Difference between revisions of "Searching in Hamnet"

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[[File:Hamnet Basic Search - brief help visible.JPG|thumb|313x313px]]
This article provides basic guidelines for making the most of [[Hamnet]]'s search capabilities.  
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This article provides an introduction to [[Hamnet]]'s search capabilities and some tips for making the most of them. If you have trouble finding what you think should be in Hamnet, please contact [mailto:HamnetHelp@folger.edu?Subject=Hamnet%20question HamnetHelp@folger.edu] (it might be as simple as us fixing a coding error at our end).  
  
==Keyword search vs. browse search==
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Search help is also available immediately below the search panel in Hamnet, and is context-specific: if you're on the "Basic Search"  tab, you'll find tips and field definitions for the Basic Search; if you're on the "Advanced Search" tab, you'll find the Advanced Search equivalents.
All search options in Hamnet are either ''keyword searches'' or ''browse searches''. Both types of search take a sequence (or sequences) of characters  - i.e. word(s) - that the searcher inputs and look for matches in the Hamnet database.
+
 
:A ''keyword search'' is the more straightforward of the two: it looks for the sequence (or sequences) of characters entered, either in a specified field of each catalog record, or anywhere in each catalog record. It will give you a list of the records in which the sequence of characters appears.
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Don't forget that on-site help is always immediately available at the Reading Room service desk!
:A ''browse search'' looks for the search term(s) in specified fields in each catalog record, then shows you where the search terms do (or would) appear within an alphabetical list of the terms that have been entered into that field by catalogers (usually drawn from [[Controlled vocabularies|controlled vocabularies]]). From there, you can click on your search term to see records that include it, or see that there are no records which use that specific term.
 
  
 
==Basic Search tab==
 
==Basic Search tab==
The Basic Search tab includes thirteen search options, grouped thematically. These include both keyword searches and browse searches. Notice that some search options have an asterisk next to their labels: this indicates that you can set limits (see the [[Searching in Hamnet#Search limits|search limits]] section below) to narrow the parameters of your search. It also means, functionally, that these are keyword searches (you cannot set limits on browse searches).
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The Basic Search tab has twelve thematically-grouped options, and defaults to the first option: Keywords (find all of these).
[[File:Basic Search tab search options.JPG]]
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An asterisk indicates fields that accept [[Searching in Hamnet#Search filters|search filters]] (e.g., vault material only, date range, language) using the "Set Filters" button below and to the right. Note: you must set filters ''before'' entering search terms.
:'''Name Browse''' -  looks for your search term(s) in a list of name headings, and shows a match (or absence of one) in an alphabetical list of nearby name headings
 
:'''Author/Creator, Sorted by Title''' - looks for your search term(s) in a list of main author headings, and shows a match (or absence of one) in an alphabetical list of nearby main author headings
 
:'''Title (Keyword Phrase)''' - looks for your search term(s) anywhere in any title fields, and shows a list of records that contain a match
 
:'''Title (Left-Anchored)''' - looks for your search term(s) at the beginning (reading from the left) of any title fields, and shows a list of records that contain a match
 
:'''Journal title (Keyword Phrase)''' - looks for your search term(s) anywhere in any title fields in periodical catalog records, and shows a list of records that contain a match
 
:'''Series/Uniform Title Browse''' - looks for your search term(s) in a list of title headings, and shows a match (or absence of one) in an alphabetical list of nearby title headings
 
:'''Subject & Form/Genre Browse''' - looks for your search term(s) in a list of subject and form/genre terms, and shows a match (or absence of one) in an alphabetical list of nearby subject/genre terms
 
:'''Form/Genre (Keyword Phrase)''' - looks for your search term(s) anywhere in any [[Genre and form|form/genre]] fields, and shows a list of records that contain a match
 
:'''Call Number (Left-Anchored)''' - looks for your search term(s) at the beginning (reading from the left) of any call number field, and shows a list of records that contain a match
 
:'''Call Number (Browse)''' - looks for your search term(s) in a list of call numbers, and shows a match (or absence of one) in a numerical list of nearby call numbers
 
:'''Publication/Creation Date''' - looks for your search term(s) - in this case, usually a number - in any publication or creation date fields, and shows a list of records that contain a match
 
:'''Keyword Any Bib Field (Relevance-Ranked)''' - looks for your search term(s) anywhere in any record, and shows a list of records that contain a match
 
:'''Expert Search (use index codes and operators)''' - uses index codes and Boolean operators to combine multiple searches; see [[Searching in Hamnet#Expert search|Expert Search]] section below
 
  
Basic Search tab defaults: The Basic Search tab opens with the '''Name Browse''' search highlighted; double-check that you have highlighted the correct search option before starting your search. The Basic Search tab defaults to an "OR" or "any of these" search - i.e., if you enter multiple search terms, it will search for records that contain any of them, not all of them. If you want to search using multiple search terms, it's better to use the [[Searching in Hamnet#Expert search|'''Expert Search''']] option or the Advanced Search tab.
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Some searches lead to alphabetical lists, with cross-references (mimicking browsing a card catalog); other searches lead to sortable lists, and do not provide cross-references.
 +
:[[File:Basic Search tab search options.JPG|thumb]]'''Keywords (find all of these)''' - for a sortable list of materials whose records contain ''all'' of the terms you entered, unless otherwise indicated: use "quotes" to search phrases, ! to mark words to exclude, * to mark important terms,  and ? and % for truncation and wild cards, respectively
 +
:'''Name Browse (surname first)''' -  for an alphabetical list of names associated with creation or former ownership (use "Subject" to find material ''about'' a named person). Includes cross references and scope notes (click on the "see note" button)
 +
:'''Author/Creator, Sorted by Title''' - for an alphabetical list of names-and-titles (enter surname first)
 +
:'''Title (Keyword Phrase)''' - for a sortable list of materials whose title includes the word or phrase entered
 +
:'''Title (Left-Anchored)''' - for an alphabetical list of titles (enter start of title, without initial articles)
 +
:'''Journal title (Keyword Phrase)''' - for a sortable list of journals whose title includes the word or phrase entered
 +
:'''Series/Uniform Title Browse''' - for an alphabetical list of series titles and standardized titles for works known by multiple titles (enter start of title, without initial articles). Includes cross references  (click on the "see notes" button to expand)
 +
:'''Subject & Genre/Form Browse''' - for an alphabetical list of subjects (who or what the material is about), forms and genres (what the material is a representative example of) that starts with the word(s) entered. Includes cross references  (click on the "see note" button to expand). Usually drawn from [[Controlled vocabularies|controlled vocabularies]].
 +
:'''Genre/From (Keyword Phrase)''' - for a sortable list of standardized [[Genre and form|genre/form]] terms that include the word or phrase entered, and indicate what the material is a representative example of
 +
:'''Call Number (Left-Anchored)''' - for a sortable list of materials by call number, optimized for non-Library of Congress style call numbers (punctuation and spacing matter: see [[Call numbers]] article for examples). Omit parenthetical suffixes such as (size M), (folio), etc.
 +
:'''Call Number (Browse)''' - for a sortable list of materials by call number, optimized for Library of Congress style call numbers (punctuation and spacing matter: see [[Call numbers]] article for examples). If you are not getting many results, try shortening the call number (e.g., search for "PR2796 .F6" instead of "PR2796 .F6 C2 1924 Sh.Col.")
 +
:'''Expert Search (use index codes & operators)''' - for a sortable list of materials retrieved by command-line searching with index codes and Boolean operators ; see [[Searching in Hamnet#Expert search|Expert Search]] section below
  
 
==Advanced Search tab==
 
==Advanced Search tab==
 +
The Advanced Search tab has three sets of boxes and menus that enable users to build a relatively complex search. Each line has a search box with a drop-down menu immediately to its right, and another drop-down menu at the far right which includes twenty-one search options. The drop-down menus next to the search boxes allow you to specify how the search terms in each  box should be treated: "all of these" (search for records that contain all terms), "any of these" (search for records that contain at least one term, but not necessarily all), or "as a phrase" (search for records that contain your terms in the exact order you entered them). Each line can be combined with the "AND," "OR," or "NOT" radio buttons in between them.
 +
 +
[[File:Hamnet_advanced_search.JPG]]
 +
 +
You can set filters on any of the search options. Since all Advanced Search options are keyword searches, each one will return a list of records matching your search (or indicate that no records match your search), not a "browse" list of clickable headings.
 +
 +
Use Advanced Search to look for very specific items, or to help narrow down broad searches. For instance, if you are looking for early modern works on medicine, you could combine a subject search for "medicine" with a call number search for "STC," or a form/genre search for "Early works to 1800." 
  
==Search limits==
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To learn more about the parts of the [[MARC]] catalog records that each option searches, refer to the [[List of keyword search fields in Hamnet and their associated MARC codes]].  
The '''Set Limits''' option appears in both the Basic and Advanced Search tabs, in the bottom right corner of the main search area.  
 
  
Note: Once limits are set in either tab, they will remain in place for all future searches done within that session. You can clear limits by clicking '''Clear Limits''' (next to the '''Set Limits''' link in the bottom right corner of the main search area), or by leaving your search session (either by closing the browser tab, or navigating to a different webpage).
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:'''Keyword Any Bib Field''' - looks for your search term(s) anywhere in each record
 +
:'''Title''' - looks for your search term(s) in any title fields in each record
 +
:'''ISBN''' - looks for your search term(s) in the ISBN field of each record
 +
:'''Name''' - looks for your search term(s) in any name heading field (not just authors) in each record
 +
:'''Subject''' - looks for your search term(s) in any subject heading field in each record
 +
:'''Published/Created Date''' - looks for your search term(s) in any publication/creation/production date field in each record
 +
:'''Publisher/Printer Name''' - looks for your search term(s) in the publisher/printer/producer field in each record (note that this searches the name as it appears on the item, not necessarily its [[Authority control|authorized form]])
 +
:'''Folger Copy Notes''' - looks for your search term(s) in any copy-specific notes in each record
 +
:'''Material Type [GMD]''' - looks for your search term(s) in the [[General material designation|GMD]] field in any record
 +
:'''ISSN''' - looks for your search term(s) in the ISSN field of each record
 +
:'''Published/Created Place''' -  looks for your search term(s) in any publication/creation/production location field in each record
 +
:'''All Notes''' -  looks for your search term(s) in any note field in each record
 +
:'''Bibliographic Citation''' -  looks for your search term(s) anywhere in the [[MARC 510 Reference Citation Note|reference citation]] field in each record
 +
:'''Series''' - looks for your search term(s) in any series title field in each record
 +
:'''Physical Description''' - looks for your search term(s) anywhere in the physical description field in each record
 +
:'''Holdings Record''' - looks for your search term(s) anywhere in the holdings record (which gives information about the location of the item, its call number, etc.)
 +
:'''Size/Format''' - looks for your search term(s) anywhere in the size subfield in each record (which may contain measurements such as "22 cm," formats such as "8vo," or both, such as "14 cm (12mo)")
 +
:'''Form/Genre''' - looks for your search term(s) in any [[Genre and form|form/genre]] field in each record
 +
:'''Edition Statement''' - looks for your search term(s) anywhere in the edition statement field of each record
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:'''Exhibition history''' - looks for your search term(s) anywhere in the [[MARC 585 Exhibitions Note|exhibition history]] field of each record
  
==Boolean search and wildcards==
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===Advanced Search tab defaults===
 +
*The Advanced Search tab opens with the '''Keyword Any Bib Field''' search option in all three drop-down menus.
 +
*Advanced Search defaults to '''AND''' searches - the radio buttons for "AND" are automatically selected, and the center drop-down menu opens with "all of these" selected. If you enter multiple keywords in a single search box, it will search for records that contain all of them, not just any of them.
  
==Expert search==
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==Setting search limits==
 +
You can limit a search so that only certain categories of material come up (e.g., only vault items, only manuscripts, only things in the French language).
 +
 
 +
==="Set Filters" function===
 +
The '''Set Filters''' option appears in both the Basic and Advanced Search tabs, in the bottom right corner of the main search area. Clicking the button leads to a separate dialogue page. ('''NOTE''': if you have already entered search terms or changed the default settings, navigating to the Set Filters dialogue will erase them.)
 +
 
 +
[[File:Set Limits page.JPG]]
 +
 
 +
There are five filters that you can set to help narrow your search. You can select multiple options from each menu by pressing the Crtl key while clicking on them, or select a range of options by pressing the Shift key while clicking.
 +
* '''Language''' - language of an item
 +
** Note: not all catalog records include a language designation (for instance, graphic materials)
 +
* '''Location''' - location of an item within the Folger
 +
* '''Date''' - enter a specific date, or a range
 +
* '''Item type''' - broad format categories which are similar but not identical to [[General material designation|GMDs]]
 +
* '''Place of publication''' - country where an item was published or created
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Once filters are set in either Basic or Advanced Search tab, they will remain in place for all future searches done within that session. You can get rid of filters by clicking '''Clear Filters''' (next to the '''Set Filters''' link in the bottom right corner of the main search area), or by leaving your search session (by closing the browser tab or navigating to a different webpage).
 +
 
 +
===Finding all records that match your search limits===
 +
To find ''all'' records that meet your search limits, enter a percent sign ('''%''') in the Keyword search box: that's the wildcard character representing "zero or more characters," so any record that exists, and meets the requirements of your search limits, will come up, to a maximum of 10,000 records.
 +
 
 +
==Boolean search, wildcards, and other special characters==
 +
===Boolean search===
 +
Boolean search uses "operators" such as "AND," "OR," and "NOT" to narrow or broaden a search. Its concepts are based on [[Wikipedia:George Boole|Boolean logic]].
 +
: '''AND''' will search for records that contain all terms
 +
: '''OR''' will search for records that contain any terms
 +
: '''NOT''' will search for records that do not contain particular terms
 +
 
 +
You can use Boolean operators in multiple areas of Hamnet:
 +
* Enter them manually in the [[Searching in Hamnet#Expert search|'''Expert Search''']] option of the Basic Search tab
 +
* Select "AND," "OR," or "NOT" radio buttons to combine search boxes in the Advanced Search tab.
 +
* Use the relevant drop-down menu in the Advanced Search tab to specify "all of these" (i.e. "AND") or "any of these" (i.e. "OR").
 +
 
 +
===Wildcard characters===
 +
Wildcard characters are generally used to account for uncertainty in a search, by substituting for one or more characters. For instance, if you're uncertain whether an item uses "theater" or "theatre," you can search for both by substituting wildcard characters for the er/re. Wildcards can be used with any keyword search in Hamnet, and you can use multiple wildcards in the same search, or even in the same search term.
 +
 
 +
: '''?''' will look for an unspecified number of characters. It is most useful when used at the beginning or end of a search term to look for words that include that term.
 +
:: '''theat?''' will return records with either "theatre" or "theater," but also other words such as "theatrical," "theatergoer," etc.
 +
 
 +
: '''%''' takes the place of exactly one character. It is more useful for spelling variations, such as the theater/theatre example, or for finding i/j/u/v transcriptions. However, '''%''' cannot account for characters that are not there.
 +
:: '''theat%%''' will return records containing "theatre," "theater," or any other words with two characters after "theat," such as "theatrum" or "theatra"
 +
:: '''Shak?pe?r%''' will return records containing a variety of spellings of Shakespeare (using '''?''' to substitute for one or more characters inside the word), but since the last wildcard is '''%''', it will not return "Shaksper."
 +
 
 +
===Special characters===
 +
Hamnet keyword searches can also be modified by adding certain punctuation characters.
 +
 
 +
: Quotation marks ('''"''') specify an exact word or phrase - i.e., "William Shakespeare"
 +
: Use '''+''' in front of a word to make sure that all search results include that word
 +
: Use '''*''' to designate important words - this influences the relevance ranking of results, and will show records with that word at the top of the list
 +
: Use '''!''' to exclude a search term
 +
 
 +
==Expert Search==
 +
The '''Expert Search''' option on the Basic Search tab allows you to combine searches of multiple fields by using their [[List of keyword search fields in Hamnet and their associated MARC codes|search codes]] and [[Searching in Hamnet#Boolean search and wildcards|Boolean operators]]. The search codes are four-letter abbreviations for the keyword searches available on the Advanced Search tab. Select '''Expert Search''', and type the search code and the term(s) you want to search for.
 +
Surround your terms with quotation marks to search for them in a specific order (i.e. "shakespeare william," or "william shakespeare"), and combine multiple searches using Boolean operators AND, OR, or NOT. You can enter search codes and operators in either lowercase or uppercase. You can also nest searches by using parentheses. Each search word needs to be preceded by a distinct search code, and multi-word search terms should be surrounded with quotation marks - Expert Search otherwise treats each word as a generic keyword search.
 +
 
 +
: '''245h realia not gkey shakespeare''' - finds records for realia objects that are not directly associated with Shakespeare
 +
: '''NKEY garrick AND (KGNR "legal instruments" OR KGNR "legal documents")''' - finds records for items associated with David Garrick (or any other Garricks) that have the genre terms "legal instruments" or "legal documents"
 +
 
 +
===Expert Search defaults===
 +
* If you do not enter a search code, Expert Search defaults to a standard keyword search.
 +
* '''Note''': the search box has a limit of 100 characters.
  
 
==Related resources==
 
==Related resources==
 
* [[Interpreting MARC records]]
 
* [[Interpreting MARC records]]
 
* [[List of keyword search fields in Hamnet and their associated MARC codes]]
 
* [[List of keyword search fields in Hamnet and their associated MARC codes]]
 +
* [[Hamnet]]
 +
* [[MARC]]
 +
 +
[[Category:Cataloging]]
 +
[[Category:Digital Folger]]
 +
[[Category: Research guides]]

Latest revision as of 10:46, 15 February 2021

Hamnet Basic Search - brief help visible.JPG

This article provides an introduction to Hamnet's search capabilities and some tips for making the most of them. If you have trouble finding what you think should be in Hamnet, please contact HamnetHelp@folger.edu (it might be as simple as us fixing a coding error at our end).

Search help is also available immediately below the search panel in Hamnet, and is context-specific: if you're on the "Basic Search" tab, you'll find tips and field definitions for the Basic Search; if you're on the "Advanced Search" tab, you'll find the Advanced Search equivalents.

Don't forget that on-site help is always immediately available at the Reading Room service desk!

Basic Search tab

The Basic Search tab has twelve thematically-grouped options, and defaults to the first option: Keywords (find all of these). An asterisk indicates fields that accept search filters (e.g., vault material only, date range, language) using the "Set Filters" button below and to the right. Note: you must set filters before entering search terms.

Some searches lead to alphabetical lists, with cross-references (mimicking browsing a card catalog); other searches lead to sortable lists, and do not provide cross-references.

Basic Search tab search options.JPG
Keywords (find all of these) - for a sortable list of materials whose records contain all of the terms you entered, unless otherwise indicated: use "quotes" to search phrases, ! to mark words to exclude, * to mark important terms, and ? and % for truncation and wild cards, respectively
Name Browse (surname first) - for an alphabetical list of names associated with creation or former ownership (use "Subject" to find material about a named person). Includes cross references and scope notes (click on the "see note" button)
Author/Creator, Sorted by Title - for an alphabetical list of names-and-titles (enter surname first)
Title (Keyword Phrase) - for a sortable list of materials whose title includes the word or phrase entered
Title (Left-Anchored) - for an alphabetical list of titles (enter start of title, without initial articles)
Journal title (Keyword Phrase) - for a sortable list of journals whose title includes the word or phrase entered
Series/Uniform Title Browse - for an alphabetical list of series titles and standardized titles for works known by multiple titles (enter start of title, without initial articles). Includes cross references (click on the "see notes" button to expand)
Subject & Genre/Form Browse - for an alphabetical list of subjects (who or what the material is about), forms and genres (what the material is a representative example of) that starts with the word(s) entered. Includes cross references (click on the "see note" button to expand). Usually drawn from controlled vocabularies.
Genre/From (Keyword Phrase) - for a sortable list of standardized genre/form terms that include the word or phrase entered, and indicate what the material is a representative example of
Call Number (Left-Anchored) - for a sortable list of materials by call number, optimized for non-Library of Congress style call numbers (punctuation and spacing matter: see Call numbers article for examples). Omit parenthetical suffixes such as (size M), (folio), etc.
Call Number (Browse) - for a sortable list of materials by call number, optimized for Library of Congress style call numbers (punctuation and spacing matter: see Call numbers article for examples). If you are not getting many results, try shortening the call number (e.g., search for "PR2796 .F6" instead of "PR2796 .F6 C2 1924 Sh.Col.")
Expert Search (use index codes & operators) - for a sortable list of materials retrieved by command-line searching with index codes and Boolean operators ; see Expert Search section below

Advanced Search tab

The Advanced Search tab has three sets of boxes and menus that enable users to build a relatively complex search. Each line has a search box with a drop-down menu immediately to its right, and another drop-down menu at the far right which includes twenty-one search options. The drop-down menus next to the search boxes allow you to specify how the search terms in each box should be treated: "all of these" (search for records that contain all terms), "any of these" (search for records that contain at least one term, but not necessarily all), or "as a phrase" (search for records that contain your terms in the exact order you entered them). Each line can be combined with the "AND," "OR," or "NOT" radio buttons in between them.

Hamnet advanced search.JPG

You can set filters on any of the search options. Since all Advanced Search options are keyword searches, each one will return a list of records matching your search (or indicate that no records match your search), not a "browse" list of clickable headings.

Use Advanced Search to look for very specific items, or to help narrow down broad searches. For instance, if you are looking for early modern works on medicine, you could combine a subject search for "medicine" with a call number search for "STC," or a form/genre search for "Early works to 1800."

To learn more about the parts of the MARC catalog records that each option searches, refer to the List of keyword search fields in Hamnet and their associated MARC codes.

Keyword Any Bib Field - looks for your search term(s) anywhere in each record
Title - looks for your search term(s) in any title fields in each record
ISBN - looks for your search term(s) in the ISBN field of each record
Name - looks for your search term(s) in any name heading field (not just authors) in each record
Subject - looks for your search term(s) in any subject heading field in each record
Published/Created Date - looks for your search term(s) in any publication/creation/production date field in each record
Publisher/Printer Name - looks for your search term(s) in the publisher/printer/producer field in each record (note that this searches the name as it appears on the item, not necessarily its authorized form)
Folger Copy Notes - looks for your search term(s) in any copy-specific notes in each record
Material Type [GMD] - looks for your search term(s) in the GMD field in any record
ISSN - looks for your search term(s) in the ISSN field of each record
Published/Created Place - looks for your search term(s) in any publication/creation/production location field in each record
All Notes - looks for your search term(s) in any note field in each record
Bibliographic Citation - looks for your search term(s) anywhere in the reference citation field in each record
Series - looks for your search term(s) in any series title field in each record
Physical Description - looks for your search term(s) anywhere in the physical description field in each record
Holdings Record - looks for your search term(s) anywhere in the holdings record (which gives information about the location of the item, its call number, etc.)
Size/Format - looks for your search term(s) anywhere in the size subfield in each record (which may contain measurements such as "22 cm," formats such as "8vo," or both, such as "14 cm (12mo)")
Form/Genre - looks for your search term(s) in any form/genre field in each record
Edition Statement - looks for your search term(s) anywhere in the edition statement field of each record
Exhibition history - looks for your search term(s) anywhere in the exhibition history field of each record

Advanced Search tab defaults

  • The Advanced Search tab opens with the Keyword Any Bib Field search option in all three drop-down menus.
  • Advanced Search defaults to AND searches - the radio buttons for "AND" are automatically selected, and the center drop-down menu opens with "all of these" selected. If you enter multiple keywords in a single search box, it will search for records that contain all of them, not just any of them.

Setting search limits

You can limit a search so that only certain categories of material come up (e.g., only vault items, only manuscripts, only things in the French language).

"Set Filters" function

The Set Filters option appears in both the Basic and Advanced Search tabs, in the bottom right corner of the main search area. Clicking the button leads to a separate dialogue page. (NOTE: if you have already entered search terms or changed the default settings, navigating to the Set Filters dialogue will erase them.)

Set Limits page.JPG

There are five filters that you can set to help narrow your search. You can select multiple options from each menu by pressing the Crtl key while clicking on them, or select a range of options by pressing the Shift key while clicking.

  • Language - language of an item
    • Note: not all catalog records include a language designation (for instance, graphic materials)
  • Location - location of an item within the Folger
  • Date - enter a specific date, or a range
  • Item type - broad format categories which are similar but not identical to GMDs
  • Place of publication - country where an item was published or created


Once filters are set in either Basic or Advanced Search tab, they will remain in place for all future searches done within that session. You can get rid of filters by clicking Clear Filters (next to the Set Filters link in the bottom right corner of the main search area), or by leaving your search session (by closing the browser tab or navigating to a different webpage).

Finding all records that match your search limits

To find all records that meet your search limits, enter a percent sign (%) in the Keyword search box: that's the wildcard character representing "zero or more characters," so any record that exists, and meets the requirements of your search limits, will come up, to a maximum of 10,000 records.

Boolean search, wildcards, and other special characters

Boolean search

Boolean search uses "operators" such as "AND," "OR," and "NOT" to narrow or broaden a search. Its concepts are based on Boolean logic.

AND will search for records that contain all terms
OR will search for records that contain any terms
NOT will search for records that do not contain particular terms

You can use Boolean operators in multiple areas of Hamnet:

  • Enter them manually in the Expert Search option of the Basic Search tab
  • Select "AND," "OR," or "NOT" radio buttons to combine search boxes in the Advanced Search tab.
  • Use the relevant drop-down menu in the Advanced Search tab to specify "all of these" (i.e. "AND") or "any of these" (i.e. "OR").

Wildcard characters

Wildcard characters are generally used to account for uncertainty in a search, by substituting for one or more characters. For instance, if you're uncertain whether an item uses "theater" or "theatre," you can search for both by substituting wildcard characters for the er/re. Wildcards can be used with any keyword search in Hamnet, and you can use multiple wildcards in the same search, or even in the same search term.

? will look for an unspecified number of characters. It is most useful when used at the beginning or end of a search term to look for words that include that term.
theat? will return records with either "theatre" or "theater," but also other words such as "theatrical," "theatergoer," etc.
% takes the place of exactly one character. It is more useful for spelling variations, such as the theater/theatre example, or for finding i/j/u/v transcriptions. However, % cannot account for characters that are not there.
theat%% will return records containing "theatre," "theater," or any other words with two characters after "theat," such as "theatrum" or "theatra"
Shak?pe?r% will return records containing a variety of spellings of Shakespeare (using ? to substitute for one or more characters inside the word), but since the last wildcard is %, it will not return "Shaksper."

Special characters

Hamnet keyword searches can also be modified by adding certain punctuation characters.

Quotation marks (") specify an exact word or phrase - i.e., "William Shakespeare"
Use + in front of a word to make sure that all search results include that word
Use * to designate important words - this influences the relevance ranking of results, and will show records with that word at the top of the list
Use ! to exclude a search term

Expert Search

The Expert Search option on the Basic Search tab allows you to combine searches of multiple fields by using their search codes and Boolean operators. The search codes are four-letter abbreviations for the keyword searches available on the Advanced Search tab. Select Expert Search, and type the search code and the term(s) you want to search for. Surround your terms with quotation marks to search for them in a specific order (i.e. "shakespeare william," or "william shakespeare"), and combine multiple searches using Boolean operators AND, OR, or NOT. You can enter search codes and operators in either lowercase or uppercase. You can also nest searches by using parentheses. Each search word needs to be preceded by a distinct search code, and multi-word search terms should be surrounded with quotation marks - Expert Search otherwise treats each word as a generic keyword search.

245h realia not gkey shakespeare - finds records for realia objects that are not directly associated with Shakespeare
NKEY garrick AND (KGNR "legal instruments" OR KGNR "legal documents") - finds records for items associated with David Garrick (or any other Garricks) that have the genre terms "legal instruments" or "legal documents"

Expert Search defaults

  • If you do not enter a search code, Expert Search defaults to a standard keyword search.
  • Note: the search box has a limit of 100 characters.

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