh-mallow, etc., all steeped in vinegar, dried, and pulverized
purgans -antis or purgatus -a -um = purging, laxative; e.g., glycirriza purgata, purging licorice
purg., purgatio -onis = a purge or laxative
purpureus -a -um = purple
putrilago -inis = putrid or rotten material
pyra = probably pear, various trees of genus Pyrus; CL pirum -i, pl. pira
pyrethr., pyrethrum -i (salivaris) = root of pellitory (of Spain), also known as Spanish chamomile, Anacyclus pyrethrum; or possibly masterwort, Peucedanum ostriuthum, or sneezewort, Achillea ptarmica
pyrola -ae = round-leaved wintergreen, Pyrola rotundifolia
q. s., quantum satis or quantum sufficit = a sufficient quantity; q. s. ad = a sufficient amount for...
q. s. m. f. = quantum satis misce face, take a sufficient quantity of the last ingredient or ingredients named, mix, (and) make X; or misceantur fiat, let the ingredients be mixed and let X be made
-que = and; Senatus Populusque Romanus, the Senate and People of Rome
quercin., quercinus -a -um = made/ derived from oak; e.g., folia quercina, oak leaves; viscus quercini = mistletoe; uvae quercinae, aggregation of galls on oak roots or at the junction of the roots and trunk produced by the oak gall wasp Cynips quercus radicis
quercitanus -i = not an ingredient but a person's name; after the French physician Joseph du Chesne (c. 1544 - 1609), Latinized as Quercitanus; e.g., pilulae de sagapeno Quercitani, du Chesne's sagapenum pills
quercus -us = oak, oak tree, various species of genus Quercus, including Q. suber, the cork oak
quinquefolium -i = (creeping) cinquefoil, Potentilla reptans; tormentil (P. erecta) is a relative
rad., radic., radix -icis = root of any plant with the name of the plant in the genitive; e.g., radix sarsaparillae
rad. 5 aperient., radices quinque aperienti = the five "opening roots:" celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum officinale), parsley (Petroselinum sativum), butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) and asparagus (Asparagus officinalis); see also syrupus de quinque radicibus, below
rament., ramenta -orum = scrapings, shavings, chips (pl. of ramentum -i)
ran., rana -ae = frog; ranarum, of frogs, e.g., sperma ranarum, frog spawn; see also emplastrum e ranis Vigonis, above
ranunculus -i = a genus of about 1700-1800 species including the buttercup or crowfoot; JW mentions Ranunculus acris, the common buttercup; R. arvorum, corn-buttercup or fallow-field crowfoot, same as R. arvensis or R.sylvestris; R. dulcis, sweet crowfoot; amd the "bulbous," R. bulbosus, the bulbous crowfoot or St. Anthony's turnip
rap., rapum -i = turnip or rape, Brassica rapa; plural genitive raporum, of turnips, e.g. raporum no 4, four (of) turnips
raphan., raphanus -i = radish, Raphanus sativus; also appears as raphamis
ras., rasur., rasus -a -um or rasuratus -a -um = scraped or scrapings of; often found with licorice (glychyrriza or liquiritia), but also of other hard substances, e.g., ivory, hartshorn, boar's tooth, and even human skull (cran., cranium -i humani)
rasp., raspatus -a -um = rasped, essentially the same as above
recent., recens -entis = recent, fresh; e.g., lactis recentis, of fresh milk; cf. ueter., veterus -a -um
redig., redige, redigo -ere = reduce (into); e.g., redig. in cataplasma, reduce into a poultice
regimen -inis = a regimen or course of treatment; specified with various degrees of detail, e.g. "f. pill. no. iii deglutiantur cum regimine. edat absynthium pane et butyro," make three pills [and] let them be swallowed with a course of treatment. Let [the patient] eat absinth with bread and butter." V.a.292, f. 45r
reginae coloniens = electuarium reginae coloniens; saxifrage, gromwell, licorice juice, caraway, anise, etc., with sugar and dissolved in white wine; for the stone and wind colic; the name refers to a Queen of Colen, the supposed consort of one of the three kings in attendance at the Nativity and whose relics are said to be in Cologne (Colen) Cathedral
regulus -i = literally, a petty king or chieftain, or the bright star in the constellation Leo; in alchemy, the metallic component refined from an ore; in metallurgy, refers to the "regulus of antimony," the partially purified metallic form of the element
requies -etis Nicholai = a strong sedative of uncertain composition, "Nicholas's relief;" mentioned by Burton in The Anatomy of Melancholy
resin., resina -ae = resin (from any plant)
rhab., rhabarbarum -i = rhubarb, Rheum rhabarbarum
rhamnus -i catharticus = buckthorn, Rhamnus cathartica, also known as Spina cervina; a purgative but quite toxic
rhaphon., rhapontic., rhaponticum -i = rhapontic rhubarb root, Rheum rhaponticum
rhei., rheo, rheum -i = rhubarb, Rheum rhabarbarum
rhead., rhoed., rhoead., rheados., rhoeas -adis = Papaver rhoeas, red corn or wild poppy; see tinctura rubra, below
rhodia, rhodium -i = either rhodium wood (rhodium lignum), from rootstock of bindweed species Convolvulus floridus and C. scoparius; or oil of rhodium, made by distilling it; NB not the metal, which was discovered in 1803
rob (indeclinable?) = syrup made by the concentration of fruit juice, usually by boiling and often with the addition of sugar, used for medicinal purposes, in later use chiefly as an antiscorbutic; in early use also describing a decoction of sweet wine; said (in OED) to be a borrowing from Latin but not yet definitely identified
roborandus -a -um = strengthening, reinforcing (from roboro -are)
robur -oris = an oak tree, specifically the common or pedunculate oak Quercus robur; or its dense heartwood
roch alum = see alumen, above
rorismar., rorismarinus -i = rosemary, Rorismarinus officinalis; also rosmarinus
ros., rosa -ae = rose, various species of genus Rosa
rosae -arum veterae = old roses, as in old roses, cons. ros. veter.
ros. sol., rosa solis = rose of the sun, not a flower; altered from Latin ros solis, dew of the sun, a cordial originally made from the juice of the sundew plant (genus Drosera), later from spiced and flavored spirits; receipt in V.a.21, p. 183 (not JW)
rosac., rosaceus -a -um = made of or from roses; oleum rosaceum, rose oil
rosata -ae novella = an electuary of roses, containing rose leaves, sugar, licorice, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, honey, etc.
rosatus -a -um = treated with oil of roses; e.g., aloe rosata, mel rosatum
rosmarin., rosmarinus -i = rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis
rotula -ae = from its shape resembling the patella; a flat, round tablet or lozenge; same as trochiscus
rubellum = vinum rubellum, reddish wine; "vomiting claret" (New London Dispensatory), an emetic; contained antimony in powder, cloves, claret wine
ruber -bra -brum = red
rubus -i = genus of flowering plants in the rose family, with more than 1.350 species; see following two entries
rubus -i idaeus = red raspberry
rubus -i = genus of flowering plants in the rose family, with more than 1,350 species; see following two entries
rubus -i idaeus = red raspberry
rubus -i viticosus = sarsaparilla (q.v.)
rumex -icis = dock, various species of genus Rumex; see folia acetosae, above
ruta -ae = rue, Ruta graveolens and other species; see also vepris, below; wall-rue, Adiantum album, white maiden-hair
rutaceus -a -um = from or relating to rue
rutaceum = acetum rutaceum, vinegar of rue
s. a., secundem artem = according to art/practice, in the usual way; connotation is that the method requires particular skill and/or experience
sabin., sabina -ae = savin or savin juniper, Juniperus sabina (a juniper species); an abortifacient
sacchar., saccharum -i = sugar, any type, especially cane sugar; also sacchar. cand., saccharum candidum, sugar candy; can be flavored, e.g., saccharum rosatum, sugar of roses made by melting sugar in rose water and adding juice of roses
saccharum -i saturni = "sugar of lead," lead (II) acetate, Pb(CH3COO)2; prescribed as an astringent or anti-diaphoretic; also used as a sugar substitute; responsible for the death of Pope Clement II (1047) and possibly also of Beethoven
saccharum -i tabellatum = lozenges of sugar, with rhubarb, hartshorn, dittany of Crete, etc., etc.; Culpeper says, "for my part I think in penning of it, they made a long Harvest of a little Corn"
saccharum -i Thomae = brown sugar candy, the candy obtained at the first crystallization; also known as saccharum Canariae since it came from the island of St. Thomas in the Canaries
saepe, sepe = often, frequently; saepius (comparative), rather often, more often
sagapenum -i, sagapenon -eni = gum resin from Ferula persica; antispasmodic & emmenogogue
sagittaria -ae = a genus of aquatic plants with about 30 species, common names include arrowhead and swamp potato; JW mentions S. major and S. minor; antiscorbutic and diuretic
sal X = salt (of) X, with X in the genitive; numerous examples, including table salt and other acid and alkali salts; may be prepared from various plants by boiling, straining, concentration, and crystallization, otherwise by calcination of the material, dissolving it in liquid, filtration, and coagulation
sal absynthii = see under "absynthium," above
sal -is chalybeatus = salt of steel, usually iron chloride, FeCl2, but also other salts of iron
sal -s cochleariae = salt of scurvy-grass
sal -is marini = sea salt
sal. prunell., sal -is prunella = fused potassium nitrate (saltpeter) in balls, cakes, or sticks
salix -icis = the genus of the willow, including various trees and shrubs, e.g., Salix alba, the white willow; the source of salicylic acid, a starting material for aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid)
salv., salvia -ae = common sage, Salvia officinalis; S. pumila, another name for S. aegyptiaca, Egyptian sage
sambuc., sambucus -i = elder tree, Sambucus nigra
sanal = a salve containing litharge of silver, red bole, balsam of Peru, etc.; but may be a misspelling for "santal," q.v.
sandarach., sandaraca -ae = gum sandarac, from Iuniperus communis; may also refer to arsenic sulfide or realgar (red arsenic, red orpiment)
sangu. dracon., sanguis -is draconis = dragon's blood, a red resin made from various trees
sanic., sanicula -ae = wood sanicle, Sanicula europaea; can be a synonym for saxifraga (q. v.)
santal., santalum -i = sandalwood, saunders, various species of genus Santalum; red, white, and yellow varieties; may appear as lignum santalum; yellow saunders, Santalum citrinum; white saunders, S. pallidum; red saunders, Pterocarpus santalinus, also known as red sandalwood
santon., santonic., sem. santonic., semina santonica/santonici santonica = common name for Artemisia cina, Levant wormseed; a vermifugic drug was extracted from its dried flowerheads
sanum = see lohoch sanum, above
saphirus -i = sapphire; CL sapphirus -i
sap., sapo -onis = soap; black soap, sapo niger, appears in some receipts
sarcocolla -ae = gum resin or balsam from shrub Astragalus sarcocolla
sars., sarsaparilla -ae = root of Smilax sarsaparilla, S. aspera, or Rubus viticosus
sassaf., sassaphr., sassafras = bark of the sassafras tree, Sassafras officinale or Laurus sassafras
sativus -a -um = to describe a plant that is cultivated, sown, or planted, as opposed to wild; e.g., Allium sativum, garlic, Oryza sativa, rice
satureia (satureja) -ae = genus of aromatic plants including Satureja hortensis, summer savory, and S. montana, winter or mountain savory; related to thyme and rosemary
satyrion satyrii maris = tuber or rhizome of the early purple orchid, Orchis mascula; may also refer to other orchids, the cuckoo-pint, Arum maculatum, or dragon arum, Dracunculus vulgaris
saxifrag., saxifraga -ae = saxifrage, breakstone, Saxifraga species, especially S. granulata; for treatment of urinary stones and as an antiseptic; related plants may be termed golden, burnet (rough), great, or meadow saxifrage; S. anglica, pepper saxifrage
scabios., scabiosa -ae = common scabious, Scabiosa arvensis
scariola -ae, seriola -ae = defined by JW as endive, but actually a genus of Asian plants in the daisy family
scarlatus -a -um = scarlet; cum scarlato panno, with a scarlet cloth
schoenanthus -i = camel-, fever-, or West Indian lemongrass, Cymbopogon schoenanthus
scill., scilla -ae = see squill, below
scilliticus -a -um = derived from or containing squill, e.g., vinum scilliticum, wine infused with squill
scob., scobis -is = powder or dust produced by sawing, rasping, filing, etc.; e.g. scob. dent. apri, scobis dentis apri, powdered wild boar's tooth
scolopend., scolopendria -ae = spleenwort, Asplenium ceterach
scolopend., scolopendr., scolopendrium -i = hart's tongue fern, Scolopendrium vulgare; phyllitis
scord., scordium -i = water germander, Teucrium scordium
scoria -ae ferri = iron dross, impurities which float on the surface of or are dispersed in the molten iron; also found in other low-melting-point metals, e.g., tin (stanni), lead (plumbi), zinc (zinci)
scorpion., scorpio -onis = the stinging arachnid, order Scorpiones; ol. scorpion., oleum scorpionum, oil of scorpions, appears to have been made by steeping scorpions in olive or other oil
scorzon., scorzoner., scorzonera -ae = viper's grass, Scorzonera humilis, for treatment of any venomous bite
scrophularia -ae = genus of herbaceous flowering plants, the figworts; named for their purported usefulness in scrofula (King's Evil, tuberculous cervical adenitis)
seb., sebum -i = tallow, suet, grease; cf. adeps, above
sebest., sebesten = sebesten (or Assyrian) plum, from the tree Cordia myxa; used in a purging electuary and for "ruggedness of the throat" (Gerard)
secalini., secale -is = a genus of grasses; including cultivated rye, Secale cereale, and several other wild species
sed., sedum -i = wall-pepper, stone-crop; Sedum majus = sempervivum, see below; S. arborescens (also known as S. oxypetalum) dwarf tree stonecrop
seif = see sief, below
selinum -i = selinum, a genus of plants in the parsley family Apiaceae; see petroselinum, above
sem., semen -inis, (plural) semina = seed(s) of any plant
sem. frigid. maj., semina frigida majora = the four greater cold seeds: cucumber, melon, watermelon, and gourd or pumpkin
sem. frigid. min., semina frigida minora = the four lesser cold seeds: endive, lettuce, purslane, and succory
semperviv., sempervivum -i = houseleek, S. tectorum ("live forever," because it is always green)
sen., sena, senna -ae = Senna, a genus of flowering plants in the legume family; leaves from S. alexandrina have been used as a laxative throughout history, either as senna pods or as an herbal tea
senecion., senecio -onis = groundsel, Senecio vulgaris, or S. iacobaea, Jacobaea (St. James' wort) or ragwort
senella -ae = same as spina alba, see below; may refer to the haw, fruit of the common hawthorn
sensim = adv., slowly, gradually, little by little
sericeus - a -um = made of silk
sericum -i crudum = raw silk in the form of cocoons or silk fabric; sericum nigrum, black silk
sero = ablative of serus -a -um, late; e.g., mane et sero, in the morning and at a late hour
serpentar., serpentaria -ae = snake-root; includes Aristolochia serpentaria and Serpentaria virginiana; rad. serpentar. = radix serpentariae
serpillum, serpyllum -i = wild thyme, Thymus serpillum
ser., serum -i lactis = milk whey
seselios, seseli -is = various umbelliferous plants of several genera including Tordylium, Laserpitum, Seseli, and Levisticum among others, over 100 species; collectively called hartwort
setaceum -i = a long strip of linen or cotton drawn through a fold of skin, used to promote drainage from a wound, also called a seton; from seta -ae, a bristle; JW mentions (V.a.292, 56r) epilepsy cured by means of a setaceum (epilepsia setaceo curata)
siccus -a -um = dry, dried
sief (indecl.) = a medication for disorders of the eye; may be described with an adjective, e.g. sief album, or with an indication of an ingredient, e.g., sief de plumbo
sigill. Solom., sigillum -i Solomonis = Solomon's seal, Polygonatum multiflorum
siler -i montanum = Laserpitium siler, an umbelliferous plant of the genus Seseli (OED); JW refers to it as bastard lovage; Gerard refers to it as common lovage, Parkinson as Libisticke or Sermountaine of Liguria, and Bate as hartwort
silic., silicea -ae = shell or carapace of sea animals, e.g., bivalves and crustaceans
silicum = of flint (silex -icis); see also cremor silicum, above
simpl., simplex -icis = a simple; a preparation with a single active ingredient, unblended, same as species
sinap., sinapis -is = mustard; sem. sinap., semina sinapis, mustard seeds
sinapismus -i = a mustard plaster or poultice
sine quibus = see pilulae sine quibus, above
singulus -a -um = one at a time, individually, singly
sisarum -i = skirret, Sium sisarum; a perennial umbelliferous plant, a species of water parsnip
sisymbr., sisymbrium -i = watercress, Sisymbrium nasturtium
smaragdus -i = emerald; can also refer to beryl or jasper
smilax -acis = common smilax, rough bindweed, sarsaparilla; Smilax aspera
smyrnium -i = species of flowering plants, family Apiaceae (carrots, anise, fennel, and many others); S. olusatrum, alexanders
solea -ae = sole of a shoe, a sandal, or possibly the violet (the flowering plant); appears as "soleae veterementeriae ustae" in V.a.286, 58v
solan., solanum -i = nightshade, Solanum nigrum; several other species, e.g., bitter-sweet, S. dulcamara, and the common tomato, S. lycopersicum
soldanella -ae = species of bindweed, Convolvulus soldanella, or a primulaceous (from the Primulaceae, primrose family) plant of genus Soldanella
solidago -inis saracenica = goldenrod, same as Virga aurea or Solidago virga-aurea, as in consolida saracenica, above; a vulnerary
sonchus -i = genus of flowering plants, including the common sowthistle, Sonchus oleraceus; JW mentions levis (S. levis, broad-leaved sowthistle) and asper (S. asper, spiny or prickly sowthistle)
sophia -ae chirurgorum = "the wisdom of the surgeons," Descurainia sophia; also known as flixweed, herb-sophia, and tansy mustard; used for treatment of dysentery
sorbilis -e = a medicine that can be sucked up
spatha -ae, spatula -ae = a flat piece of wood, a stirrer; NB distinguish from following entry
spatula -ae foetida = stinking iris, Iris foetidissima; also known as Gladwin iris or gladdon
sp., spec., species = a simple, or single ingredient or element; i.e., uncompounded or unmixed
species laetificans = see pulvis laetificans, above
sp. ceti., spermaceti = from sperma + ceti (genitive of cetus -i); a fatty substance found in the head of the sperm whale, Physteter macrocephalus and used in various preparations
spic., spica -ae = a spike or common stalk bearing numerous flowers; Spica foemina = lavender
spica -ae nardi = spikenard; aromatic substance from Nardostachys jatamansi (India), or the plant itself; or sometimes lavender
spin. alb., spina -ae alba = "white thorn;" precise identification uncertain, with several possibilities, incl. common hawthorn, Crategeus monogyna or C. oxyacantha, Our Lady's thistle, Carduus lacteus or C. mariae, various species of acacia, etc.
spina -ae cervina = see rhamnus catharticus, above
spiritus -us microcosmi = the vital spirit, or spirit of blood, a volatile liquid prepared by the destructive distillation of blood (Boyle); there is also a preparation called spiritus vini microcosmi, the microcosmical spirit of wine, made by mixing rectified spirit of wine with pure salt of urine, set aside for a while in a cold place, then "digest[ed] in Balneo Vaporis [steam bath] in a Bolthead hermetically sealed for forty days, then in B. M. [water bath] rectify it twice" (New London Dispensatory)
sp. sal., spiritus -us salis = spirit of salt, muriatic (hydrochloric) acid, HCl
sp. sulph., spiritus -us sulphuris = sulfurous acid, H2SO3
sp. vin., sp. vini, spiritus -us vini = alcohol, rectified spirit; used as solvent for tinctures, &c.
spiritus -us vini microcosmi = see spiritus microcosmi, above
spod., spodium -i = a fine powder obtained from various substances by calcination (OED)
spong., spongia, spongiis = with a sponge or sponges; from spongia -ae, sponge
spuma -ae maris = literally, sea-foam; likely powdered pumice, or the mineral sepiolite (meerschaum), a complex magnesium silicate present in fibrous, particulate, and solid forms
squill., squilla -ae = squill; the bulb or root of the sea-onion, Scilla (or Drima) maritima, used as diuretic and expectorant
squillitic., squilliticus -a -um = of, treated with or derived from squill; e.g., acetum squilliticum
staphid. agr., staphis -idis agria, staphisagria -ae = stavesacre, Delphinium staphisagria
stillatim = adv., drop by drop; from stillo -are, drip or fall in drops
stoechad., stoechas -adis = French lavender, Lavandula stoechas
stercor., stercus -oris = dung, excrement, feces, with the animal of origin in the genitive; e.g., of dog, canis; horse, equi; peacock, pavonis; also others
sticticum -i paracelsi = Paracelsus' emplastrum sticticum; olive oil, yellow wax, lytharge, frankincense, mastic, myrrh, etc; for dispersing diseased or necrotic tissue
stipul., stipula -ae = stalk, stem
stomachicum magistrale = see emplastrum stomachicum magistrale, above
stramen -inis = straw; e.g., stramen fabarum, bean straw
strobylorum, gen. pl. = from strobilus -i, pine nut; see also nucleus pinei, above
sturionis, sturio -onis = European sea sturgeon, Acipenser sturio; ova sturionis, caviar
styrac. calamit., styrax -acis calamita = storax, gum-resin from Styrax officinalis
suber -is = the cork oak, Quercus suberis
substituo -ere = substitute; X substituatur, X should/ought/may be substituted; e.g., for a missing ingredient: in defectu vini graeci aliud vinum potens album substituatur, in the absence of Greek wine another strong white wine may be substituted
subtilissime, subtilissimus -a -um = very fine(ly), minutely; e.g., face pulverem subtilissimam, make a very fine powder; contunde in mortario subtilissime, crush very finely in a mortar
succedaneus -a -um = to describe something used as a substitute; e.g., V.a.291, f. 24v: "succus Citri is not to be had the succedaneum is succus limonum for the jaundice"
suc[c]in., suc[c]inum -i = amber
succisa -ae = a genus of flowering plants, family Caprifoliaceae, including devil's bit scabious, Succisa pratensis
succ., succus -i = juice of anything
suillus -a -um = of, from, or related to pigs; adipes suillus, pig fat or lard
sumat = it should be/let it be taken; 3rd person singular present active subjunctive of sumo -ere
sumend., sumendus -a -um = will be or should be taken; e.g., mane et sero sumendum, to be taken early and late; with form of esse, indicates a requirement: sumendus est, it must be taken
summit., summitat., summitas -tatis = top or tops, with the name of the plant in the genitive; e.g., summitates absynthii, absinthe tops; summitates hyssopi, hyssop tops
summo mane = very early in the morning
superbib., superbibo -ere = drink after or upon another substance; superbibendus -a -um, it should be drunk after something else; with form of esse, indicates a requirement: superbibendus est, it must be drunk after something else
symphit., symphyt., symphitum -i = comfrey; Symphytum maius, greater comfrey
synochus -us, also synocha -ae = a persistent or continuous fever; e.g., synochus putrida, a fever resulting from "putrefied humors;" synochus hectica, a spiking fever, which may be associated with tuberculosis
syr., syrup., syrrup., sirup., sirupus, syrrupus -i = syrup of any kind
sirrupus -i Augustanus = Culpeper defines it as the Syrup of the Augustan Physicians; rhubarb, senna, violet flowers, cinnamon, and ginger, mixed and infused in betony, succory, and bugloss waters; with sugar added, boiled into a syrup, adding syrup of roses at the end; it "clenseth Choller and Melancholly very gently"
sirrupus -i bizantinus, byzantinus = juices of endive, smallage, hops, and bugloss, with sugar, boiled to a syrup (Mesue); aniseed, roses, licorice, and other ingredients may be added
syrrupus -i cardiacus = a cordial syrup; receipt in Pharmacopoiea Londinensis includes Rhenish wine, rose water, cloves, cinnamon, ginger, and sugar boiled together, with the addition of ambergris and musk
syrupus -i de pomis alterans = apple juice and bugloss juice, violet leaves, rose water and sugar, boiled to a syrup
syrupus de quinque radicibus = syrup of the five roots; celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum officinale), parsley (Petroselinum sativum), butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) and asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) with sugar and water; a cholagogue and diuretic
syrupus -i exhilarans = gladdening syrup, made of bugloss, lemon balm, and borage juice, alchermes, saffron, compound powder of pearls, and sugar; supposed to have the power of gladdening the vital spirits and banishing melancholy
tachamah., tacamahaca -ae = aromatic resin from Bursera (or Elaphrium) tomentosa
taleola -ae = a little strip or block (diminutive of talea -ae, block or bar); dissect. in taleolas, divided into small strips or blocks (disseco -ere, divide)
tamarind., tamarindus -i = tamarind tree, Tamarindus indica; source of tamarind fruit, a purgative
tamarisc., tamarix -icis or tamariscus -i = tamarisk tree, various species of genus Tamarix; cort., cortex tamarisci, tamarisk bark; uses include as a carminative, anthelminthic, and diuretic
tanacetum -i = genus of flowering plants in the aster family; about 160 species, including Tanacetum vulgare (common tansy), T. balsamita (costmary), and T. parthenium (feverfew)
tapsus -i barbatus = black mullein, Verbascum nigrum
taraxicum -i = Taraxicum officinalis, dandelion; also as "herba taraxici" or "dens leonis," q.v.
tartar., tartarus -i = tartar, potassium bitartrate, KC4H5O6; when purified forms white crytals and is referred to as cream of tartar; see cremor tartaris, above
tartareae quercitani = should be tartari quercitani, Quercitanus' (DuChesne's) tartar; precise formulation unknown
tax., taxus -i = yew tree (Taxus baccata); or badger, Taxidea taxus; pinguedo taxi, badger fat
tegula -ae hybernica = see lapis hibernica, above; properly in the plural (tegulae -arum), meaning roof-tiles
terebinth., terebinthina -ae = turpentine; terebinth. uenet. (Veneta), Venice turpentine; many others including terebinthina communis, Cypria, vulgaris; for Chio terebinth., see Chio, above
terebinthina -ae Veneta = Venice turpentine, an oleoresin derived from the European larch tree, L. decidua; it can still be purchased as a hoof dressing for horses or a hardening resin for varnishes
terr., terra -ae = earth
tenuioris -e = thinner, finer, more delicate; comparative of tenuis -e
terr. Lemni., terra -ae Lemnia = Lemnian earth or clay, a medicinal clay originally obtained from the island of Lemnos
terr. sigillat., terra sigillata = "sealed earth;" Lemnian clay shaped into tablets or cakes into which decorative seals were pressed; same as terra Lemnia
test., testa -ae = shell of a molllusc, or the skin or coating of a seed
testu -i, testum -i = a vessel or lid placed over food to be cooked, and covered with hot coals; may describe a mollusc shell; cf. previous entry
testud., testudo -inis = tortoise, various species of genus Testudo
thapsia -ae = genus of umbilliferous perennials; Thapsia garganica or T. villosa, deadly carrot; the latter used traditionally as a purgative and emetic despite its highly poisonous qualities
thebaic., thebaica -ae = opium; thebaic tincture or extract = laudanum
theriac., theriaca -ae = antidote; treacle; genitive theriacalis, as in aqua theriacalis, treacle water; designations include Theriaca andromachi or T. veneta (of Venice), mithridatium (q.v.), T. coelestis, laudanum; T. hysterica, a formulation of uncertain composition described as "castoreum artefactum," invented by one Paolo Boccone (1633 - 1704), Italian botanist; a receipt for theriaca appears in the Leechbook of Bald, a 10th c. collection of medical remedies
thur., thus thuris = frankincense or olibanum, aromatic resin from trees of genus Boswellia, especially B. sacra
thym., thymi, thymum -i = thyme, various species of genus Thymus, especially T. vulgaris
thymelaea = sparrow-wort, a genus of about 30 species of evergreen shrubs and herbs
til., tilia -ae = lime-tree, linden, Tilia europaea; T. alba, white lime-tree
tinct., tinctura -ae = a solution of anything in spirit of wine; very many types
tinct. rub., tinctura -ae rubra = tincture of red corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas), similar to laudanum
tinctura -ae thebiaca = laudanum, tincture of opium
tinctura -ae sacra = vinum aloes, q.v.
tithymalus -i = any of a number of plants of genus Euphorbia, see above
tormentill. tormentilla -ae = upright septfoil, tormentil; Tormentilla (or Potentilla) erecta
tormina -ae, tormin -inis = colic, gripes
torrefact., torrefactus -a -um = dried of moisture by heat, scorched, roasted, toasted
tostus -a -um = roasted, parched; past participle of torreo -ere, parch, roast, bake
tragacanth., dragacanth., tragacanthum -i = gum tragacanth (q.v.) derived from shrubs of genus Astragalus or from trees of genus Sterculia
tragea -ae = a powder of various kinds, with the name appended of the organ or affliction it is supposed to address; e.g., tragea anthelmintica (worms), t. asthmatica, t. cordialis, t. epileptica
traiicio -ere = transfer, transport; traiicientur, let them be transferred
triacintho = possibly a misspelling of triacanthos, = Gleditsia triacanthos, the honey locust tree
triapharmacum = see emplastrum triapharmacum, above
tribulus -i terrestris = a taprooted herbacious plant, an invasive and noxious weed with sticky thumbtack shaped burs; common names include goat's head, bullhead, caltrop, devil's eyelashes, and puncture vine
tripolium -i = sea or seashore aster, Tripolium pannonicum
triphera, tryphera -ae major = triphera the greater, a mixture of various myrobalans, emblic, nutmeg, watercress seeds, asarabacca roots, etc.; for excessive menstruation in women and hemorrhoids in men, also weakness of the stomach; there is also a triphera solutiva, an electuary
tritus -a -um = rubbed to pieces; ground up
troch., trochisc., trochiscus -i = a pill, troche, tablet, or lozenge
trochisci -orum de agarico = mushroom lozenges, see agaricus, above
trochisci -orum albi Rhasis = ceruse, sarcocolla, starch, gum arabic, tragacanth, and camphor; sometimes with added opium
trochisci -orum gallia moschata = aloes, amber, musk, gum tragacanth, rose-water
trochisci -orum hedychroi = "pleasantly colored lozenges;" marum leaves, marjoram leaves, yellow saunders, asarum roots, calamus aromaticus, etc.
trochisci -orum hysterici = lozenges made of castor, amber, powder of millipedes, etc.; used for treatment of palsy; also known as trochisci de mirrha
trochisci -orum polyidae andromachi = pomegranate flowers, white roach, frankincense, myrrh, bull's gall, aloes, etc.; for green wounds and ulcers; Culpeper says "I fancy them not"
trochisci -orum Ramich = perfumed troches of Rhasis; juice of sorrel, red roses, unripe grapes, myrtle berries, etc.; for diarrhea, including the bloody flux
trochisci -orum de vipera = trochisci de vipera ad theriacam, troches of vipers for treacle (Culpeper); viper flesh boiled with dill, made into lozenges with bread and oil of nutmeg or opobalsamum
turbasis -is = starch made of wheat bran or cuckoo-pint (Arum maculatum) roots; for purging phlegm
turbith., turbithum -i, turpethum -i = turbith or turpeth, from Convulvulus turpethum; a purgative
tussilago -inis = a genus of plants in the aster family; T. farfara, colt's-foot, is the only recognized species
tusus -a -um = crushed; same as contusus
tutia -ae = tutty; zinc oxide, ZnO
U - V
valerian., valeriana -ae = wild valerian, Valeriana officinalis
variola -ae = smallpox; variola spuria (false), varicella (chickenpox)
vepris -is = genus of plants in the Rutaceae (rue) family; approximately 80 species
verbascum -i = genus of flowering plants with over 450 species, common name mullein; Verbascum thapsus, great or common mullein
verbena -ae = common vervain, Verbena officinalis, or other plants in genus Verbena
verdigris = green substance from treatment of Copper with dilute acetic acid, or occurring naturally on copper or brass; may be an acetate, carbonate, or chloride
veronic., veronica -ae = a genus of flowering plants with about 500 species; Veronica officinalis, common or health speedwell
vesperi = adv., in the evening
ueter., veter., veterus -a -um = old; cf. recens, recent., recentis, new or fresh
viciar., vicia -ae = vetch; JW mentions species "vulgaris," synonyn for V. sativa, an annual herb grown for fodder and by the Romans for food
vincetoxicum -i = white swallow-wort, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria or officinale; a poison antidote (vinco -ere, conquer or defeat + toxicus -a -um, poisonous)
vin., vinum -i = wine; vinum album, white wine; vinum rubrum/rubellum/roseum, red wine
vinum -i absinthites = vermouth; made from white wine and absinth; also as vinum florum absinthites, of absinth flowers
vinum -i aloes = wine of aloes; powdered aloes, cinnamon, and sherry wine, macerated; may also contain cardamom and/or ginger
vinum -i benedictum = canary wine infused with crocus of metals (see crocus metallorum, above)
vinum -i (benedictum) antimoniale = antimonial wine made by steeping regulus of antimony (q.v) in white wine; an emetic
vinum -i lymphatum = wine diluted with water; from lympho -are, to mix with water; probably not in the alternative sense of lympho -are, to drive mad ("crazy wine")
viola -ae = violet, various species of genus Viola, especially V. odorata; violarum, of violets
vinum -i Martiale = globuli martiales or Mars balls, consisting of potassium-iron tartrate (tartrate of potash and iron, C8H8FeK2O12), dissolved in wine
viridis -e = green; e.g., ficus virides, green figs
visc. querc., viscus -eris quercinus = mistletoe, Viscum album, a parasitic plant; quercinus -a -um, because it often grows on oak trees
vitell., vitellus -i = egg yolk; vitelli ovorum, yolks of eggs
vitex -icis = a genus of flowering plants in the sage family with approximately 250 species, especially V. agnus-castus, chaste-tree (from its reputation as an anaphrodisiac)
vitis -is = vine; folia vitis, grape leaves
vitis -is vinifera = the common grape vine; the leaves "strongly bind," stop the bloody and other fluxes, stop vomiting, help heart-burning, etc. (Pharmacopoiea Londinensis)
vitriol., vitriolum -i = vitriol; various metallic sulfates, especially iron sulfate ("green copperas," vitriolum martis) and vitr. album (zinc sulfate); oil of vitriol = sulfuric acid, H2SO4; the famous acronym "visite interiora terrae rectificando invenies occultum lapidem" is likely a spurious backronym; for "Roman vitriol," see lapis caelestis, above
vitriolum -i camphoratum = camphorated vitriol or Captain Green's powder; for old sores, sore eyes, loose teeth, oral cancers
vitrum -i = glass; vitrum antimonii, glass of antimony, a yellow or red translucent glass made from calcined antimony ore (to drive off the sulfur) vitrified in a furnace; considered to be the strongest emetic of all preparations of antimony
vitulinus -a -um = from or related to a calf (i.e., veal)
ulmor., ulmorum, ulmus -i = elm tree
umbilicus -i veneris = (Venus's) navelwort, Omphalodes linifolia
ung., unguentum -i = any ointment or unguent, either with the origin or association in the genitive, or with a descriptive adjective
unguentum Agrippae = an ointment containing briony roots, squill, iris root, dwarf elder, oil, and wax; so called because of a supposed association with Herod Agrippa
ung., unguentum -i album = a drying ointment containing olive oil, white wax, and white lead
unguentum Arragon = rosemary, marjoram, thyme, aron and cucumber roots, bay, sage and juniper leaves, etc.; also spelled "Aragon" and "Arregon"
ung., vng. apostol., unguentum apostolorum = containing 12 ingredients (hence the name), incl. turpentine, resin, yellow wax, aristolochia, frankincense, etc.
ung., vng. basilic., or just basilic., unguentum -i basilicum or basilicon = basilicum ointment; yellow, black, or green, each containing beeswax and rosin and other ingredients but not basil
unguentum -i de calce = ointment of lime; contained slaked lime and rose oil
ung., unguentum -i catapsoras = ointment containing cerussa, calamine, etc., with hog's grease, sublimated mercury, etc.
ung., unguentum -i Comitissae = complex ointment containing many types of bark, berries, and roots boiled in plantaine water, then mixed with yellow wax and several powders; Culpeper terms it "a gallant binding Oyntment, composed neatly by a judicious brain"
unguentum -i dessicativum rubrum = red drying ointment; contains litharge of gold, white lead, calamine, yellow wax, oil of roses, camphor, terra sigillata
ung., unguentum -i diapampholigos = cited by Aristotle, who recommended it for what sounds like diaper rash; contains rose oil, white wax, monkshood juice, white lead, frankincense, etc.
unguentum -i diapompholigos nihili = oil of roses, juice of nightshade, wax, ceruse, lead, pompholix, frankincense; unknown significance of the word nihili, "of nothing" or "worthless"
unguentum Egyptiac., Egyptiacum, Ægyptiacum = ointment containing verdigris, honey, and vinegar
unguentum -i nervinum = southernwood, marjoram, mint, pennyroyal, etc., with oils and suet
unguentum -i e nicotiana or nicotianae = tobacco leaves from various species of genus Nicotiana (e.g. N. tabacum and N. rustica), steeped in wine then boiled in hog's grease, with addition of tobacco juice, aristolochia, rosin, new wax; Culpeper thought very highly of it: "It would ask a whole Summers day to write the particular vertues of this ointment, and my poor Genius is too weak to give it the hundredth part of its due praise..."
unguentum -i nutritum = see unguentum triapharmacum, below
unguentum -i ophalmicum = ointment of red mercury; cinnabar, HgS, or calomel, Hg2Cl2; NB distinguish from unguentum ophthalmicum, an ointment for the eyes
ung., vng. pomat., unguentum pomatum = ointment containing apple pulp, pork fat, and rose water
unguentum populeon or populneum = ointment containing poplar buds, pork fat, and leaves of black poppy, mandrake, madder, henbane, nightshade, etc.
unguentum -i splanchnicum or splenicum = oil of capers and of white lilies, calomel, butter, juice of bryony and sowbread, etc.
unguentum -i triapharmacum = litharge of gold, vinegar, and oil of roses; also called unguentum nutritum
ung., ungula -ae = hoof, claw, talon; ung. caballin. (caballinus -a -um), horse's hoof
unicornu -us = when termed "at large," described by JW as "either ebonie, hartshorne, or bone of a stagg's heart"
unicornu -us fossile = defined by JW as "Lapis Ceratites," which is a fossilized ammonite, properly "cornu fossile;" if "unicornu," refers to fossil or excavated unicorn; one such having been calcined by order of King Christian IV of Denmark was thought by Thomas Bartholin to be a narwhal horn
unicornu -us solare = solar unicorn, a compound and not an animal; Mynsicht (1662) terms it "efficacissimum & inaccessum remedium;" his ingredients include gold and hazelnuts
unicornu -us minerale = same as unicornu fossile, q.v.
vomitorium -i = something to induce vomiting; an emetic
urtic., vrtic., urtica -ae = nettle, especially the common nettle Urtica dioica; urtic. urent., Urtica urens (burning), dwarf/ annual/ dog nettle
usquebach = whisky
ustio -onis = cautery; searing, burning
ustus -a -um = burnt (from uro urere, burn, consume by fire)
uter- utra- utrumque, (genitive) utriusque = either, each one, both, the one and the other; e.g., bryoniae utriusque, of both types of bryony, i.e., white and red
vulgar., vulgaris -e = common, usual; also expressed as communis -e
vulp., vulpes -is = wolf
uva -ae = grape; uvae quercinae or oak grapes, see above under quercinus -a -um
uvae -arum Corinthiacae = Corinthian, Corinth, or Zante (Zakynthos) currants, raisins of the seedless grape cultivar "Black Corinth," mentioned by Pliny the Elder; distinct from black, red, or white currants from shrubs in the genus Ribes, which are not usually dried
uva -ae crispa rubra = gooseberry, Ribes uva-crispa; rubra, red
uva -ae lupina = monkshood, wolfsbane; Aconitum species, especially A. napellus
uvae quercinae = see under quercinus -a -um, above
Winterani = occurs only in (Captain) Winter's bark; see under cortex winterani, above
xyloaloes = see lignum aloes, above
zalap., zalapium, -i = same as ialap/jalap, q.v.
zarsa -ae = sarsaparilla, q. v.
zedoar., zedoaria -ae = zedoary, Curcuma zedoaria
zibet., zibetha -ae = civet, civet musk; from several species, best known being the African civet, Civettictis civetta
ziziphus -i = jujube; from Ziziphus species, e.g., Z. jujuba, the tree that produces the edible jujube fruit, resembling a small date
zyth., zythum -i = zythos, unfermented Egyptian beer
zythogala -ae = posset drink; see liquor posseticus, above
zz or ZZ = zinziber = ginger, Zinziber officinale; sometimes indicates myrrh
Alchemical Symbols and Other Abbreviations
Ward very occasionally used these, e.g.,
♀️ symbol for tartar (symbol unicode 🜿); crem.♀️is = cremor tartaris, cream of tartar
♂️symbol for Mars; croc.♂️is = crocus Martis = "saffron of Mars," iron peroxide, colcothar, or jeweler's rouge) (symbol unicode ♂)
🜍 symbol for sulfur (symbol unicode 🜍); flores is = "flowers of sulfur," powdered sulfur produced by sublimation as opposed to natural crystalline sulfur (i.e., brimstone)
🜖 symbol for vitriol (symbol unicode 🜖)
69: see above, "oculi cancri;" image from Zwinger, Theatri Praxeos Medicae (1710), p. 150
[add thumbnail here] : Oculi cancri praecipitatum ana ʒss
9 (superscript 9) = "-us;" a common medieval contraction, as in "corp9 "= corpus
See various additional abbreviations in "John Ward's Alphabet."
Glossary of Latin terms by Callum Simms
• absynth. - absynthium = 'wormwood'
• acetos. - acetosa = 'sorrel'
• acet. - acetum = 'vinegar'
• agaric. - agaricum = 'tinder fungus'
• alchermes (confectio) = confection of 'Kermes' (crimson 'berry' bug - like cochineal)
• aloe optim. = 'agarwood'
• alth. - althea = 'mallow'
• ammoniac. - 'ammoniacum' = 'gum ammoniac'
• argill. - argilla = '(white) potter's clay, argil'
• aristoloch. - aristolochia = 'birthwort'
• artemis. - artemisia = 'mugwort'
• aven. - avena = 'oats'
• bacon. - baco = 'bacon'
• bezoardic. - bezoardicum = 'bezoar' (antimony salt)
• borac. - borax = 'borax'
• bryon. - bryonia = 'briony'
• bugloss. - buglossa = 'bugloss'
• calaminth. - calamintha = 'calamint'
• camphor. - camphora = 'camphor'
• cappar. - capparis = 'caper'
• cardiac. - (aqua) cardiaca = 'toddy' (a beverage - palm wine?)
• card. - carduus = 'thistle'
• carlin. - carlina = 'carline/silver thistle'
• carn. - caro = 'meat, flesh'
• caryophill. - caryophillus = 'clove'
• caseum = 'cheese'
• cass. - cassia = 'cassia' (a type of cinnamon)
• castoreum = 'castoreum' (beaver musk)
• centaur. - centaurium = 'centaury'
• cervis. - cervisa = 'beer'
• chalyb. - chalybs = 'steel'
• chamamel. - chamamelon = 'chamomile'
• cichor. - cichoria = 'chicory, endive'
• colcothar = 'colcothar, jeweller's rouge' (Ferric Oxide)
• cor. - corium = 'leather'
• coton. - cotone = 'cotton'
• cret. - creta = 'chalk'
• croc. - crocus = 'saffron, crocus flower'; (alchemical) 'liver' - crocus metallorum = liver of antimony
• cumin. - cuminum = 'cumin'
• dia-x = medicine containing x. Usually no other name than the Latin one.
• dictamn. - dictamnus = 'dittany'
• ebul. - ebulum = 'danewort'
• eupator. - eupatoria = 'agrimony'
• fab. - faba = 'broad bean' (= horse, fava)
• faecul. - faecula = 'salt of tartar' (potassium carbonate)
• farin. - farina = 'flour, meal'
• fim. - fimus = 'dung'
• fontan. - fontana (aqua) = 'spring' (-water)
• fumar. - fumaria = 'fumitory'
• gagat. - gagates = 'jet' (stone)
• guaiac. - guaiacum (lignum) = 'guaiac' (wood)
• gumm. - gummi = [tree] 'gum'
• hermodactyl. - hermodactylus = 'hermodactyl' (meadow crocus / autumn saffron roots, not black iris)
• herniar. - herniaria = 'rupturewort'
• iuniper. - iuniperus = 'juniper'; granum juniperi = juniper berry (actually a seed cone)
• jalap. - jalapa = 'jalap'
• jugland. - juglans = 'walnut'
• labdan. - labdanum = 'labdanum' (sticky brown resin from rock roses)
• lappath. - lap(p)athum = 'dock, sorrel'; L. acutum = broad-leafed dock
• laudan. - laudanum = 'laudanum'
• lin. - linum = 'flax'
• lujul. - lujula = 'wood sorrel'
• mac. - macis = 'mace'
• malvatic. - malvaticum (vinum) = 'Malmsey' (wine of the Malvasia grape) - Madeira/Sack
• mastich. - masticha = 'mastic'
• mecon. - meconium = poppy juice (opium)
• meliss. - melissa = 'lemon balm'
• mithridat. - mithridatum = 'Mithridate'
• moschat. - moschata (nux) = 'nutmeg'
• ovin. - ovinus (from ovis) = 'sheep'
• oxycrat. - oxycratum = 'oxycrate' (mixture of vinegar and water)
• papav. - papaver (erraticum) = '(common) poppy'
• paralys. - paralysis = 'cowslip'
• pastinac. - pastinaca = 'parsnip, carrot'
• pentaphyll. - pentaphyllum = 'cinquefoil'
• pinguedin. - pinguedo = 'fat'
• polypod. - polypodium = 'polypody', rockcap fern
• puleg. - pule(g)ium = 'pennyroyal' (/fleabane /fleawort)
• resin. - resina = 'resin, rosin'
• rhab. - rhabarbarum = 'rhubarb'
• rosac. - rosaceum = 'rose oil'
• rosmarin. - rosmarinus = 'rosemary'
• sabin. - sabina = 'savin' (a juniper species)
• sacchar. - saccharum = 'cane sugar'
• santal. - santalum = 'sandalwood'; S. citrinum = citrine/yellow sandalwood
• saxifrag. - saxifraga = 'saxifrage, rockfoil' ('breakstone' in Ward)
• scord. - scordium = 'water germander'
• seb./sev. - se(b/v)um = 'tallow, suet, grease'
• sed. - sedum = 'houseleek'
• semperviv. - sempervivum = 'houseleek' ('liveforever')
• sen. - sena = 'senna'
• ser. - serum = 'whey'
• spic. - spica = 'lavender'
• sucin. - sucinum = 'amber'
• symphit. - symphitum (maius) = (greater) 'comfrey'
• tax. - taxus = 'yew'; 'badger'
• terebinth. - terebinthina = 'turpentine'
• test. - testa = 'shell'
• theriac. - theriaca = 'antidote', 'antivenom', 'treacle'
• thur. - thus = 'frankincense'
• zyth. - zythum = 'zythos' (Egyptian beer)
The symbol (℞) is short for 'recipe' and means 'take' in Latin. This is still used for prescriptions today as Rx.
• ā - for originally Greek 'ana' = 'of each'
• bib. - bibo = 'drink' - 'bibat' or 'bibatur' ('let him drink', 'let X be drunk')
• cap. - capio = 'take'
• cum = 'with' - often Ward marks non-abbreviated words with an apostrophe
• decoq. - decoquo = 'boil down / reduce'
• e, ex = 'out of / from'
• ebull. - ebullio = 'boil'
• et = 'and'
• f. - facio = 'make'
• (in)fund. - (in)fundo = 'pour (in)'
• in = 'in, into'
• inung. - inunguo = 'salve, rub ointment on'
• m. - misceo = 'mix'
• mane = 'in the morning'
• nocte = 'at night'
in alphabetical order:
• alb. - albus = 'white'
• aq. - aqua = 'water'. 'Water of X' is a common ingredient that means water infused with X (c.f. rosewater).
• bacc. - bacca = 'berry'
• commun. - communis = 'common'
• cortic. - cortex = 'bark'
• decoct. - decoctio = 'decoction'
• fol. - folium = 'leaf'
• gran. - granum = 'kernel'
• gutt. - gutta = 'drop'
• haust. - haustus = 'draught'
• lign. - lignum = 'wood'
• liquor = 'liquid, liquor'
• nigr. - niger = 'black'
• nuc. - nux = 'nut'
• nucl. - nucleus = 'nut'
• officin. - officinalis = 'medicinal'
• ol. - oleum = 'oil'
• optim. - optimus = 'best'
• part. - pars = 'part, side'
• pulveriz. - pulverizatus = 'powdered'
• radic. - radix = 'root'
• semin. - semen = 'seed'
• spec. - species = 'simple' - a 'simple' is a single-ingredient powder
• sal = 'salt' - 'Salt of X' is the name of a number of alchemical products which nowadays have chemical formulae.
• trochisc. - trochiscus - 'troche' (a lozenge)
• ust. - ustus = 'burnt'
• vulgar. - vulgaris = 'common'