Difference between revisions of "Nobility and Newcomers in Renaissance Ireland exhibition material"

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This article offers a comprehensive  and descriptive list of each piece included in [[Nobility and Newcomers in Renaissance Ireland|''Nobility and Newcomers in Renaissance Ireland'']], one of the [[Exhibitions at the Folger]].
 
This article offers a comprehensive  and descriptive list of each piece included in [[Nobility and Newcomers in Renaissance Ireland|''Nobility and Newcomers in Renaissance Ireland'']], one of the [[Exhibitions at the Folger]].
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__NOTOC__
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== London: City of Two Realms  (case 1 and wall after case 1) ==
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[[File:L.b.302 2v-3r.jpg|thumb|right|310px|The 1554-1555 ''Office of the revels from Shrovetide. Folger Digital Image [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/5m032w 60634].]]
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London bore a heavy Irish mark, politically and culturally, in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Richard Duke of York's return from Ireland in 1450, where he served as Governor and enjoyed great support, helped spark the Wars of the Roses. The first Tudor king, Henry VII, (crowned 1485), would in turn face two Yorkist invasions launched from Ireland. Ireland was made a kingdom by Act of Parliament in 1541, and the crown's efforts to control the western realm inspired sixteenth-century mapmakers and historians: Knowledge equals power, and the Tudor capital was awash in new maps, histories, ethnographies, and political treatises concerning Ireland and its governance. Literary London, meanwhile, played to popular sentiment and emphasized the exotic character of the Irish in prose, verse, and drama.
  
== London: City of Two Realms  (case 1) ==
+
=== Items included ===
 
 
London bore a heavy Irish mark, politically and culturally, in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Richard Duke of York's return from Ireland in 1450, where he served as Governor and enjoyed great support, helped spark the Wars of the Roses. The first Tudor king, Henry VII, (crowned 1485), would in turn face two Yorkist invasions launched from Ireland. Ireland was made a kingdom by Act of Parliament in 1541, and the crown's efforts to control the western realm inspired sixteenth-century mapmakers and historians: Knowledge equals power, and the Tudor capital was awash in new maps, histories, ethnographies, and politcal treatises concerning Ireland and its governance. Literary London, meanwhile, played to popular sentiment and emphasized the exotic character of the Irish in prose, verse, and drama.
 
  
=== Items included ===
+
==== Case 1 ====
  
* William Shakespeare. ''King Henry VI. Part 2''. London: Thomas Creed, 1594. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=160844 STC 26099]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/7wl134 title page] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/5zixo4 LUNA Digital Image].
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* William Shakespeare. [[Henry VI, Part 2|''King Henry VI. Part 2'']]. London: Thomas Creed, 1594. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=160844 STC 26099]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/7wl134 title page] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/5zixo4 LUNA Digital Image].
 
* Polydore Vergil. ''Anglica Historia''. Basel: Thomas Guarin, 1570. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=125957 Folio PA8585.V4 A3 1570 Cage]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/3360ou p. 572–573].
 
* Polydore Vergil. ''Anglica Historia''. Basel: Thomas Guarin, 1570. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=125957 Folio PA8585.V4 A3 1570 Cage]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/3360ou p. 572–573].
* FACSIMILE from the Bibliothèque Municipale, [https://www.bridgemanimages.com/en-US/ The Bridgeman Art Library]. French School. ''Portrait of Perkin Warbeck (ca.1474–99), flemish imposter and pretender to the English throne''. Sanguine on paper, 16th century. Image number: [https://www.bridgemanimages.com/en-US/search?filter_text=XJF87679&filter_group=all XJF87679].
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* FACSIMILE from the Bibliothèque Municipale, [https://www.bridgemanimages.com/en-US/ The Bridgeman Art Library]. French School. ''Portrait of Perkin Warbeck (ca.1474–99), flemish imposter and pretender to the English throne''. Sanguine on paper, 16th century. Image number: [https://www.bridgemanimages.com/en-US/asset/87679/french-school-16th-century/portrait-of-perkin-warbeck-c-1474-99-flemish-imposter-and-pretender-to-the-english-throne-sanguine-on-paper-b-w-photo XJF87679].
 
* Great Britain. Office of the Revels. ''Revells ffrom Shrovetide''. Manuscript, ca. 1554/1555. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=244741 L.b.302]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/0d049n 2v–3r] and [http://findingaids.folger.edu/dfoloseley2002.xml#contents Guide to the Loseley Collection] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/e12j2y LUNA Digital Image].
 
* Great Britain. Office of the Revels. ''Revells ffrom Shrovetide''. Manuscript, ca. 1554/1555. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=244741 L.b.302]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/0d049n 2v–3r] and [http://findingaids.folger.edu/dfoloseley2002.xml#contents Guide to the Loseley Collection] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/e12j2y LUNA Digital Image].
 
* Lodovico Ariosto. ''Orlando Furioso''. London: Richard Field, 1591. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=161575 STC 746 copy 1]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/018j0r p. 80–81] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/53y34r LUNA Digital Image].
 
* Lodovico Ariosto. ''Orlando Furioso''. London: Richard Field, 1591. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=161575 STC 746 copy 1]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/018j0r p. 80–81] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/53y34r LUNA Digital Image].
Line 15: Line 17:
 
* William Camden. ''Britannia''. London: George Bishop, 1600. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=162153 STC 4507 copy 3]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/bbwub1 p. 755 and map opposite].
 
* William Camden. ''Britannia''. London: George Bishop, 1600. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=162153 STC 4507 copy 3]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/bbwub1 p. 755 and map opposite].
  
== Wall after Case 1 ==
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==== Wall after case 1 ====
* FACSIMILE. John Speed. Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine. London: T. Snodham, 1616. STC 23044; displayed map between p. 137 & 138  
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 +
* FACSIMILE. John Speed. ''Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine''. London: T. Snodham, 1616. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=162294 STC 23044]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/4wfq6g map between p. 137 & 138] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/c4nm10 LUNA Digital Image].
  
 
== Dublin (case 2) ==  
 
== Dublin (case 2) ==  
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English and Irish noble connections played out in Dublin much as they did in London—at times harmonious, at times violently contentious. Founded by Vikings in the ninth century, Dublin  was always an international settlement, and it became the de facto capital of the island by the time of the Anglo-Norman invasion in the late twelfth century. This first "English" conquest established intimate connections—by blood, marriage, and alliance—between nominally "English" and nominally "Irish" aristocracy. By the late Tudor period, the descendants of these two groups had become the "Old English" and "native Irish" (or "Gaels") respectively, and both were predominantly Catholic. The Tudor reconquest then introduced a (mostly Protestant) "New English" interest to this mingled society and thereby added a new level of complexity to cosmopolitan Dublin and the rest of the country.
  
 
=== Items included ===
 
=== Items included ===
  
* FACSIMILE. Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Cologne: Anton Hierat & Abraham Hogenberg, 1618. ART 229985; displayed inset map of Dublin     
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* FACSIMILE. ''Galwaye; Dublin; Lymericke; Corcke'' from ''Civitates Orbis Terrarum''. Cologne: Anton Hierat & Abraham Hogenberg, 1618. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=335903 ART 229- 985 no.11 (size L)]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/7e65tx inset map of Dublin].    
* FACSIMILE from the University of Edinburgh. John Derricke. Image of Irelande. London: J. Kingston, 1581.  
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* FACSIMILE from the [http://www.ed.ac.uk/schools-departments/information-services/library-museum-gallery# University of Edinburgh]. John Derricke. ''Image of Irelande''. London: J. Kingston, 1581. Call number: [http://catalogue.lib.ed.ac.uk/vwebv/FullHoldingsInfo?searchId=5758&recPointer=2&recCount=10&bibId=1059852 De.3.76] and  ([http://old.folger.edu/imgdtl.cfm?imageid=5202&cid=4382 Image])
* Letter of command signed from Elizabeth I, Queen of England, to Sir Henry Sidney, Lord Deputy of Ireland. November 4, 1568. X.d.127     
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* Letter of command signed from Elizabeth I, Queen of England, to Sir Henry Sidney, Lord Deputy of Ireland. Manuscript, November 4, 1568. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=193159 X.d.127] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/69eo9x LUNA Digital Image].    
* Lodowick Bryskett. A Discourse of Civill Life. London: William Aspley, 1606. STC 3959; displayed B1    
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* Lodowick Bryskett. ''A Discourse of Civill Life''. London: William Aspley, 1606. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=161156 STC 3959]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/9m24k3/ p. 1 (sig B1r)]    
* FACSIMILE. William Wynne Ryland. Sir Philip Sidney. 18th century. ART File S569 no.6 (size XS)  
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* FACSIMILE. William Wynne Ryland. ''Sir Philip Sidney''. 18th century. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=253269 ART File S569 no.6 (size XS)] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/83e5w7 LUNA Digital Image].
* FACSIMILE from the National Gallery of Ireland. After Arnold van Brounkhorst. Portrait of Sir Henry Sidney (1529–86), Lord Deputy of Ireland. Oil on panel, 16th century.  
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* FACSIMILE from the [http://www.nationalgallery.ie National Gallery of Ireland]. After Arnold van Brounkhorst. ''Portrait of Sir Henry Sidney (1529–86), Lord Deputy of Ireland''. Oil on panel, 16th century. NGI number: [http://onlinecollection.nationalgallery.ie/view/objects/asitem/278/178/primaryMaker-asc;jsessionid=80A05D596F0F01C1C5C38E07225F4220?t%3Astate%3Aflow=de77f96b-7c37-47ce-9d61-202e13ad794e NGI.880].
* Richard Stanyhurst. Harmonia seu Catena Dialectica. London: For Reginald Wolf, 1570. STC 23229; displayed a2  
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* Richard Stanyhurst. ''Harmonia seu Catena Dialectica''. London: For Reginald Wolf, 1570. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=161560 STC 23229]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/3b73f8 sig. a2] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/c5e444 LUNA Digital Image].
* Edmund Campion. Two Histories of Ireland. Dublin: Societie of Stationers, 1633. STC 25067a copy 1; displayed preface 2    
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* Edmund Campion. ''Two Histories of Ireland''. Dublin: Societie of Stationers, 1633. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=169229 STC 25067a copy 1]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/0h0rri sig. ¶2r].    
* The Famous Historye of the Life and Death of Captaine Thomas Stukeley. London: William Jaggard, 1605. STC 23405 copy 2; displayed p. 40     
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* ''The Famous Historye of the Life and Death of Captaine Thomas Stukeley''. London: William Jaggard, 1605. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=167264 STC 23405 copy 2]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/xfq697 p. 40].    
* John Derricke. The Image of Irelande. London: J. Kingston, 1581. STC 6734; displayed title page     
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* John Derricke. ''The Image of Irelande''. London: J. Kingston, 1581. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=165290 STC 6734]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/m72s03 title page].    
  
== Turmoil in the Pale: the Decline of Kildare (case 3) ==
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== Turmoil in the Pale: the Decline of Kildare (case 3 and wall above case 3) ==
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The English Pale was an ill-defined legislative zone create in 1494 to protect Dublin's hinterland from what lay beyond. From its inception, the Pale was a site of cultural hybridity, political negotiation, and occasional rebellion. Most local nobles were of mixed English-Irish ancestry and they had to maintain allegiance to the distant English crown while living among the Gaelic neighbors, who had their own established language, laws and traditions. After Henry VIII's break with Rome, the nobles also had to defend their Catholicism against a state-sponsored Protestantism. The greatest of these families was the Fitzgeralds, earls of Kildare, who were among the most powerful and wealthy lords in all of England and Ireland. Until their rebellion in the 1530s, they regularly served as the English crown's cheif governors in Ireland.
  
 
=== Items included ===
 
=== Items included ===
  
* Richard Stanyhurst. De Rebus de Hibernia Gestis...1584. DA930.S8 1584 Cage; displayed title page   
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==== Case 3 ====
* Richard Stanyhurst. The First Foure Bookes of Virgil’s Aeneis. London: Henry Bynneman, 1583. STC 24807; displayed p. 1
 
* FACSIMILE from the National Gallery of Ireland. Attributed to the Master of the Countess of Warwick. Portrait of “The Fair Geraldine,” Elizabeth Fitzgerald, Countess of Lincoln (ca. 1528–90). Oil on panel, 16th century.
 
* Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey. Sonnet to Elizabeth Fitgerald in Songs and Sonets. London: Richard Tottell, 1574. STC 13866 copy 1; displayed fo. 5r 
 
* Thomas Nashe. The Unfortunate Traveller. London: T. Scarlet, 1594. STC 18380; displayed p. 35
 
  
== Wall above Case 3 ==
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* Richard Stanyhurst. ''De Rebus de Hibernia Gestis...''1584. Call number: DA930.S8 1584 Cage; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/wd12s2 title page].   
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* Richard Stanyhurst. ''The First Foure Bookes of Virgil’s Aeneis''. London: Henry Bynneman, 1583. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=164027 STC 24807]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/830s0y p. 1].
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* FACSIMILE from the National Gallery of Ireland. Attributed to the Master of the Countess of Warwick. ''Portrait of “The Fair Geraldine,” Elizabeth Fitzgerald, Countess of Lincoln (ca. 1528–90)''. Oil on panel, 16th century. NGI number: [http://onlinecollection.nationalgallery.ie/view/objects/asitem/People@1702/0?t%3Astate%3Aflow=a1c93c16-ebc0-481a-88f3-b56b418a9537 NGI.1195] and [https://flic.kr/p/dKE8dM Image].
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* Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey. Sonnet to Elizabeth Fitgerald in ''Songs and Sonets''. London: Richard Tottell, 1574. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=161375 STC 13866 Copy 1]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/v74ov0 fol. 5r] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/y00ycv LUNA Digital Image]. 
 +
* Thomas Nashe. ''The Unfortunate Traveller''. London: T. Scarlet, 1594. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=163672 STC 18380]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/0v49l2 p. 35].
  
* Raphael Holinshed. Chronicles of England, Scotlande, and Irelande. London: Henry Bynneman, 1577. STC 13567.8 Vol. 1; displayed p. 98–99
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==== Wall above case 3 ====
  
== Wall before Case 4 ==
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* Raphael Holinshed. ''Chronicles of England, Scotlande, and Irelande''. London: Henry Bynneman, 1577. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=171416 STC 13567.8 Vol. 1]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/ga2o9o p. 98–99] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/5pfk5r LUNA Digital Image].
  
* FACSIMILE from the National Gallery of Ireland. Attributed to Steven van der Meule. Portrait of Thomas Butler (1532–1614), tenth Earl of Ormond. Oil on panel, 16th century.
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== Continuity & Change: Ormond’s Leinster (wall before case 4 and case 4) ==
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[[File:V.a.266 Ormount.jpg|thumb|right|260px|The genealogy of the earls of Ormond. Folger Digital Image [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/ca5642 62635].]]
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As their rivals the Kildares fell from grace, the earls of Ormond rose to fill their place as the crown's Irish favorite. The greatest of the Ormond earls was [https://flic.kr/p/dKKAij Thomas "Black Tom" Butler] (1531–1614), tenth earl of Ormond. He was a cousin of Queen Elizabeth and a man of immense wealth, connection, and diplomatic skill across cultural lines. While the earl's brothers in Tipperary took up arms against the government in 1569, Black Tom was staunchly loyal and helped to supress his rebellious brethren. Ormond spent many years at court in London and he also owned property in England. His proximity to the queen and near total power over his Irish territories aroused the envy of rivals on both islands.
  
== Continuity & Change: Ormond’s Leinster (case 4) ==
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=== Items included ===
  
=== Items included ===
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==== Wall before case 4 ====
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 +
* FACSIMILE from the National Gallery of Ireland. Attributed to Steven van der Meule. ''Portrait of Thomas Butler (1532–1614), tenth Earl of Ormond''. Oil on panel, 16th century. NGI number: [http://onlinecollection.nationalgallery.ie/view/objects/asitem/236/74/sortNumber-asc?t%3Astate%3Aflow=a0aa684a-14f6-4fb0-a4a3-d467d87e895b NGI.4687] and [https://flic.kr/p/dKKAij Image].
 +
 
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==== Case 4 ====
  
* Dermot O'Meara. Ormonius. London: Thomas Snodham, 1615. STC 17761; displayed title page  
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* Dermot O'Meara. ''Ormonius''. London: Thomas Snodham, 1615. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=165505 STC 17761]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/83069p title page].
* Genealogies of earls of England and Ireland. Manuscript, 1581–c.1625. V.a.266; displayed leaf between 20 + 21  
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* ''Genealogies of earls of England and Ireland''. Manuscript, 1581 – c.1625. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=233268 V.a.266]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/7meg1f leaf between 20 & 21].
* LOAN from Harvard University Library. Michael O’Byrne, scribe. Agso Duainaire Aodhamac Seain UiBhruin ó Glen Moluara. Manuscript, compiled 1726–28. Shelf Mark MS Ir6.
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* LOAN courtesy of [http://library.harvard.edu Houghton Library], Harvard University. Michael O’Byrne, scribe. ''Ag so Duainaire Aodha mac Seain UiBhruin ó Glen Moluara''. Manuscript, compiled 1726–28. Harvard call number: [http://id.lib.harvard.edu/aleph/009493151/catalog MS Ir 6] and [http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/46911124 Harvard Digital Copy].
* FACSIMILE from Harvard University Library. Michael O’Byrne, scribe. Agso Duainaire Aodhamac Seain UiBhruin ó Glen Moluara. Manuscript, compiled 1726–28. Shelf Mark MS Ir6
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* FACSIMILE from Houghton Library, Harvard University. Michael O’Byrne, scribe. ''Ag so Duainaire Aodha mac Seain UiBhruin ó Glen Moluara''. Manuscript, compiled 1726–28. Houghton Call number: [http://id.lib.harvard.edu/aleph/009493151/catalog MS Ir 6] and [http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/46911124 Harvard Digital Copy].
* FACSIMILE from Royal Irish Academy. Míchéal mac Peadair Uí Longáin, scribe. Miscellany, “Toghaim Tomas rogha” on “Black Thomas” Butler. Manuscript, 18th century. Shelf Mark MS 23 N 15.
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* FACSIMILE from [https://www.ria.ie Royal Irish Academy]. Míchéal mac Peadair Uí Longáin, scribe. ''Miscellany'', “Toghaim Tomas rogha” on “Black Thomas” Butler. Manuscript, 18th century. Shelf-mark: [http://cats.ria.ie/ics-wpd/exec/icswppro.dll?AC=GET_RECORD&XC=/ics-wpd/exec/icswppro.dll&BU=http%3A%2F%2Fcats.ria.ie%2Fmanusimple.html&TN=Manusc~1&SN=AUTO11800&SE=1561&RN=0&MR=35&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&CS=1&XP=&RF=Web+Display+-+List&EF=&DF=Web+Display+-+Full&RL=1&EL=1&DL=1&NP=1&ID=&MF=&MQ=&TI=0&DT=&ST=0&IR=1476&NR=0&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=manusimple-out&OEX=ISO-8859-1&OEH=ISO-8859-1 RIA, MS 23 N 15] and ([http://old.folger.edu/imgdtl.cfm?imageid=5206&cid=4384 Image])
* FACSIMILE from the Huntington Library. Thomas Churchyard. A Scourge for Rebels. London: Thomas Dawson, 1584. Shelf Mark 56400.
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* FACSIMILE from the Huntington Library. Thomas Churchyard. ''A Scourge for Rebels''. London: Thomas Dawson, 1584. Call number: [http://catalog.huntington.org/record=b1498099~S0 56400] and ([http://old.folger.edu/imgdtl.cfm?imageid=5207&cid=4384 Image])
* Edmund Spenser. The Faerie Queene. London: John Wolfe, 1590. STC 23080; displayed 2Q2v–2Q2r  
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* Edmund Spenser. ''The Faerie Queene''. London: John Wolfe, 1590. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=170392 STC 23080 Copy 1]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/h1ev4v sig. 2Q2v–2Q2r] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/83x28a LUNA Digital Image].
* Attributed to Thomas Morgan. Leycesters Commonwealth. Paris, 1584. STC 19399; displayed p. 44–45  
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* Attributed to Thomas Morgan. ''Leycesters Commonwealth''. Paris, 1584. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=162978 STC 19399]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/aama4r p. 44–45].
  
 
== Wall after Case 4 ==
 
== Wall after Case 4 ==
Line 69: Line 82:
  
 
== Rebellion in Munster: the Fall of Desmond (case 5) ==
 
== Rebellion in Munster: the Fall of Desmond (case 5) ==
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Like Ormond and Kildare, the house of Desmond in the southwest had a long, wealthy, and proud history in Ireland dating back to the Anglo-Norman invasion. Unlike its rivals to the north and east, however, it did not survive the Tudor period. The fifteenth earl launched a major rebellion that was crushed in 1583, and the crown, on the grounds of treason, siezed the earl's property and that of his rebel associates. The Desmonds had been one of the wealthiest and most powerful families in England and Ireland in the mid-sixteenth century; by the early seventeenth century, they had become powerless, and their titles passed into the hands of Richard Preston, Lord Dingwall, one of King James's Scottish favorites.
  
 
=== Items included ===
 
=== Items included ===
  
* LOAN from Rolf and Magda Loeber. Francesco Petrarch. Le Volgari Opere del Petrarcha con la Espositione di Alessandro Vellutello da Lucca. Venice, 1525.  
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* LOAN courtesy of Rolf and Magda Loeber. Francesco Petrarch. ''Le Volgari Opere del Petrarcha con la Espositione di Alessandro Vellutello da Lucca''. Venice, 1525. ([http://old.folger.edu/imgdtl.cfm?imageid=5292&cid=4365 Image])
* FACSIMILE from Lambeth Palace. Desmond pedigree. 17th century. Shelf Mark MS 610.  
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* FACSIMILE from [http://www.lambethpalacelibrary.org Lambeth Palace]. Desmond pedigree. 17th century. Order No. MS 610.  
* Thomas Churchyard. The Miserie of Flaunders. London: Felix Kingston, 1579. STC 5243; displayed D1  
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* Thomas Churchyard. ''The miserie of Flaunders, calamitie of Fraunce, misfortune of Portugall, unquietnes of Irelande, troubles of Scotlande: and the blessed state of Englande''. London: Felix Kingston, 1579. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=160725 STC 5243]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/ipu767 sig. C3v–D1].  
* FACSIMILE from Cambridge University Library. A[nthony] M[unday]. The True Reporte of the Prosperous Successe which God Gave Unto our English Souldiours. London: Edward White, 1581.
+
* FACSIMILE from Cambridge University Library. A[nthony] M[unday]. ''The True Reporte of the Prosperous Successe which God Gave Unto our English Souldiours''. London: Edward White, 1581. ([http://old.folger.edu/imgdtl.cfm?imageid=5209&cid=4385 Image])
* Edmund Spenser. The Faerie Queene. London: Richard Field, 1596. STC 23082 copy 2; displayed Gg3/466–467   
+
* Edmund Spenser. ''The Faerie Queene''. London: Richard Field, 1596. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=167148 STC 23082 copy 2]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/vb8po5 p. 466–467] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/47gdpo LUNA Digital Image].
  
 
== Wall above Case 5 ==
 
== Wall above Case 5 ==
  
* FACSIMILE from the National Library of Ireland. Francis Jobson. The Province of Munster. ca. 1589. Shelf Mark 16 B 13.
+
* FACSIMILE from the [http://www.nli.ie National Library of Ireland]. Francis Jobson. ''The Province of Munster''. ca. 1589. Call number: [http://sources.nli.ie/Record/MS_UR_040959/Holdings# MS 16 B 13].
  
 
== Vitrine after Case 5 ==
 
== Vitrine after Case 5 ==
  
* Raphael Holinshed. Chronicles of England, Scotlande, and Irelande. London: Henry Denham, 1587. STC 13569 copy 2, vol. 1; displayed p. 172–173  
+
* Raphael Holinshed. ''Chronicles of England, Scotlande, and Irelande''. London: Henry Denham, 1587. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=169337 STC 13569 Copy 2 v.1]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/wxyj5v p. 172–173].
  
== Rise of the New English “New Men”: The Munster Plantation (case 6) ==
+
== Rise of the New English “New Men”: The Munster Plantation (case 6 and wall after case 6) ==
 +
 
 +
The death of the "Rebel Earl" of Desmond and that of many of his followers was a boon for newcomers. Almost half a million acres were siezed by the crown and distributed to those well-conected at cuort and those in government service, like the well-known poet Edmund Spenser. The result was Munster Planation, the largest colonial scheme in the country. It was based on humanistic and classical principles harking back to ancient Rome, as well as on modern surveying techniques. The primary goal of the Munster Plantation was to transform—with order, industry, and innovation—a supposedly savage, Catholic, backward, and degenerated Irish land into a Protestant and profitable realm that would be repeopled with English settlers.
  
 
=== Items included ===
 
=== Items included ===
  
* Richard Beacon. Solon his Follie. Oxford: Joseph Barnes, 1594. STC 1653.2; displayed title page
+
==== Case 6 ====
* Copy of letter from Erhardus Stibarus to Erasmus Neustetter from Lotichius, Elegiarum (Lyon, 1553), in the hand of Edmund Spenser. Manuscript, copied after 1576. X.d.520
 
* Georg Sabinus. Poemata. Leipzig, 1563? V.a.341; displayed title page
 
* Edmund Spenser. Amoretti and Epithalamion. London: P. Short, 1595. STC 23076; displayed title page
 
* Edmund Spenser.  Colin Clouts Come Home Againe. London: Thomas Creede, 1595. STC 23077 copy 4; displayed A2
 
* Lodowick Bryskett. “A Pastorall Aeglogue upon the death of Sir Phillip Sidney Knight, & Co.” in Edmund Spenser Colin Clouts Come Home Againe. London: Thomas Creede, 1595. STC 23077 copy 2; displayed H2
 
* FACSIMILE from the Royal Irish Academy. Feargal Dubh Ó Gadhra, scribe. Court verse. Poem by Eochaid Ó hEodhusa in O’Gara manuscript, 17th century. Shelf Mark MS 23 F 16.
 
  
== Wall after Case 6 ==
+
* Richard Beacon. ''Solon his Follie''. Oxford: Joseph Barnes, 1594. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=158718 STC 1653.2]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/sqr3r9 title page].
 +
* Copy of letter from Erhardus Stibarus to Erasmus Neustetter from Lotichius, ''Elegiarum'' (Lyon, 1553), in the hand of Edmund Spenser. Manuscript, copied after 1576. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=193492 X.d.520] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/185ka1 LUNA Digital Image].
 +
* Georg Sabinus. ''Poemata''. Leipzig, 1563? Call number: V.a.341; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/bwete7 title page].
 +
* Edmund Spenser. ''Amoretti and Epithalamion''. London: P. Short, 1595. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=163965 STC 23076]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/wuao3f title page] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/59b43d LUNA Digital Copy].
 +
* Edmund Spenser. ''Colin Clouts Come Home Againe''. London: Thomas Creede, 1595. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=163975 STC 23077 copy 4]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/xnyu04 sig. A2r]
 +
* Lodowick Bryskett. “A Pastorall Aeglogue upon the death of Sir Phillip Sidney Knight, & Co.” in Edmund Spenser ''Colin Clouts Come Home Againe''. London: Thomas Creede, 1595. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=163975 STC 23077 copy 2]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/c66ig4 sig. H2r].
 +
* FACSIMILE from the Royal Irish Academy. Feargal Dubh Ó Gadhra, scribe. ''Court verse''. Poem by Eochaid Ó hEodhusa in O’Gara manuscript, 17th century. Shelf Mark: [http://cats.ria.ie/ics-wpd/exec/icswppro.dll?AC=GET_RECORD&XC=/ics-wpd/exec/icswppro.dll&BU=http%3A%2F%2Fcats.ria.ie%2Fmanusimple.html&TN=Manusc~1&SN=AUTO6173&SE=1559&RN=0&MR=35&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&CS=1&XP=&RF=Web+Display+-+List&EF=&DF=Web+Display+-+Full&RL=1&EL=1&DL=1&NP=1&ID=&MF=&MQ=&TI=0&DT=&ST=0&IR=567&NR=0&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=manusimple-out&OEX=ISO-8859-1&OEH=ISO-8859-1 RIA, MS 23 F 16] and Digital copy at [http://www.isos.dias.ie Irish Script on Screen].
  
=== Items included ===
+
==== Wall after case 6 ====
 +
 
 +
* FACSIMILE from the National Gallery of Ireland. William Segar [attributed]. ''Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh (1522–1618), Soldier and Historian''. Oil on canvas, 16th century. NGI number: [http://onlinecollection.nationalgallery.ie/view/objects/asitem/278/28/sortNumber-asc?t%3Astate%3Aflow=b67bfbc3-1d85-47eb-a1a4-ae3044937894 NGI.281].
 +
* LOAN courtesy of [http://elizabethangardens.org Elizabethan Gardens], North Carolina. Artist unknown, attributed to the school of Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger. ''Portrait of Elizabeth I (1533–1603)''. Oil on oak panels, ca. 1593. [https://flic.kr/p/dT9Vsr Image].
 +
* FACSIMILE from Private Collection, via The Bridgeman Art Library. ''Portrait of a gentleman, said to be Edmund Spenser (c. 1552–99), the Kinnoull Portrait''. Oil on panel, early 17th century. Image number: [https://www.bridgemanimages.com/en-US/asset/84829/english-school-16th-century/portrait-of-a-gentleman-said-to-be-edmund-spenser-c-1552-99-the-kinnoull-portrait-panel MOU84829].
  
* FACSIMILE from the National Gallery of Ireland. William Segar [attributed]. Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh (1522–1618). Oil on canvas, 16th century.
+
== Breaking the West: Queens, Captains, and Nobility in Connacht (case 7 and wall after case 7) ==
* LOAN from Elizabethan Gardens. Artist unknown, attributed to the school of Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger. Portrait of Elizabeth I (1533–1603). Oil on oak panels, ca. 1593.
 
* FACSIMILE from Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library. Portrait of a gentleman, said to be Edmund Spenser (the “Kinnoul Portrait”. Oil on panel, early 17th century.
 
  
== Breaking the West: Queens, Captains, and Nobility in Connacht (case 7) ==
+
The province of Connacht experienced the same heady mix of negotiation, resistance, alliance, and violence that marked English–Irish contact in Leinster and Munster. Yet the government of Connacht was particularly prone to abuse by nominally loyal officials, many of them newcomers, who operated largely outside of crown control in remote parts of the realm. Not all of the entrenched local families in the west suffered in the late-Tudor and early-Stuart periods as a result, however. The O’Briens, a native Irish kingship of ancient ancestry, continued to rule as earls of Thomond and flourished during these turbulent times. They owed their success to their unswerving loyalty to the crown, but also in part to the fatal missteps of their rivals.
  
 
=== Items included ===
 
=== Items included ===
  
* John Speed. Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine. London: Thomas Snodham, 1616. STC 23044; displayed after p. 143
+
==== Case 7 ====
* FACSIMILE from private collection. English School. Portrait of Sir William Fitzwilliam (1529–99), Lord Deputy of Ireland. 1595.
 
* FACSIMILE from the National Portrait Gallery, London. Unknown artist. Sir Richard Bingham (1528–99). Oil on panel, 1564.
 
* Program for The Pirate Queen. Hilton Theatre, New York. New York,  2007.
 
* FACSIMILE from the Irish Image Collection/Getty Images. Rockfleet Castle on Clew Bay, County Mayo, Ireland (“Pirate Queen” Tower House). Photograph.
 
* Conrad Heresbach. Foure Bookes of Husbandry. London: John Kingston, 1578. STC 13197 copy 2; displayed ij
 
* John Milton. “Lycidas” from Justa Edouardo King Naufrago. Cambridge: Thomas Buck, 1638. STC 14964; displayed p. 20–21
 
  
== Wall after Case 7 ==
+
* John Speed. ''Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine''. London: Thomas Snodham, 1616. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=162294 STC 23044]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/kg88bw map between p. 143–144] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/c4nm10 LUNA Digital Image].
 +
* FACSIMILE from private collection. English School. ''Portrait of Sir William Fitzwilliam (1529–99), Lord Deputy of Ireland''. 1595.
 +
* FACSIMILE from the [http://www.npg.org.uk National Portrait Gallery], London. Unknown artist. ''Sir Richard Bingham (1528–99)''. Oil on panel, 1564. NPG number: [http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw00567/Sir-Richard-Bingham?LinkID=mp00421&search=sas&sText=Sir+Richard+Bingham&role=sit&rNo=0 NPG 3793].
 +
* Program for ''The Pirate Queen''. Hilton Theatre, New York. New York, 2007.
 +
* FACSIMILE from the Irish Image Collection/Getty Images. Rockfleet Castle on Clew Bay, County Mayo, Ireland (“Pirate Queen” Tower House). Photograph. [https://flic.kr/p/dKE87Z Image].
 +
* Conrad Heresbach. ''Foure Bookes of Husbandry''. London: John Kingston, 1578. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=160238 STC 13197 copy 2]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/v7t76k sig. ij].
 +
* John Milton. “Lycidas” from ''Justa Edouardo King Naufrago''. Cambridge: Thomas Buck, 1638. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=163280 STC 14964]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/479w4t p. 20–21].
  
=== Items included ===
+
==== Wall after Case 7 ====
  
* FACSIMILE from the Royal Irish Academy. Mícheál Óg Ó Longáin, scribe. A collection of scraps of manuscripts written at various times and in various places. Manuscript, 1795–1821, and 1833. Shelf Mark MS 23 G 24.
+
* FACSIMILE from the Royal Irish Academy. Mícheál Óg Ó Longáin, scribe. A collection of scraps of manuscripts written at various times and in various places. Manuscript, 1795–1821, and 1833. Shelf Mark: [http://cats.ria.ie/ics-wpd/exec/icswppro.dll?AC=GET_RECORD&XC=/ics-wpd/exec/icswppro.dll&BU=http%3A%2F%2Fcats.ria.ie%2Fmanusimple.html&TN=Manusc~1&SN=AUTO11551&SE=1560&RN=0&MR=35&TR=0&TX=1000&ES=0&CS=1&XP=&RF=Web+Display+-+List&EF=&DF=Web+Display+-+Full&RL=1&EL=1&DL=1&NP=1&ID=&MF=&MQ=&TI=0&DT=&ST=0&IR=1146&NR=0&NB=0&SV=0&SS=0&BG=&FG=&QS=manusimple-out&OEX=ISO-8859-1&OEH=ISO-8859-1 RIA, MS 23 G 24].
* FACSIMILE from the Baltimore Museum of Art. Sir Anthony van Dyck. The Marchioness of Worcester. Oil on canvas, ca. 1637.
+
* FACSIMILE from the [https://artbma.org Baltimore Museum of Art], Maryland. Sir Anthony van Dyck. ''The Marchioness of Worcester''. Oil on canvas, ca. 1637. Object number: [http://collection.artbma.org/emuseum/view/objects/asitem/items@:37105 1938.178] and [https://flic.kr/p/dKKAt9 Image].
* Kilcolman Castle, County Cork. Contemporary photographs and virtual reconstruction on website, "Centering Spenser: A Digital Resource for the Munster Plantation," constructed by the East Carolina University Multimedia Center.
+
* Kilcolman Castle, County Cork. Contemporary photographs and virtual reconstruction on website, [http://core.ecu.edu/umc/Munster/index.html "Centering Spenser: A Digital Resource for the Munster Plantation,"] constructed by the [http://www.ecu.edu/cs-acad/umc/projects.cfm East Carolina University Multimedia Center].
  
== Wall before Case 8 ==
+
== Wall before case 8 ==
  
* FACSIMILE. Mantle. Created December 2012 by Professor Robin Haller and students of the Textiles Program, School of Fine Arts and Communication, East Carolina University.
+
* FACSIMILE. Mantle. Created December 2012 by Professor Robin Haller and students of the Textiles Program, School of Fine Arts and Communication, East Carolina University. [http://blog.ecu.edu/sites/poeight/blog/2013/04/01/folger-shakespeare-library-exhibit-features-ecu-connections-2/ Image and ECU blog post].
  
 
== The Nine Year’s War (case 8) ==
 
== The Nine Year’s War (case 8) ==
 +
[[File:STC 7434 copy 1 title page.jpg|thumb|right|240px|The heavily marked-up title page of ''A letter from a souldier of a good place in Ireland'', 1602. Folger Digital Image [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/50mi8v 62671].]]
 +
The Nine Years’ War (1594–1603) was a watershed conflict in Irish history and a major event in England, costing more than all of Queen Elizabeth’s previous military forays combined. It ruined the career of the dashing second Earl of Essex, the Queen’s final favorite courtier, and it concluded only a few days after Elizabeth’s death in London. Commanding the “rebels” was the wily and supremely capable Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone. The protracted conflict began in Ulster; had its climax at the Battle of Kinsale (1601), at the opposite end of the country; and reached its denouement back in Ulster. It led to the destruction of the Munster Plantation in the south and, after many punishments, pardons, and minor rebellions, the beginning of the Ulster Plantation in the north.
  
 
=== Items included ===
 
=== Items included ===
  
* Sir Thomas Stafford. Pacata Hibernia. London: Augustine Mathewes, 1633. STC 23132a; displayed fold-out between p. 188–189  
+
* Thomas Stafford. ''Pacata Hibernia, Ireland appeased and reduced''. London: Augustine Mathewes, 1633. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=167000 STC 23132a]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/eh6323 fold-out between p. 188–189] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/30hd0m LUNA Digital Image].
* Robert Bagot. Letter from Robert Bagot, Dublin, to Richard Bagot, Blithfield. Manuscript, February 24, 1598. L.a.85; displayed p. 376–377  
+
* Robert Bagot. Letter from Robert Bagot, Dublin, to Richard Bagot, Blithfield. Manuscript, February 24, 1598. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=230544 L.a.85]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/c415a3 p. 376–377] and [http://findingaids.folger.edu/dfobagot.xml#ref220 Guide to the Bagot Family Papers, 1428–1671] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/epouut LUNA Digital Image].
* Edmund Spenser. A View of the Present State of Ireland. In a miscellany on religion and state affairs, 1559–1601. Manuscript, compiled ca. 1601. V.b.214; displayed p. 137  
+
* Edmund Spenser. "A View of the Present State of Ireland". In a'' Miscellany on religion and state affairs, 1559–1601''. Manuscript, compiled ca. 1601. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=231440 V.b.214]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/4ucs22 p. 137] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/4f3k20 LUNA Digital Copy].
* Thomas Lee. The Discoverye and Recoverye of Ireland. Manuscript, ca. 1600. V.a.475; displayed title page  
+
* Thomas Lee. ''The Discoverye and Recoverye of Ireland''. Manuscript, ca. 1600. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=234745 V.a.475]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/nl44nm title page].
* I.E. A Letter from a Souldier of Good Place in Ireland. London: Thomas Creede?, 1602. STC 7434 copy 1; displayed title page  
+
* I.E. A Letter from a Souldier of Good Place in Ireland. London: Thomas Creede?, 1602. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=167063 STC 7434 copy 1]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/1n3g5r title page].
* William Shakespeare. Henry V. London: Printed for T.P.,1608. STC 22291 copy 1; displayed title page  
+
* William Shakespeare. [[Henry V|''The chronicle history of Henry the fift'']]. London: William Jaggard for Thomas Pavier, 1619. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=163908 STC 22291 Copy 1]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/5y74eq title page] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/536fgh LUNA Digital Copy] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/6qw671 Binding image on LUNA].
 +
 
 +
== James and the Three Kingdoms (case 9 and wall after case 9) ==
  
== James and the Three Kingdoms (case 9) ==
+
The end of the Nine Years’ War ushered in great change to Irish-English relations. Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone, surrendered mere days after the death of Elizabeth I, last of the Tudor monarchs. Irish nobles faced a new dynasty, centered around Elizabeth’s successor, James Stuart. King James was the first monarch to unite the crowns of Ireland, England, and Scotland. He claimed descent from the peoples of all three kingdoms, and he worked hard to maintain peace between and among them. He worked equally hard to make the Irish nobility loyal to him, which he did by giving noble titles to favorites and selling them to loyal servants with deep pockets.
  
 
=== Items included ===
 
=== Items included ===
  
* FACSIMILE. John Speed. Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine. London: Thomas Snodham, 1616. STC 23044; displayed plate between 137–138
+
==== Case 9 ====
* Respublica Sive Status Regni Scotiae et Hiberniae [The Commonweal, or, the description of royal power of Scotland and Ireland by diverse authors]. Leiden: Elzevir Press, 1627.
+
 
* FACSIMILE from Clonalis House. “Poem in praise of James I,” from The Book of the O’Conor Don. Manuscript.
+
* FACSIMILE. John Speed. ''Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine''. London: Thomas Snodham, 1616. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=162294 STC 23044]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/65y3in detail, Gentle, Civil, & Wild Irish men and women, from map after p. 137] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/c4nm10 LUNA Digital Image].
* LOAN from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Transcribed by Domhnall ac Mothánna/Domhnal ac Taig. Tales, Ossianic verse. Manuscript, ca. 1603?
+
* ''Respublica Sive Status Regni Scotiae et Hiberniae'' [The Commonweal, or, the description of royal power of Scotland and Ireland by diverse authors]. Leiden: Elzevir Press, 1627.
* FACSIMILE from The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. Church of England Leabhar na nUrnaightheadh gComhchoidchiond. Dublin: Sheon Francke, 1608.
+
* FACSIMILE from [http://clonalis.com Clonalis House]. “Poem in praise of James I,” from ''The Book of the O’Conor Don''. Manuscript. ([http://old.folger.edu/imgdtl.cfm?imageid=5224&cid=4391 Image])
* Ben Jonson. The Workes of Benjamin Jonson. London: Will Stansby, 1616. STC 14751; displayed p. 1000–1001  
+
* LOAN courtesy of the [http://specialcollections.library.wisc.edu University of Wisconsin], Madison. Transcribed by Domhnall ac Mothánna/Domhnall ac Taig. ''Tales, Ossianic verse''. Manuscript, ca. 1603? UW-Madison Call number: [https://search.library.wisc.edu/catalog/999608182402121 MS 179].
* Historical extracts. Manuscript, ca. 1625. X.d.393; displayed p. 23v–24
+
* FACSIMILE from the [http://www.themorgan.org Pierpont Morgan Library], New York. Church of England. ''Leabhar na nurnaightheadh gcomhchoidchiond''. Dublin: Sheon Francke, 1608. Morgan Call number: [http://corsair.themorgan.org/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=111221 E1 08 C].
 +
* Ben Jonson. ''The Workes of Benjamin Jonson''. London: Will Stansby, 1616. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=164104 STC 14751 Copy 5]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/8m0157 p. 1000–1001].
 +
* ''Historical extracts''. Manuscript, ca. 1625. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=193388 X.d.393]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/96t7zs p. 23v–24r] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/ivec22 LUNA Digital Image].
  
== Wall after Case 9 ==
+
==== Wall after case 9 ====
  
* English School, after Daniel Mytens. Portrait of Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton. Not before 1620. Folger Shakespeare Library.  FPb55
+
* English School, after Daniel Mytens. ''Portrait of Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton''. Not before 1620. Oil on canvasCall number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=128731 FPb55] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/j34c5o LUNA Digital Image].
  
 
== Flight(s) of the Earls to the Continent and England (case 10) ==
 
== Flight(s) of the Earls to the Continent and England (case 10) ==
 +
 +
The Irish nobility was an international one, and under the Stuart kings, many of its members moved outside of the realm. Sometimes their relocation was spurred by religious and political tensions: Many Gaelic lords fled to Continental Europe seeking the support of Catholic sympathizers. The momentous “Flight of the Earls” of Tyrone and Tyrconnell to Rome in 1607 is typically thought to mark the end of the Gaelic—and Catholic—order in Ireland. Sometimes flight was motivated by loyalty to England’s monarch, however, as when the Protestant Duke of Ormond joined his king, Charles II, in exile from Oliver Cromwell’s Commonwealth. Less well-known is the phenomenon of Irish nobles—both Catholic and Protestant—willingly leaving Ireland in order to be closer to the crown and court in England.
  
 
=== Items included ===
 
=== Items included ===
  
* Maurice O'Fihely. Enchyridion Fidei. Venice: Boneto Locatelli, 1509. 159- 114q; displayed sig. A3r  
+
* Maurice O'Fihely. ''Enchyridion Fidei''. Venice: Boneto Locatelli, 1509. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=187359 159- 114q]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/j29063 sig. A3r].
* Richard Stanyhurst. De Vita S. Patricii. Antwerp: Christophe Plantin, 1587. BX4700.P3 S8 1587 Cage; displayed title page   
+
* Richard Stanyhurst. ''De Vita S. Patricii''. Antwerp: Christophe Plantin, 1587. Call number: BX4700.P3 S8 1587 Cage; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/wsnd64 title page].  
* Phillip O’Sullivan Beare. Historiae Catholicae Iberniae compendium. Lisbon: Petro Crasbecckio, 1621. DA910.O7 Cage; displayed p. 14  
+
* Phillip O’Sullivan Beare. ''Historiae Catholicae Iberniae compendium''. Lisbon: Petro Crasbecckio, 1621. Call number: DA910.O7 Cage; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/yym88c p. 14].
* FACSIMILE from University College, Dublin. Tadhg Ó Cianáin. Diary of the Flight of Earls. Manuscript, ca. 1609.
+
* FACSIMILE from [http://www.ucd.ie/mocleirigh/ Mícheál Ó Cléirigh Institute], University College, Dublin. Tadhg Ó Cianáin. ''Diary of the Flight of Earls''. Manuscript, ca. 1609. [http://www.ucd.ie/archives/collections/franciscanmss/amss/a21/ MS A 21] Digital copy at [http://www.isos.dias.ie/english/index.html Irish Script on Screen]
* FACSIMILE from Hiram Morgan. Hugh O’Neill (back row, far left) in Rome. Detail from an Italian fresco (16th century).
+
* FACSIMILE from Hiram Morgan. Hugh O’Neill (back row, far left) in Rome. Detail from an Italian fresco (16th century). ([http://old.folger.edu/imgdtl.cfm?imageid=5226&cid=4392 Image])
* Thomas Carve. Itinerarium. London: Nicholas Heyll, 1639. D915.C29 1639 Cage; displayed sig. (6)
+
* Thomas Carve. ''Itinerarium''. London: Nicholas Heyll, 1639. Call number: D915.C29 1639 Cage; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/9ai8t4 sig. )( 6].
  
 
== The Ulster Plantation (case 11) ==
 
== The Ulster Plantation (case 11) ==
 +
 +
In 1607, the earls of Ulster abandoned their ancestral lands and moved to the Continent. This change had radical consequences for the north of Ireland as well as for the rest of the island. The crown read this move as proof of yet another plot between the earls and the Spanish against the English state. The ancestral territories of the O’Neills, O’Donnells, Maguires, and their supporters therefore fell to the crown, which turned these lands into the Ulster Plantation, a colonization scheme on an unprecedented scale in Ireland. British law and investment were introduced, and the region, which was previously deemed the most uncivil and intractable in Ireland, was newly populated with English and Presbyterian Scots settlers.
  
 
=== Items included ===
 
=== Items included ===
  
* FACSIMILE from Lambeth Palace Library. Carew Manuscript. Gaelic Pedigree.
+
* FACSIMILE from Lambeth Palace Library. [http://www.lambethpalacelibrary.org/content/carew Carew Manuscript]. Gaelic Pedigree. ([http://old.folger.edu/imgdtl.cfm?imageid=5228&cid=4393 Image])
* Sir John Davies. Discoverie of the True Causes why Ireland was Never Entirely Subdued. London: William Jaggard, 1612. STC 6348; displayed title page  
+
* John Davies. ''A discouerie of the true causes why Ireland was neuer entirely subdued, nor brought vnder obedience of the crowne of England, vntill the beginning of his Maiesties happie raigne''. London: William Jaggard, 1612. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=163335 STC 6348]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/i796my title page].
* William Shakespeare. Mr William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies London: Isaac Iaggard & Ed. Blount, 1623. STC 22237 fo. 1 no. 75; displayed first page of The Tempest  
+
* William Shakespeare. ''Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies''. London: Isaac Iaggard & Ed. Blount, 1623. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=79358 STC 22237 Fo. 1 no. 75]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/996fpa sig. A1r] (first page of [[The Tempest|''The Tempest'']]) and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/98r07z LUNA Digital Image] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/0y5e7c Binding image on LUNA].
* LOAN from Bienecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University. Thomas Blenerhasset. A Direction for the Plantation in Ulster. London: Edward Allde, 1610.
+
* LOAN courtesy of [http://beinecke.library.yale.edu Bienecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library], Yale University. Thomas Blenerhasset. ''A Direction for the Plantation in Ulster''. London: Edward Allde, 1610. Yale Call number: [http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/1345064 1974 631].
 +
 
 +
== Land and Law: The New Nobility (pilaster after case 11, case 12, and vitrine after case 12) ==
 +
[[File:Z.e.41.jpg|The pedigree of the family of the Taylors of Shadoxhurst, 1665. Folger Digital Image [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/5qjjt6 14470].|thumb|right|180px]]
 +
The defeat and exile of the Ulster earls caused revolutionary changes in landownership in the north and elsewhere in Ireland. The social landscape also underwent radical change, as the Stuarts worked hard to fashion a new nobility, like-minded and loyal. Whereas Elizabeth had been stingy with elevations to the nobility, James gave his subjects what they wanted. However, what began as a social good—the elevation of the loyal and deserving—quickly turned sour as the regime handed out titles to favorites and sold others to the highest bidders. Because of the new vacancies, Ireland typically served as the site of these new ennoblements. The crown even created a new category of minor nobility, the baronet, which could be peddled to social climbers with deep pockets, a development that scandalized the “ancient” nobility.
  
== Pilaster after Case 11 ==
+
=== Items included ===
  
Pedigree of the Taylor family, Shadoxhurst, Kent. Manuscript, 1665. Z.e.41 
+
==== Pilaster after case 11 ====
  
== Land and Law: The New Nobility (case 12) ==
+
* Pedigree of the Taylor family, Shadoxhurst, Kent. Manuscript, 1665. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=244323 Z.e.41] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/9w26r7 LUNA Digital Image].
  
=== Items included ===
+
==== Case 12 ====
  
* FACSIMILE from St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin. Boyle’s funerary monument.
+
* FACSIMILE from [http://www.stpatrickscathedral.ie St. Patrick’s Cathedral], Dublin. [http://www.stpatrickscathedral.ie/Boyle-Monument.aspx Boyle’s funerary monument].
* FACSIMILE from the National Library of Ireland. Thomond Pedigree. Manuscript, 16th century.
+
* FACSIMILE from the National Library of Ireland. Thomond Pedigree. Manuscript, 16th century. ([http://old.folger.edu/imgdtl.cfm?imageid=5230&cid=4394 Image])
* Desiderata Curiosa Hibernica. Dublin: David Hay, 1772. DA905.L8 Cage; displayed p. 196  
+
* ''Desiderata Curiosa Hibernica''. Dublin: David Hay, 1772. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=132140 DA905.L8 Cage]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/z570gw p. 196].
* John Cusack (17th century). Ireland’s Comfort. Manuscript, 1629? G.a.10; displayed p. 175  
+
* John Cusack. ''Ireland’s Comfort''. Manuscript, 1629? Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=233136 G.a.10]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/gb7657 p. 175].
 
* FACSIMILE from Lambeth Palace Library. Fear Flatha Ó Gnímh’s pedigree of Randall MacDonnell, a Scotsman made Viscount Dunluce in the Irish peerage.
 
* FACSIMILE from Lambeth Palace Library. Fear Flatha Ó Gnímh’s pedigree of Randall MacDonnell, a Scotsman made Viscount Dunluce in the Irish peerage.
  
== Vitrine after Case 12 ==
+
==== Vitrine after case 12 ====
  
* Edmund Tilney. Topographical descriptions, regiments, and policies. Manuscript, c.1597 – c.1601. V.b.182; displayed p. 342–343  
+
* Edmund Tilney. ''Topographical descriptions, regiments, and policies''. Manuscript, c.1597 – c.1601. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=234864 V.b.182]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/92vn01 p. 342–343] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/x8y043 LUNA Digital Copy].
  
 
== Stuart Dublin (case 13) ==
 
== Stuart Dublin (case 13) ==
 +
 +
Stuart Dublin was a very different provincial capital than Tudor Dublin. Military “pacification” of Ireland and the attendant process of “Anglicization,” as envisioned by New English policymakers like Edmund Spenser, Richard Beacon, and Sir John Davies, reshaped the social, cultural, and political landscapes of the city. The 1630s witnessed  stunning growth and change for the capital. Under the stern viceregal eye of Sir Thomas Wentworth—close advisor to Charles I, and eventual Earl of Strafford—Dublin became a site of theater, learning, and high society. It also became a place of high political intrigue as Wentworth tested the king’s preference for absolute rule. Simultaneously, nobles of all backgrounds convened in Dublin during Charles’ reign.
  
 
=== Items included ===
 
=== Items included ===
  
* Edmund Spenser. A View of the [Present] State of Ireland in Edmund Campion’s Two Histories of Ireland. Dublin: Society of Stationers, 1633. STC 25067a copy 2; displayed title page   
+
* Edmund Spenser. ''A View of the [Present] State of Ireland'' in Edmund Campion’s ''Two Histories of Ireland''. Dublin: Society of Stationers, 1633. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=167329 STC 25067a Copy 2]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/u75g66 part 3 title page].    
* FACSIMILE from Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library. Sir Anthony van Dyck. Portrait of Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford. Oil on canvas, 17th century.
+
* FACSIMILE from Private Collection, via The Bridgeman Art Library. Sir Anthony van Dyck. ''Portrait of Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford''. Oil on canvas, 17th century. Image number: [https://www.bridgemanimages.com/en-US/asset/14172/dyck-sir-anthony-van-1599-1641/thomas-wentworth-1st-earl-of-strafford-1593-1641-1633-6-oil-on-canvas BAL14172].
* Sir James Ware. De Scriptoribus Hiberniæ. Dublin: Society of Booksellers, 1639. STC 25066 copy 2; displayed A3   
+
* Sir James Ware. ''De Scriptoribus Hiberniæ''. Dublin: Society of Booksellers, 1639. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=168035 STC 25066 Copy 2]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/47673q sig. A3].    
* James Shirley.The Royall Master. London: Thomas Cotes, 1638. STC 22454a copy 2; displayed title page   
+
* James Shirley. ''The Royall Master''. London: Thomas Cotes, 1638. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=166883 STC 22454a copy 2]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/3qx083 title page].    
* James Shirley.St. Patrick for Ireland. London: J. Raworth, 1640. STC 22455 copy 1; displayed title page   
+
* James Shirley. ''St. Patrick for Ireland''. London: J. Raworth, 1640. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=166933 STC 22455 copy 1]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/0uf85q title page].    
* LOAN from Rolf and Magda Lorber. Sir Philip Sidney. The Countess of Pembrokes Arcadia. Dublin: Society of Stationers, 1621.
+
* LOAN from Rolf and Magda Lorber. Sir Philip Sidney. ''The Countess of Pembrokes Arcadia''. Dublin: Society of Stationers, 1621. ([http://old.folger.edu/imgdtl.cfm?imageid=5294&cid=4395 Image])
  
 
== Irish London (case 14) ==
 
== Irish London (case 14) ==
 +
 +
The London of the early Stuarts was truly an imperial center. Henry VIII may have made Ireland a kingdom, but James and his son, Charles I, governed over England, Ireland, and Scotland and, thus, over the budding British Empire. The imperial crown demanded religious and cultural uniformity of the entire population, not simply the loyalty of elites. Consequently, it had to defend the legitimacy of its claim to Ireland on ideological as well as political grounds. The Stuarts did, however, enjoy significant support among Irish nobles, some of whom made London their home. Ireland and the Irish would continue to influence the capital into the modern era.
  
 
=== Items included ===
 
=== Items included ===
  
* James Ussher. A Discourse of the Religion Anciently Professed by the Irish and Brittish London: Robert Young, 1631. STC 24549 copy 1; displayed title page  
+
* James Ussher. ''A Discourse of the Religion Anciently Professed by the Irish and Brittish''. London: Robert Young, 1631. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=167816 STC 24549 Copy 1]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/f980c3 title page].
* James Butler, Duke of Ormond, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Articles of Peace, Made and Concluded with the Irish Rebels, and Papists. Including “Observations” attributed to John Milton. London: Matthew Simmons, 1649. A3863; displayed title page  
+
* James Butler, Duke of Ormond, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. ''Articles of Peace, Made and Concluded with the Irish Rebels, and Papists''. Including “Observations” attributed to John Milton. London: Matthew Simmons, 1649. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=155303 A3863]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/vcmdc5 title page].
* Wenceslaus Hollar. The True Maner of the Execution of Thomas Earle of Strafford. London, between 1641 and 1677. ART 264809 (size S) /
+
* [[Impressions of Wenceslaus Hollar|Wenceslaus Hollar]]. ''The True Maner of the Execution of Thomas Earle of Strafford''. London, between 1641 and 1677. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=219744 ART 264809 (size S)] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/g27a5t LUNA Digital Image].
* John Ford. The Chronicle Historie of Perkin Warbeck. London: Thomas Purfoot, 1634. STC 11157; displayed title page  
+
* John Ford. ''The Chronicle Historie of Perkin Warbeck''. London: Thomas Purfoot, 1634. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=159365 STC 11157]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/401g1k title page].
* Owen Felltham. Resolves: Divine, Morall, Politicall. London: Anne Seile, 1661. F655; displayed A1r  
+
* Owen Felltham. ''Resolves: Divine, Morall, Politicall''. London: for Anne Seile, 1661. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=149409 F655]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/5d9pgj sig. A1r].
* FACSIMILE from His Grace the Duke of Bedford and the Trustees of the Bedford Estates. Circle of Peter Lely. Margaret Russell with her niece Lady Diana. 17th century.
+
* FACSIMILE from His Grace the Duke of Bedford and the Trustees of the Bedford Estates. Circle of Peter Lely. ''Margaret Russell with her niece Lady Diana''. 17th century.
* FACSIMILE from the Royal Irish Academy. Mícheál Ó Longáin, scribe. Copy of poem to Meg Russell. Manuscript, 18th century. Shelf Mark MS 23 G 20.
+
* FACSIMILE from the Royal Irish Academy. Mícheál Ó Longáin, scribe. Copy of poem to Meg Russell. Manuscript, 18th century. Shelf Mark: RIA, MS 23 G 20. ([http://old.folger.edu/imgdtl.cfm?imageid=5233&cid=4396 Image])
* Henry Peacham. Minerva Britanna, or, A Garden of Heroical Devises. London: Wa. Dight, 1612. STC 19511 copy 1; displayed H3/p. 45  
+
* Henry Peacham. ''Minerva Britanna, or, A Garden of Heroical Devises''. London: Wa. Dight, 1612. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=165416 STC 19511 Copy 1]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/0ttpf0 p. 45] and [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/dp1405 LUNA Digital Copy].
* James Howell. Mercurius Hibernicus. Bristol, 1644.
+
* James Howell. ''Mercurius Hibernicus''. Bristol, 1644. Call number: [http://hamnet.folger.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=142711 H3093 Bd.w. STC 7434 Copy 2]; displayed [http://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/5z71tc title page].
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[[Category: Public programs]]
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[[Category: Exhibitions]]
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[[Category: 16th century]]
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[[Category: 17th century]]
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[[Category: 18th century]]
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[[Category: 21st century]]
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[[Category: Art]]
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[[Category: Letters]]
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[[Category: Manuscripts]]
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[[Category: Books]]

Latest revision as of 05:17, 22 November 2016

This article offers a comprehensive and descriptive list of each piece included in Nobility and Newcomers in Renaissance Ireland, one of the Exhibitions at the Folger.

London: City of Two Realms (case 1 and wall after case 1)

The 1554-1555 Office of the revels from Shrovetide. Folger Digital Image 60634.

London bore a heavy Irish mark, politically and culturally, in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Richard Duke of York's return from Ireland in 1450, where he served as Governor and enjoyed great support, helped spark the Wars of the Roses. The first Tudor king, Henry VII, (crowned 1485), would in turn face two Yorkist invasions launched from Ireland. Ireland was made a kingdom by Act of Parliament in 1541, and the crown's efforts to control the western realm inspired sixteenth-century mapmakers and historians: Knowledge equals power, and the Tudor capital was awash in new maps, histories, ethnographies, and political treatises concerning Ireland and its governance. Literary London, meanwhile, played to popular sentiment and emphasized the exotic character of the Irish in prose, verse, and drama.

Items included

Case 1

Wall after case 1

Dublin (case 2)

English and Irish noble connections played out in Dublin much as they did in London—at times harmonious, at times violently contentious. Founded by Vikings in the ninth century, Dublin was always an international settlement, and it became the de facto capital of the island by the time of the Anglo-Norman invasion in the late twelfth century. This first "English" conquest established intimate connections—by blood, marriage, and alliance—between nominally "English" and nominally "Irish" aristocracy. By the late Tudor period, the descendants of these two groups had become the "Old English" and "native Irish" (or "Gaels") respectively, and both were predominantly Catholic. The Tudor reconquest then introduced a (mostly Protestant) "New English" interest to this mingled society and thereby added a new level of complexity to cosmopolitan Dublin and the rest of the country.

Items included

Turmoil in the Pale: the Decline of Kildare (case 3 and wall above case 3)

The English Pale was an ill-defined legislative zone create in 1494 to protect Dublin's hinterland from what lay beyond. From its inception, the Pale was a site of cultural hybridity, political negotiation, and occasional rebellion. Most local nobles were of mixed English-Irish ancestry and they had to maintain allegiance to the distant English crown while living among the Gaelic neighbors, who had their own established language, laws and traditions. After Henry VIII's break with Rome, the nobles also had to defend their Catholicism against a state-sponsored Protestantism. The greatest of these families was the Fitzgeralds, earls of Kildare, who were among the most powerful and wealthy lords in all of England and Ireland. Until their rebellion in the 1530s, they regularly served as the English crown's cheif governors in Ireland.

Items included

Case 3

  • Richard Stanyhurst. De Rebus de Hibernia Gestis...1584. Call number: DA930.S8 1584 Cage; displayed title page.
  • Richard Stanyhurst. The First Foure Bookes of Virgil’s Aeneis. London: Henry Bynneman, 1583. Call number: STC 24807; displayed p. 1.
  • FACSIMILE from the National Gallery of Ireland. Attributed to the Master of the Countess of Warwick. Portrait of “The Fair Geraldine,” Elizabeth Fitzgerald, Countess of Lincoln (ca. 1528–90). Oil on panel, 16th century. NGI number: NGI.1195 and Image.
  • Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey. Sonnet to Elizabeth Fitgerald in Songs and Sonets. London: Richard Tottell, 1574. Call number: STC 13866 Copy 1; displayed fol. 5r and LUNA Digital Image.
  • Thomas Nashe. The Unfortunate Traveller. London: T. Scarlet, 1594. Call number: STC 18380; displayed p. 35.

Wall above case 3

Continuity & Change: Ormond’s Leinster (wall before case 4 and case 4)

The genealogy of the earls of Ormond. Folger Digital Image 62635.

As their rivals the Kildares fell from grace, the earls of Ormond rose to fill their place as the crown's Irish favorite. The greatest of the Ormond earls was Thomas "Black Tom" Butler (1531–1614), tenth earl of Ormond. He was a cousin of Queen Elizabeth and a man of immense wealth, connection, and diplomatic skill across cultural lines. While the earl's brothers in Tipperary took up arms against the government in 1569, Black Tom was staunchly loyal and helped to supress his rebellious brethren. Ormond spent many years at court in London and he also owned property in England. His proximity to the queen and near total power over his Irish territories aroused the envy of rivals on both islands.

Items included

Wall before case 4

  • FACSIMILE from the National Gallery of Ireland. Attributed to Steven van der Meule. Portrait of Thomas Butler (1532–1614), tenth Earl of Ormond. Oil on panel, 16th century. NGI number: NGI.4687 and Image.

Case 4

  • Dermot O'Meara. Ormonius. London: Thomas Snodham, 1615. Call number: STC 17761; displayed title page.
  • Genealogies of earls of England and Ireland. Manuscript, 1581 – c.1625. Call number: V.a.266; displayed leaf between 20 & 21.
  • LOAN courtesy of Houghton Library, Harvard University. Michael O’Byrne, scribe. Ag so Duainaire Aodha mac Seain UiBhruin ó Glen Moluara. Manuscript, compiled 1726–28. Harvard call number: MS Ir 6 and Harvard Digital Copy.
  • FACSIMILE from Houghton Library, Harvard University. Michael O’Byrne, scribe. Ag so Duainaire Aodha mac Seain UiBhruin ó Glen Moluara. Manuscript, compiled 1726–28. Houghton Call number: MS Ir 6 and Harvard Digital Copy.
  • FACSIMILE from Royal Irish Academy. Míchéal mac Peadair Uí Longáin, scribe. Miscellany, “Toghaim Tomas rogha” on “Black Thomas” Butler. Manuscript, 18th century. Shelf-mark: RIA, MS 23 N 15 and (Image)
  • FACSIMILE from the Huntington Library. Thomas Churchyard. A Scourge for Rebels. London: Thomas Dawson, 1584. Call number: 56400 and (Image)
  • Edmund Spenser. The Faerie Queene. London: John Wolfe, 1590. Call number: STC 23080 Copy 1; displayed sig. 2Q2v–2Q2r and LUNA Digital Image.
  • Attributed to Thomas Morgan. Leycesters Commonwealth. Paris, 1584. Call number: STC 19399; displayed p. 44–45.

Wall after Case 4

  • Plaster cast made from portrait in relief (1565–75) of King Edward VI, from the ornamental frieze of the Long Gallery, Ormond Castle, Carrick-On-Suir, County Tipperary, Ireland. Kindly reproduced for exhibition by the National Monument Service, Office of Public Works, Ireland.

Rebellion in Munster: the Fall of Desmond (case 5)

Like Ormond and Kildare, the house of Desmond in the southwest had a long, wealthy, and proud history in Ireland dating back to the Anglo-Norman invasion. Unlike its rivals to the north and east, however, it did not survive the Tudor period. The fifteenth earl launched a major rebellion that was crushed in 1583, and the crown, on the grounds of treason, siezed the earl's property and that of his rebel associates. The Desmonds had been one of the wealthiest and most powerful families in England and Ireland in the mid-sixteenth century; by the early seventeenth century, they had become powerless, and their titles passed into the hands of Richard Preston, Lord Dingwall, one of King James's Scottish favorites.

Items included

  • LOAN courtesy of Rolf and Magda Loeber. Francesco Petrarch. Le Volgari Opere del Petrarcha con la Espositione di Alessandro Vellutello da Lucca. Venice, 1525. (Image)
  • FACSIMILE from Lambeth Palace. Desmond pedigree. 17th century. Order No. MS 610.
  • Thomas Churchyard. The miserie of Flaunders, calamitie of Fraunce, misfortune of Portugall, unquietnes of Irelande, troubles of Scotlande: and the blessed state of Englande. London: Felix Kingston, 1579. Call number: STC 5243; displayed sig. C3v–D1.
  • FACSIMILE from Cambridge University Library. A[nthony] M[unday]. The True Reporte of the Prosperous Successe which God Gave Unto our English Souldiours. London: Edward White, 1581. (Image)
  • Edmund Spenser. The Faerie Queene. London: Richard Field, 1596. Call number: STC 23082 copy 2; displayed p. 466–467 and LUNA Digital Image.

Wall above Case 5

Vitrine after Case 5

Rise of the New English “New Men”: The Munster Plantation (case 6 and wall after case 6)

The death of the "Rebel Earl" of Desmond and that of many of his followers was a boon for newcomers. Almost half a million acres were siezed by the crown and distributed to those well-conected at cuort and those in government service, like the well-known poet Edmund Spenser. The result was Munster Planation, the largest colonial scheme in the country. It was based on humanistic and classical principles harking back to ancient Rome, as well as on modern surveying techniques. The primary goal of the Munster Plantation was to transform—with order, industry, and innovation—a supposedly savage, Catholic, backward, and degenerated Irish land into a Protestant and profitable realm that would be repeopled with English settlers.

Items included

Case 6

  • Richard Beacon. Solon his Follie. Oxford: Joseph Barnes, 1594. Call number: STC 1653.2; displayed title page.
  • Copy of letter from Erhardus Stibarus to Erasmus Neustetter from Lotichius, Elegiarum (Lyon, 1553), in the hand of Edmund Spenser. Manuscript, copied after 1576. Call number: X.d.520 and LUNA Digital Image.
  • Georg Sabinus. Poemata. Leipzig, 1563? Call number: V.a.341; displayed title page.
  • Edmund Spenser. Amoretti and Epithalamion. London: P. Short, 1595. Call number: STC 23076; displayed title page and LUNA Digital Copy.
  • Edmund Spenser. Colin Clouts Come Home Againe. London: Thomas Creede, 1595. Call number: STC 23077 copy 4; displayed sig. A2r
  • Lodowick Bryskett. “A Pastorall Aeglogue upon the death of Sir Phillip Sidney Knight, & Co.” in Edmund Spenser Colin Clouts Come Home Againe. London: Thomas Creede, 1595. Call number: STC 23077 copy 2; displayed sig. H2r.
  • FACSIMILE from the Royal Irish Academy. Feargal Dubh Ó Gadhra, scribe. Court verse. Poem by Eochaid Ó hEodhusa in O’Gara manuscript, 17th century. Shelf Mark: RIA, MS 23 F 16 and Digital copy at Irish Script on Screen.

Wall after case 6

  • FACSIMILE from the National Gallery of Ireland. William Segar [attributed]. Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh (1522–1618), Soldier and Historian. Oil on canvas, 16th century. NGI number: NGI.281.
  • LOAN courtesy of Elizabethan Gardens, North Carolina. Artist unknown, attributed to the school of Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger. Portrait of Elizabeth I (1533–1603). Oil on oak panels, ca. 1593. Image.
  • FACSIMILE from Private Collection, via The Bridgeman Art Library. Portrait of a gentleman, said to be Edmund Spenser (c. 1552–99), the Kinnoull Portrait. Oil on panel, early 17th century. Image number: MOU84829.

Breaking the West: Queens, Captains, and Nobility in Connacht (case 7 and wall after case 7)

The province of Connacht experienced the same heady mix of negotiation, resistance, alliance, and violence that marked English–Irish contact in Leinster and Munster. Yet the government of Connacht was particularly prone to abuse by nominally loyal officials, many of them newcomers, who operated largely outside of crown control in remote parts of the realm. Not all of the entrenched local families in the west suffered in the late-Tudor and early-Stuart periods as a result, however. The O’Briens, a native Irish kingship of ancient ancestry, continued to rule as earls of Thomond and flourished during these turbulent times. They owed their success to their unswerving loyalty to the crown, but also in part to the fatal missteps of their rivals.

Items included

Case 7

  • John Speed. Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine. London: Thomas Snodham, 1616. Call number: STC 23044; displayed map between p. 143–144 and LUNA Digital Image.
  • FACSIMILE from private collection. English School. Portrait of Sir William Fitzwilliam (1529–99), Lord Deputy of Ireland. 1595.
  • FACSIMILE from the National Portrait Gallery, London. Unknown artist. Sir Richard Bingham (1528–99). Oil on panel, 1564. NPG number: NPG 3793.
  • Program for The Pirate Queen. Hilton Theatre, New York. New York, 2007.
  • FACSIMILE from the Irish Image Collection/Getty Images. Rockfleet Castle on Clew Bay, County Mayo, Ireland (“Pirate Queen” Tower House). Photograph. Image.
  • Conrad Heresbach. Foure Bookes of Husbandry. London: John Kingston, 1578. Call number: STC 13197 copy 2; displayed sig. ij.
  • John Milton. “Lycidas” from Justa Edouardo King Naufrago. Cambridge: Thomas Buck, 1638. Call number: STC 14964; displayed p. 20–21.

Wall after Case 7

Wall before case 8

  • FACSIMILE. Mantle. Created December 2012 by Professor Robin Haller and students of the Textiles Program, School of Fine Arts and Communication, East Carolina University. Image and ECU blog post.

The Nine Year’s War (case 8)

The heavily marked-up title page of A letter from a souldier of a good place in Ireland, 1602. Folger Digital Image 62671.

The Nine Years’ War (1594–1603) was a watershed conflict in Irish history and a major event in England, costing more than all of Queen Elizabeth’s previous military forays combined. It ruined the career of the dashing second Earl of Essex, the Queen’s final favorite courtier, and it concluded only a few days after Elizabeth’s death in London. Commanding the “rebels” was the wily and supremely capable Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone. The protracted conflict began in Ulster; had its climax at the Battle of Kinsale (1601), at the opposite end of the country; and reached its denouement back in Ulster. It led to the destruction of the Munster Plantation in the south and, after many punishments, pardons, and minor rebellions, the beginning of the Ulster Plantation in the north.

Items included

James and the Three Kingdoms (case 9 and wall after case 9)

The end of the Nine Years’ War ushered in great change to Irish-English relations. Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone, surrendered mere days after the death of Elizabeth I, last of the Tudor monarchs. Irish nobles faced a new dynasty, centered around Elizabeth’s successor, James Stuart. King James was the first monarch to unite the crowns of Ireland, England, and Scotland. He claimed descent from the peoples of all three kingdoms, and he worked hard to maintain peace between and among them. He worked equally hard to make the Irish nobility loyal to him, which he did by giving noble titles to favorites and selling them to loyal servants with deep pockets.

Items included

Case 9

Wall after case 9

  • English School, after Daniel Mytens. Portrait of Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton. Not before 1620. Oil on canvas. Call number: FPb55 and LUNA Digital Image.

Flight(s) of the Earls to the Continent and England (case 10)

The Irish nobility was an international one, and under the Stuart kings, many of its members moved outside of the realm. Sometimes their relocation was spurred by religious and political tensions: Many Gaelic lords fled to Continental Europe seeking the support of Catholic sympathizers. The momentous “Flight of the Earls” of Tyrone and Tyrconnell to Rome in 1607 is typically thought to mark the end of the Gaelic—and Catholic—order in Ireland. Sometimes flight was motivated by loyalty to England’s monarch, however, as when the Protestant Duke of Ormond joined his king, Charles II, in exile from Oliver Cromwell’s Commonwealth. Less well-known is the phenomenon of Irish nobles—both Catholic and Protestant—willingly leaving Ireland in order to be closer to the crown and court in England.

Items included

  • Maurice O'Fihely. Enchyridion Fidei. Venice: Boneto Locatelli, 1509. Call number: 159- 114q; displayed sig. A3r.
  • Richard Stanyhurst. De Vita S. Patricii. Antwerp: Christophe Plantin, 1587. Call number: BX4700.P3 S8 1587 Cage; displayed title page.
  • Phillip O’Sullivan Beare. Historiae Catholicae Iberniae compendium. Lisbon: Petro Crasbecckio, 1621. Call number: DA910.O7 Cage; displayed p. 14.
  • FACSIMILE from Mícheál Ó Cléirigh Institute, University College, Dublin. Tadhg Ó Cianáin. Diary of the Flight of Earls. Manuscript, ca. 1609. MS A 21 Digital copy at Irish Script on Screen
  • FACSIMILE from Hiram Morgan. Hugh O’Neill (back row, far left) in Rome. Detail from an Italian fresco (16th century). (Image)
  • Thomas Carve. Itinerarium. London: Nicholas Heyll, 1639. Call number: D915.C29 1639 Cage; displayed sig. )( 6.

The Ulster Plantation (case 11)

In 1607, the earls of Ulster abandoned their ancestral lands and moved to the Continent. This change had radical consequences for the north of Ireland as well as for the rest of the island. The crown read this move as proof of yet another plot between the earls and the Spanish against the English state. The ancestral territories of the O’Neills, O’Donnells, Maguires, and their supporters therefore fell to the crown, which turned these lands into the Ulster Plantation, a colonization scheme on an unprecedented scale in Ireland. British law and investment were introduced, and the region, which was previously deemed the most uncivil and intractable in Ireland, was newly populated with English and Presbyterian Scots settlers.

Items included

Land and Law: The New Nobility (pilaster after case 11, case 12, and vitrine after case 12)

The pedigree of the family of the Taylors of Shadoxhurst, 1665. Folger Digital Image 14470.

The defeat and exile of the Ulster earls caused revolutionary changes in landownership in the north and elsewhere in Ireland. The social landscape also underwent radical change, as the Stuarts worked hard to fashion a new nobility, like-minded and loyal. Whereas Elizabeth had been stingy with elevations to the nobility, James gave his subjects what they wanted. However, what began as a social good—the elevation of the loyal and deserving—quickly turned sour as the regime handed out titles to favorites and sold others to the highest bidders. Because of the new vacancies, Ireland typically served as the site of these new ennoblements. The crown even created a new category of minor nobility, the baronet, which could be peddled to social climbers with deep pockets, a development that scandalized the “ancient” nobility.

Items included

Pilaster after case 11

Case 12

  • FACSIMILE from St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin. Boyle’s funerary monument.
  • FACSIMILE from the National Library of Ireland. Thomond Pedigree. Manuscript, 16th century. (Image)
  • Desiderata Curiosa Hibernica. Dublin: David Hay, 1772. Call number: DA905.L8 Cage; displayed p. 196.
  • John Cusack. Ireland’s Comfort. Manuscript, 1629? Call number: G.a.10; displayed p. 175.
  • FACSIMILE from Lambeth Palace Library. Fear Flatha Ó Gnímh’s pedigree of Randall MacDonnell, a Scotsman made Viscount Dunluce in the Irish peerage.

Vitrine after case 12

Stuart Dublin (case 13)

Stuart Dublin was a very different provincial capital than Tudor Dublin. Military “pacification” of Ireland and the attendant process of “Anglicization,” as envisioned by New English policymakers like Edmund Spenser, Richard Beacon, and Sir John Davies, reshaped the social, cultural, and political landscapes of the city. The 1630s witnessed stunning growth and change for the capital. Under the stern viceregal eye of Sir Thomas Wentworth—close advisor to Charles I, and eventual Earl of Strafford—Dublin became a site of theater, learning, and high society. It also became a place of high political intrigue as Wentworth tested the king’s preference for absolute rule. Simultaneously, nobles of all backgrounds convened in Dublin during Charles’ reign.

Items included

  • Edmund Spenser. A View of the [Present] State of Ireland in Edmund Campion’s Two Histories of Ireland. Dublin: Society of Stationers, 1633. Call number: STC 25067a Copy 2; displayed part 3 title page.
  • FACSIMILE from Private Collection, via The Bridgeman Art Library. Sir Anthony van Dyck. Portrait of Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford. Oil on canvas, 17th century. Image number: BAL14172.
  • Sir James Ware. De Scriptoribus Hiberniæ. Dublin: Society of Booksellers, 1639. Call number: STC 25066 Copy 2; displayed sig. A3.
  • James Shirley. The Royall Master. London: Thomas Cotes, 1638. Call number: STC 22454a copy 2; displayed title page.
  • James Shirley. St. Patrick for Ireland. London: J. Raworth, 1640. Call number: STC 22455 copy 1; displayed title page.
  • LOAN from Rolf and Magda Lorber. Sir Philip Sidney. The Countess of Pembrokes Arcadia. Dublin: Society of Stationers, 1621. (Image)

Irish London (case 14)

The London of the early Stuarts was truly an imperial center. Henry VIII may have made Ireland a kingdom, but James and his son, Charles I, governed over England, Ireland, and Scotland and, thus, over the budding British Empire. The imperial crown demanded religious and cultural uniformity of the entire population, not simply the loyalty of elites. Consequently, it had to defend the legitimacy of its claim to Ireland on ideological as well as political grounds. The Stuarts did, however, enjoy significant support among Irish nobles, some of whom made London their home. Ireland and the Irish would continue to influence the capital into the modern era.

Items included

  • James Ussher. A Discourse of the Religion Anciently Professed by the Irish and Brittish. London: Robert Young, 1631. Call number: STC 24549 Copy 1; displayed title page.
  • James Butler, Duke of Ormond, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Articles of Peace, Made and Concluded with the Irish Rebels, and Papists. Including “Observations” attributed to John Milton. London: Matthew Simmons, 1649. Call number: A3863; displayed title page.
  • Wenceslaus Hollar. The True Maner of the Execution of Thomas Earle of Strafford. London, between 1641 and 1677. Call number: ART 264809 (size S) and LUNA Digital Image.
  • John Ford. The Chronicle Historie of Perkin Warbeck. London: Thomas Purfoot, 1634. Call number: STC 11157; displayed title page.
  • Owen Felltham. Resolves: Divine, Morall, Politicall. London: for Anne Seile, 1661. Call number: F655; displayed sig. A1r.
  • FACSIMILE from His Grace the Duke of Bedford and the Trustees of the Bedford Estates. Circle of Peter Lely. Margaret Russell with her niece Lady Diana. 17th century.
  • FACSIMILE from the Royal Irish Academy. Mícheál Ó Longáin, scribe. Copy of poem to Meg Russell. Manuscript, 18th century. Shelf Mark: RIA, MS 23 G 20. (Image)
  • Henry Peacham. Minerva Britanna, or, A Garden of Heroical Devises. London: Wa. Dight, 1612. Call number: STC 19511 Copy 1; displayed p. 45 and LUNA Digital Copy.
  • James Howell. Mercurius Hibernicus. Bristol, 1644. Call number: H3093 Bd.w. STC 7434 Copy 2; displayed title page.