John Ward's Latin
This article features two glossaries of the Latin words and abbreviations in the diaries of John Ward, Folger MS V.a.284 -299. The words are all associated with medical receipts. At the bottom of the article are links to a cribsheet for John Ward's handwriting, several sites that depict alchemical symbols, and a Greek keyboard.
The first glossary was compiled by Dr. Robert Tallaksen, a reader and transcriber at the Folger Shakespeare Library. It is regularly updated with new words. Last update was March 26, 2021.
The second glossary is the work of Callum Simms, a transcriber on Shakespeare's World (a crowd-sourced project between the Folger Shakespeare Library, Zooniverse and the OED, sponsored by EMMO). Some of John Ward's diaries have been transcribed by volunteers on Shakespeare's World. On Shakespeare's World's talk feature, Callum Simms is known as @IntelVoid.
John Ward was the vicar of Stratford-upon-Avon from 1662 to 1681. The Folger Shakespeare Library has 16 of his 17 diaries. More information on John Ward can be found in A Semi-Diplomatic Transcription of Selections from the John Ward Diaries.
John Ward's Latin medical words and abbreviations (Dr. Robert Tallaksen, compiler)
Instructions and Amounts
ā, āā, ān., ana = of each
a. c., p. c., ante/post cibum = before or after a meal
ad. grat. acid., ad gratem aciditatem = to an agreeable sourness
ante pastum = before food
ante/post prandium = before/after a meal (lunch)
applic., applico -are = apply; e.g., applica ventre = apply to the abdomen
bacill., bacillus -i = a small stick; e.g., bacill. glycirriz., a stick of licorice
balneum -i = bath; e.g., BV, balneo vaporoso, in a steam bath; BM, balneo Mariae, in a bain-marie
bib., bibo -ere = drink; bibit (she/he drinks), bibat (let her/him drink) or bibatur (let X be drunk )
bullio -ire = boil; bulliant, they should boil or let them boil
calcino -are = to calcine; reduce by roasting or burning to a powder or friable substance; una calcinentur, let them be calcined together
cap., capio -ere = cape, take; also capiat (let him/her take X) and capiatur (let X be taken)
chartula -ae = a small piece of paper; specifically, such a piece of paper twisted or folded and containing a single dose of medicinal powder
clarific., clarifico -are = clarify
coch., cochleare = spoonful(s)
colatus -a -um (also incolatus) = strained, filtered, purified (from colo -are = strain, filter) compos., compositus -a -um = adj., compound; composed, prepared
cong., congius -i = gallon
contund., contundo -ere = bruise, crush, beat
contus., contusus -a -um = adj., bruised, crushed, beaten
coq., coqu., coquo -ere = boil
crebro = adv., frequently, repeatedly
cum = with; very often abbreviated with macron: cū
cuspis -idis cultelli = point of a knife; as much medicine as will lie on a knife point; a small but uncertain amount, likely a few grains
d., da, datur detur = da, give; datur X, X is given; detur X, let X be given
d., dos., dosis -is = dose
decoq., decoquo -ere = boil down / reduce
diluculi., diluculum -i = at daybreak; alternis diluculis, every other morning at dawn
dulcorand., edulcorand., dulcorandus -a -um = sweetened; from dulcoro -are
e, ex = out of / from
ebull., ebullio -ire = boil
epotus -a -um = swallowed, quaffed, drunk up
erasus -a -um = scraped; see also rasus -a -um, below
et = and
exacin., exacinatus -a -um = with the seeds or stones removed; e.g. raisins
excorticatus -a -um = peeled, skinned, stripped of outer covering
f. (face), from facio -ere = make
fiat X = let X be done/made
foveo -ere = keep warm; foveatur, let her/him/it be kept warm
frigid., frigidus -a -um = cold; e.g., capiat frigida, let it be taken cold
gran., granum = grain (apothecary measure)*
gt, gutt, gutta -ae = drop*
h. s., hora somni, hora somnj = at bedtime
in = in, into
incid., incido -ere = cut open/into; incisus -a -um, incised, cut open
(in)fund. - (in)fundo -ere = pour (in)
insideat = let her/him sit (in a bath)
inspissat., inspissatus -a -um = adj., thickened, condensed
inung., inunguo -ere = rub on (e.g., salve, ointment)
ieiuno or jejuno ventriculo = on a fasting (empty) stomach
lambend., lambo -ere = lick/ lap up; sensim lambendus, to be licked up slowly
lb, sometimes lib, or crossed, "℔" = pound; liquid measures often in pounds rather than volume
lenitiv., lenitivus -a -um = adj., soothing, gently laxative
m., misc., misceo -ere = mix; misceantur, let them (ingredients) be mixed
m. f. = misce face/ misceat or misceant fiat, mix (the ingredients) and make X, or let (the ingredients) be mixed and X be made (e.g., pills, electuary)
magistral., magistralis -e = related to magister -tri, a master or teacher; can refer to something that is a practitioner's own formulation (as opposed to officinalis -e, see below), or a remedy that is supremely effective
mane (indecl.) = in the morning
manica -ae hyppocratis = Hippocrates' sleeve, a kind of conical strainer made of linen or flannel; e.g., clarificentur per manicam hyppocratis, let them be clarified through a Hippocrates' sleeve
mass., massa -ae = the compound out of which pills, etc., are formed
matut., matutinus -a -um, matutine = in the (early) morning
mortarium -i = mortar; tunde, or contunde in mortario, crush in a mortar
mundat., mundatus -a -um = cleaned
no. or no = numerus, for the number of things; e.g. succ. Limon. no (numero) ii, juice of two lemons (in the number of two)
nocte = at night
nodulo, nodulus -i = a little knot, from nodus -i; in nodulo ligat., tied in a little knot
officin., officinalis -e = from officina -ae, a shop; any standard medicine or ingredient kept in apothecary shops
ꝑreꝑ. or preꝑ.= preparatus -a -um (conjectured)
paratur = it is prepared; e.g., paratur vnguent., an ointment is prepared
parum = a little; e.g., ol(eum) Iasmini parum, a little oil of jasmine
pauxill., pauxillatum = little by little
permisceo -ere = mix thoroughly; permisceantur, let them (ingredients) be thoroughly mixed
pisto -are = pound, stamp, crush; pistentur, let them be pounded
pomeridiane = (adv.) in the afternoon
pulveriz., pulverizatus -a -um = powdered
purpureus -a -um = purple
q. s., quantum satis or quantum sufficit = a sufficient quantity; q. s. ad = a sufficient amount for...
q. s. m. f. = quantum satis misce face (or misceantur fiat), take a sufficient quantity of the last ingredient or ingredients named, mix, (and) make X; or let the ingredients be mixed and let X be made
rament., ramenta -orum = (plural) scrapings, shavings
ras., rasur., rasus -a -um or rasuratus -a -um = scraped or scrapings of
redig., redige, redigo -ere = reduce (into); e.g., redig. in cataplasma, reduce to a poultice
s. a., secundem artem = according to art/practice, in the usual way; connotation is that the method requires particular skill and/or experience
s. or ss., semis = one half (see note below)
saepe, sepe = often; saepius (comparative) = rather often, more often
semicoch., semicochl., semicochleare = half a spoonful
sensim = slowly, gradually, little by little
sero = late; e.g., mane et sero, in the morning and late
setaceum -i = sieve; per setaceum, through a sieve
siccus -a -um = dry, dried
singul., singulus -a -um = one at a time, individually, singly
spatha -ae, spatula -ae = a flat piece of wood, a stirrer; diminutive is spatula -ae
spong., spongiā, spongiis = with a sponge or sponges
stillat., stillatim = drop by drop
substituo -ere = substitute; X substituatur, X should/ought to be substituted; e.g., for a missing ingredient: in defectu vini graeci aliud vinum potens album substituatur, in the absence of Greek wine another strong white wine should/may be substituted
subtilissime, subtilissimus -a -um = very fine(ly), minutely; e.g., face pulverem subtilissimam, make a very fine powder; contunde in mortario subtilissime, crush very finely in a mortar
sumend., sumendus -a -um = to be or should be taken; e.g., mane et sero sumendum = to be taken early and late
summo mane = very early in the morning
superbib., superbibo -ere = drink after or upon another substance; superbibendus -a -um, it should be taken after something else
ust., ustus -a -um = burnt
vesperi = in the evening
lb or ℔ = pound; NB the unit of weight, not of money
M = handful
p = pugil, the amount that can be picked up with the thumb and two fingers
℥ = ounce (available on EMROC toolbar in Dromio)
f℥ = fluid ounce, though the "f" is generally omitted
ʒ = dram, drachm (available on EMROC toolbar in Dromio)
℈ = scruple (available on EMROC toolbar in Dromio)
- 20 grains = 1 scruple
- 3 scruples = 1 dram
- 8 drams = 1 ounce
Numerical amounts are most often given in minuscule Roman numerals; e.g., iiii. The last "i" is very often written as a "long i" or "j," e.g., iiij, but should be transcribed as a minuscule: iiii.
When "s" or "ss" is used for one half, it follows the last character, thus:
- ℈s, 1/2 scruple
- ℥iiis = 3 1/2 ounces
- ʒiss = 1 1/2 drams
The "s" can look like a long "i" but will lack a dot.
The abbreviations for grain, "gr," and guttae (drops), "gt," can look very similar; if so:
- when the ingredient is a liquid, e.g., a syrup, suggest using "gt"
- if a dry substance, e.g., saffron, use "gr."
Ingredients, descriptions, and types of receipts
abrotan., abrotanum -i = artemisia or southernwood, Artemisia abrotanum
absynth., absynthium -i = wormwood, Artemisia absinthium; sal absynthii = salt of absinth, impure potassium carbonate (K2CO3) obtained from wormwood ashes; see also vinum absinthites, below
acetos., acetosa -ae = sorrel or sour dock, Rumex acetosa; fol. acetos., folia acetosae, leaves of this plant
acet., acetum -i = vinegar; a. theriacale, treacle vinegar
acori., acorus -i = sweet flag plant, Acorus calamus
adamas or lapis -idis adamas = diamond; from α (not) + δάμαζω (conquer, break) because it cannot be broken
adiant., adianth., adiantum -i = maidenhair fern, Adiantum capillus-veneris
adonis -is or -nidis = the plant pheasant's eye, Adonis annua; its red flowers are said to have grown on Adonis' grave
aes aeris = brass, copper; aes viride, verdigris; see also unguentum Egyptiacum, below
aetites -ae = eagle stone (Pliny), "a hollow nodule or pebble of hydrated iron oxide containing a loose kernel that makes a noise when rattled" (OED); said to be helpful in avoiding miscarriage, in pregnancy generally, and in childbirth
agalloc(h)um = see lignum aloes, below
agaric., agaricus -i = originally the bracket fungus, Formitopsis officinalis, later any mushroom with a cap, various species including Agaricus cantharellus, the chanterelle
agaricus -i Rudii = an unknown mushroom or fungus used by or otherwise associated with Eustachio Rudio (1551 - 1611), Italian physician, Latinized as Eustachius Rudius
ageratum -i = sweet maudlin, sweet yarrow, or English mace, Achillea ageratum; flowering plant in the sunflower family
agni cast., agni casti = Vitex agnus-castus; chaste tree, chasteberry, Abraham's balm, etc. agrimon., agrimonia -ae = common agrimony, Agrimonia eupatoria
albedinem = accusative of albedo -inis, whiteness; occurs in the phrase ad albedinem calcinati, calcined to whiteness, in this case hart's horn
alb., albus -a -um = white
alb. graec., album graecum = the dry white excrement of a dog, hyena, or other bone-eating carnivore, esp. when used as an ingredient in medicinal preparations (OED)
alcanna -ae = alkanet, Alkanna tinctoria, an herb in the borage family; the root yields a red dye; used for infections
alchermes, alkermes (confectio -onis) = confection of kermes (pregnant female of the crimson insect Coccus ilicis), formerly supposed to be a berry; widely used as dye-stuff and in medicine
alchymilla -ae = genus of herbaceous perennials in the rose family, esp. lady's mantle, Alchemilla mollis; the species used for the herbal tea used in gynecology was A. xanthochlora or A. vulgaris
aleophanginae = see pilulae aleophanginae, below
alexitericus -a -um = alexipharmic, a "medicine or treatment believed to protect against, counteract the effects of, or expel from the body a noxious or toxic substance... an antidote" (OED)
alexiterium -i = an alexipharmic medicine, antidote; alexiterium D. Stephani, Stephanus's antidote, possibly from Stephanus Atheniensis (c. 550 - 630), Greek physician and commentator on Galen
alezeteris = likely a misspelling for "alexiteris," see above entry
alhandal = Arabic name for colocynth (q. v.); troches of alhandal also contained bdellium & gum tragacanth
alipta -ae = see alyptae moschata, below
alkakeng., alkekengi = winter cherry, Physalis alkekengi, a diuretic
alleluia = same as lujula, see below
allium -i = garlic, Allium sativum
alnus -i = alder, a tree of genus Alnus; cort. alni nigri = black alder bark, from A. glutinosa
aloe -es = aloe; esp. the true aloe, Aloe vera; more than 500 species; distinguish from lignum aloes, q.v.
aloe -es depurata = extract made by boiling aloe with water and then concentrating the liquid; if the water was replaced with juice of violet flowers, "aloe violata;" if with juice of rose leaves, "aloe rosata"
aloe -es lota = washed aloe; apparently dissolved in the juice of roses and then dried
alsine = bog stichwort, Stellaria alsine
alth., althe., althea/althaea -ae = mallow or marsh-mallow, Althea officinalis; also called malvaviscus
alviducum -i = "opener of the belly;" i.e., a laxative
alumin., alumina -ae, alumen -inis = alum; argil or argillaceous earth
alypta -ae moschata = a compounded lozenge containing ladanum (q. v.), styrax calamita, red sytrax, aloe, ambra, camphor, nutmeg, and rosewater; for asthma and chest constriction
amaracus -i = dittany of Crete, Dictamnus (Origanum) creticus
ambra -ae = amber, or a balsam from Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), or ambergris
ambra -ae grisea = ambergris
amethystus -i = amethyst; the semi-precious stone, "to which the ancients attributed the property of preventing drunkenness" (Dunglison's Medical Lexicon)
ammi -ii = an umbelliferous plant, Ammi vulgare (maius), common bishop's weed
ammoniac., ammoniacum -i = gum ammoniac, gum resin of Dorema ammoniacum
amomi., amomum -i = genus of aromatic plants including black cardamom, Amomum sublatum
amylum -i = white starch anagallis -idis = common or "scarlet" pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis
anas -atis = duck, various birds of family Anatidae, genus Anas; genitive plural anatum, as in iecur anatum, liver of ducks
aneth., anethum -i = dill, Anethum graveolens
anis., anisum -i = anise, Pimpinella anisum; semina anisi, aniseed
anodin., anodyn., anodynos -us = a pain reliever, anodyne
anserin., anserinus -a -um = of, relating to, or obtained from a goose; adipes anserinus, goose fat
antepileptic., antepilepticus -a -um = anti-epileptic; e.g., aqua antepileptica
anthora -ae = anthora, yellow monkshood, or healing wolfsbane, Aconitum anthora
anthos = rosemary flowers; anthosatus -a -um, infused with rosemary flowers; e.g., mel (honey) anthosatum
antidotum -i or antidotus -i = an antidote or counterpoison
antidotum -i haemagogum = "haemagogum" indicates that it promotes menstrual or hemorrhoidal discharge of blood; numerous ingredients including lupins, pepper, licorice, long birthwort, etc.; Culpeper says that it "provokes the Terms, brings away both birth and afterbirth"
antidotus -i Matthioli = Matthiolus' Great Antidote, some recipes call for more than 300 ingredients; in the Pharmacopoiea Londinensis, William Salmon (1644 - 1713) terms it "one of the greatest Galli-maufries that ever I saw" aparine = cleavers, clivers, catchweed, sticky willy, or velcro plant, Galium aparine
apium -i = smallage or any of several kinds of celery or parsley, esp. wild celery, Apium graveolens dulce; apium caulis, the stock or stem of one of these plants
apozema -atis = an infusion or decoction; or concentration by boiling
aq., aqua -ae = water; if an infusion, distillation, or decoction, with the name of the source in the genitive, e.g., aqua hordei, barley water
aq. calc., aqua -ae calcis = lime water (whitewash)
aqua -ae caponis = capon water; made by boiling a capon with raisins, pine nuts, licorice, and herbs, mixed with wine and other herbs, and distilled; a pectoral
aqua -ae chrysulca = see aqua regia, below
aqua fontis, aqua fontana = spring or well water
aq. fort., aqua -ae fortis = nitric acid, HNO3; may also be called "spirit of niter"
aq. histeric., aqu -ae histerica = anti-hysteric water; receipts vary
aqua -ae imperialis = a drink made from water mixed with cream of tartar and lemon, and sweetened to taste
aq. naphae, aqua -ae naphae = orange flower water
aqua regia = a mixture of nitric (HNO3) and hydrocholoric (HCl) acids which can dissolve gold and platinum
aq. vit., aqua vitae = distilled spirit
aquilegia -ae = genus of perennial plants, including various species of columbine
arc(h)onticon = see pulvis arconticon, below
argentina -ae = genus of plants in the rose family, especially silverweed, Argentina anserina
argentum -i = the element silver (Ag); argentum vivum ("alive") = mercury (Hg), see hydrargyrus, below
argill., argilla -ae = argil, argillaceous earth, alumina
arillus -i = seed/stone; uva passa detractis arillis, dried grapes with the seeds removed
aristoloch., aristolochia -ae = many species, including birthwort, Aristolochia clematitis; JW also mentions A. rotunda, smearwort or round-leaved birthwort; see also serpentaria, below
aromat. rosat., aromaticum rosatum = aromatic medicine containing roses
artemis., artemisia -ae = mugwort, Artemisia vulgaris; also other species including southernwood, wormwood, tarragon
artanit., artanita -ae = probably sow-bread, Cyclamen purpurascens
arum -i = common arum or aron, Arum maculatum; also known as wake-robin, cuckoo-pint; a stimulant
arundo -inis = genus of grasses; Arundo donax, giant cane; A. plinii, Pliny's reed; A. vallatoria, bankside reed; A. saccharina, sugar cane, now genus Saccharum
asa dulcis = benzoe siamensis, a resin gum from Styrax tonkinensis, used for skin irritation; possibly also used as a purgative , diuretic, or antispasmodic, and identical to benzoin
asar., asarum -i = asarabacca or hazelwort, Asarum europaeum; also known as nardus celticus
asclepiadis = genitive of genus Asclepias; various species, including milkweed.; mentioned as radix asclepiadis, the root of such a plant
aspalathus -i = genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae (beans), numerous species
asphodel., asphodelus -i = genus of flowering plants mythologically connected with the underworld and said to cover the Elysian fields; the white asphodel, A. albus, is also known as King's spear; the roots were compounded into a cataplasm and applied to scrofulous ulcers
asparag., asparagus -i = asparagus, Asparagus officinalis; the root was used as a diuretic
asperula -ae odorata = sweet woodruff; also called Gallium odoratum
asell., asellus -i = wood louse, Oniscus asellus; pulv. (onisc.) asell., powder of wood lice
ass. foetid., assafoetida -ae = asafoetida, dried gum of root of Ferula foetida or F. assa-foetida
assaireth = in pilulae Assaireth (Avicenna); pills containing hiera picra, mastich, myrobalans, etc.; a cholagogue
athanasia -ae = genus of flowering plants in the daisy family; in ancient times a kind of antidote; "athanasia magna" was thought to be useful in dysentery and hemorrhages
atriplex -icis (olida) = orache or arrach, an emmenogogue and used for disorders of the uterus generally; Culpeper defines A. olida as "stinking arrach"
aurum -i = gold; appears in V.a.298 as "fol. auri," gold leaf; though possibly leaves of Aurus brasiliensis, also known as Calamus aromaticus asiaticus, Asian sweet-scented flag see also pillulae aurae below
auriculus -i muris = mouse-ear or mouse-ear hawkweed, Pilosella officinarum
aurum -i fulminans or volatile = fulminating (explosive) gold, a mixture of compounds of gold, ammonia, and chlorine; seems primarily to have been seen as a curiosity; Glauber used fumes produced by its detonation to gold-plate objects
aurant., aurantior., aurantium -i = orange, Citrus aurantium; cortex aurantiorum, orange peel
aurant. chinens., aurantium -i chinense = Chinese (sweet) orange, Citrus sinensis
auripigment., auripigmentum -i = auripigment, arsenic trisulfide (As2S3), used by painters under the name of King's Yellow (OED); also appears as arsenicum auripigmentum
avellan., avellanus -a -um = relating to hazel-nut or filbert; nux avellana, hazel-nut; from the name of the town Avellana in Campania, known for its fruit and nut trees
aven., auenaceae, avena -ae = oats, Avena sativa; wild oats, A. fatua
avenac., avenaceus -a -um = of or relating to oats; oaten
axung., axungia -ae = lard or fat of an animal; e.g., axung. porcin., hog lard
bacc., bacca -ae = berry (any)
bacill., bacillus -i = a small stick; e.g., bacill. glycirriz., a stick of licorice
bacon., baco -onis = bacon
balaust., balaustium -i = pomegranate flower
balneum -i = bath; BV, balneum vaporosum, steam bath; BM, balneum mariae, bain-marie
balsam., balsamum -i = balsam, balm, any strongly scented resin, many types; can be solid or liquid; e.g., balsam of Tolu, of Gilead (from tree Balsamodendron gileadense or B. opobalsamum
barba -ae iovis = Jupiter's beard, Anthyllis barba-iovis; also known as silverbush
bardana -ae = burdock; see lappa, below
basilic. = see ung., vng. basilic. below
bechicus -a -um, bechinus -a -um = for treatment of a cough
bechion bechii = coltsfoot, Tussilago farfara
bdell., bdellium -i = gum resin from shrubs of Balsamodendron species, used as pectoral (for diseases of the chest) and emmenagogue
becabung., beccabunga -ae = water pimpernel, brooklime; Veronica beccabunga behen = uncertain identification because early herbalists used the name from Arabic sources, not knowing what plant it referred to; in England the name chiefly affixed to two types: white (bladder campion, Silene inflata) and red (sea lavender, Statice limonium)
bellis -is = the common or English daisy, Bellis perennis; also known as woundwort or bruisewort
bened. laxat., benedicta laxativa or benedictum laxativum = another name for rhubarb, or the laxative electuary made from it; or a compound of turbith, scammony and spurge
benedict. = carduus benedictus, q. v.
benzoes = benzoe siamensis; see asa dulcis, above
benz., benzoin., belzuinum -i = benzoin, gum benzoin; gum obtained from Styrax benzoin
berber., berberis -is = barberry tree, Berberis vulgaris, or the berry itself beta -ae = beetroot, Beta vulgaris; also appears as "rad. (radix) betae" beton., betonic., betonica -ae = betony, Stachys betonica
betonica -ae Pauli = St. Paul's betony, Veronica serpyllifolia, a small species of speedwell
bezoar (indecl.); bezoart., lapis bezoarticum -i = a stone or concretion found in animal intestines; eight types are described (including mineral, biliary, resinous, fibrous) and these may be described with an adjective, e.g., bezoart. minerale, animale; a particular type comes from the pazan (pasang), the wild or bezoar goat, Capra aegagrus
bezoard., bezoardic., bezoardicus -a -um = relating to or in description of a bezoar
bezoardicum -i ioviale = the Jovial bezoar or bezoar of Jupiter, a diaphoretic; butter of antimony (q.v.) and nitric acid, distilled; not related to "bezoar," above
bezoarticum -i solare = the "solar" or "golden" bezoar; leaf gold, nitric acid or aqua regia, and butter of antimony (q.v.); a diaphoretic and treatment for syphilis; not related to "bezoar," above
bezoarticum -i Mathioli = the bezoar of Pietro Andrea Mattioli (1501 - 77), Italian physican and naturalist, Latinized as Matthiolus; precise description of this bezoar unknown
bismalv., bismalva -ae = althea, marshmallow; or related species Malva bismalva or M. moschata, musk-mallow
bocheti, bochetum -i = a liquid thus produced: after a decoction of woods, roots, and/or barks, fresh water is added to the same ingredients to make a second decoction for ordinary drinking
bol. armen., bolus -i Armeniae = Armenian bole, bole armoniac; an argillaceous earth
bombac., bombax -acem = cotton, cotton-wool, stuffing
borac., borax (-acis) = borax (sodium borate, disodium tetraborate), Sodae biboras
botryos = Jerusalem oak, Dysphania botrys; also known as sticky goosefoot or feathered geranium
brassica -ae = genus of numerous cruciferous plants, incl. cabbage, turnip, rape, etc.
bryon., bryonia -ae = briony, Bryonia dioica, may also be denoted red or white; black bryony = lady's seal
bubula -ae = beef; bubulus -a -um, derived from beef; medulla bubula, beef marrow
bugloss., buglossa -ae = bugloss (various species of Anchusa, Echium, and others)
bugul., bugula -ae = numerous herbaceous plants including common bugle, Ajuga reptans
bupthalmi., bupthalmum -i = common ox-eye, Bupthalmum salicifolium; also "bupthalmus"
butyr., butyron -i = butter; butryr. rancid., rancid butter; butyr. recens, recent. = fresh butter
butyrum -i antimonii = "butter of antimony," antimony trichloride, SbCl3, thus called because it resembles a fatty mass
buxus -i = common or European box, Buxus sempervivens, an evergreen shrub or small tree
calamint, calaminth., calamintha -ae = calamint; various species of Calamintha, e.g. officinalis, sylvatica, nepeta, montana
calc. viv., calx calcis = lime, limestone, chalk; calx vivum, unslaked lime; see also unguentum de calce, below
calendul., calendula -ae = garden or common marigold, Calendula officinalis
caltha -ae = genus of perennial flowering plants in the buttercup family, with star-shaped flowers
campan., campanula -ae = throat-wort, bell-flower; Campanula trachelium
camphir., camphor., camphora -ae = camphor, from Laurus camphora or Dryobalanops camphora; camphoratus -a -um, camphorated
cancror., cancer -eris = crab; cancrorum vivorum, (of) live crabs; see also "oculi cancri," below
canell., canella -ae = canella tree; Canella alba, wild cinnamon
cantharid., cantharis -idis = blistering fly or Spanish fly, Musca hispanica; decoction of the insects used externally and internally as powder or tincture; can be poisonous in overdose
caphura -ae = camphor
capill. vener., capillus veneris = maidenhair fern, Adiantum capillus-veneris
cappar., capparis -is = caper, Capparis spinosa; ol., oleum capparibus, oil of capers
capra -ae = she-goat; pinguedo caprae, she-goat fat
caprifolium -a = Italianate woodbine or perfoliate honeysuckle, Lonicera caprifolium
caput capitis cati = a cat's head; typically, it seems, a black cat's head burned to ashes
carabe, carabes = likely a name for white amber (V.a. 298, f. 161r, receipt in Latin, "Carab. pulueriz.," followed by receipt in English, "the white amber powderd")
caranna = an aromatic resin from the West Indian flowering tree Bursera acuminata and/or the South American trees Protium carana, P. altissimum, and Pachylobus hexandrus
cardamantice = see iberis cardamantice, below
cardiac., cardiacus -a -um = cordial, for stimulating, invigorating, or restoring the heart; aqua cardiaca, cordial water
carduncellus -i = uncertain; either Carduncellus, a genus of flowering plants in the aster family; or Carthamus carduncellus, one of the distaff thistles, the best known of which is the safflower, C. tinctorius
card., carduus -i = thistle (various species)
card. ben., card. bened., card. benedict., carduus -i benedictus = holy or blessed thistle, Cnicus benedictus, widely used as an antidote
cardam., cardamomum -i = cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum
carellorum = plural genitive of the diminutive of carus -i, "little seed;" refers to the seed of hypericon, St. John's wort
carduus -i Mariae = Marian, milk, or St. Mary's thistle, Silybum marianum
caric., carica -ae = fig, Ficus carica; may be described as ficus pinguis, a fat or ripe fig
carlin., carlina -ae = carline or silver thistle, Carlina vulgaris
carminativus -a -um = serving to expel flatulence, as in "emplastrum carminativum"
caro carnis = meat, flesh (any kind), with the source as an adjective or in the genitive; e.g., haedina, kid; vitulina, veal; perdicum, of partridges
carthami., carthamus = saffron flower, Carthamus tinctorius
carui., carvi., carum -i = caraway, Carum carui
caryocost., caryostinum -i = caryocostinum, an electuary so called because it contains cloves and costus, Saussurea costus, also known as costus, kuth, and putchuk, a species of Indian thistle
caryophill., caryophillus -i = clove, Caryophyllus aromaticus
caseum -i = cheese (any kind)
cass., cassia -ae = cassia (various species; e.g, Cassia fistula, purging cassia)
cass. lign., cassia -ae lignum = cassia wood
castanea -ae = chestnut or chestnut-tree, Castana vesca
castoreum -i = castoreum; beaver musk
cataplasm., cataplasma -is = poultice or plaster
catapsoras = see unguentum catapsoras, below
cataputia = the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis, also called palma Christi from the palmate shape of its leaves
catholicon, catholicum -i = a universal purging electuary; see diacatholicon, below
C.C. = cornu cervi (deer or hart's horn), a source of ammonia; not the plant (Plantago coronopus)
cattaria -ae = catnip, Nepeta cataria
cauda -ae equina = horsetail or mare's tail; various species of ancient genus Equisetum, e.g., E. arvense, common horsetail or the aquatic flowering plant Hippuris vulgaris; NB distinguish from cauda equina, the bundle of spinal nerves in the lower lumbar region that innervate the pelvic organs and lower extremities
caulis -is = cabbage, or its stalk or stem; see also apium caulis, above
centaur., centaurium -i = centaury, feverfew, or featherfew; the greater, Centaurea magnum or maius = C. erythraea; and the lesser, C. minus or C. parvum = Chironia centaurium (?); mention of centaurium utrumque, possibly directing the use of both maius and minus
centinodii, centinodium -i = common knotgrass, birdweed, pigweed, or lowgrass, Polygonum aviculare; post-classical Latin "centinodia," Anglo-Norman "centinodie"
cepa -ae = onion, Allium capa
cera -ae = wax; cera alba or citrina = beeswax
ceras. nigr., cerasum -i nigrum = black cherry, Cerasum nigrum; aq. cerasorum nigrorum, black cherry water; gummi cerasi, (black) cherry tree gum
cerat., ceratio -onis = covering or smearing over of a portion of the body with wax
ceratum -i = cerate, an unctuous material for external application, made of wax mixed with oil, lard, or similar, and other medicinal substances; consistency between ointment and plaster
ceratum -i santalinum = cerate containing two or more of the santals or saunders
ceratum -i stomachicum = a cerate for the abdomen made from roses, mastich, wormwood, spikenard, wax, and oil of roses (Mesue)
ceratum -i oesypatum = cerate containing oesypus (unrefined lanolin), oil of chamomel and iris root, yellow wax and rosin (Galen)
cerebrum -i = brain; e.g., cerebrum leporis (rabbit brain) for hair loss, cerebrum. passeris (sparrow) for "seed increasing"
cerefolium -i = chervil, Anthriscus cerefolium
cerevis., cerevisia -ae, cervis., cervisia -ae = beer or ale; cervisia tenuis, thin (i.e., weak or inferior), or small beer
ceroma -ae = in CL, a mixture of oil, wax, and earth with which wrestlers rubbed themselves; apparently now synonymous with ceroneum, below
ceroneum -i = emplastrum ceroneum; pitch, yellow wax, sagapenum, ammoniacum, turpentine, etc.; an emollient
ceronia -ae = St. John's bread; fruit of the carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua
ceruss., cerussa -ae = ceruse or white lead; a mixture of lead carbonate and hydrate
cervin., cervinus -a -um = of or pertaining to a deer or stag
ceterach. = spleenwort or rustyback fern, Asplenium ceterach
chalcitis -idis = copper pyrite, chalcopyrite, CuFeS2; also synonym for colcothar, see below
chalyb., chalybs chalybis = steel
chamaelea = Microstachys chamaelea,"creeping sebastiana"
chamamel., chamaemel., chamaemelum -i = chamomile, Anthemis nobilis
chameleon -ontis = chamaeleontis albi, Carlina acaulis, carline thistle; chamaeleontis nigri, Carthami corymbosi (both in the genitive)
chamaepit., chamaepitys, chaemeptytys -yos = common ground pine, Teucrium chamaepitys
chamedr., chaemedr., chamaedrys = germander speedwell, Veronica chamaedrys, or wall germander, Teucrium chamaedrys
chebula -ae = JW describes it as a type of myrobalan (q. v.) though it is a different genus
chel. 69., chelae -arum cancri = crab's claws; for explanation of "69," see oculi cancri, below
chelidon., chelidonium -i = common or greater celandine, Chelidonium magnus
cheraefolium -i = chervil, Anthriscus cerefolium
chio, chia., terebinth. chia = turpentine from the tree Pistacia terebinthus, also called Cyprus, Chio, or Chian turpentine
chin., china -ae = china root, Smilax china, similar to sarsaparilla
cholagog., cholagogum -i = cholagogue, a medication that promotes discharge of bile
cicer -i = chickpea, Cicer aristinum; several varieties, including white (album), red (rubrum), and black (nigrum)
cich., cichor., cichorium -i = wild chicory or succory, Cichorium intybus; C. endivia, endive
cicuta -ae = various species of hemlock; e.g., water hemlock, Cicuta virosa or palustris; common greater hemlock, C. vulgaris major
cinamomi., cinnamomum -i = true cinnamon, bark of Cinnamonum zeylanicum; wild cinnamon, Canella alba
cinabrii., cinabrium -i = cinnabar or vermilion; mercuric sulfide, HgS
ciner., cinis -eris = ashes (of anything)
citrin., citrinula -ae = a small citron or lemon
citrium -i = the citron tree, genus Citrium; species include C. vulgare, C. dulci medulla, and C. magno fructu
citrullus - i = a genus of desert vines, including C. lanatus, watermelon, and colocynth
clematis -idis daphnoides = periwinkle, Vinca minor
clyster -eris = enema
cnidium = spurge flax or mezereum, Daphne cnidium
coccinel., cocinella -ae = cochineal; the red dye from the insect Coccus cacti, or the insect itself
cochlear., cochlearia -ae = lemon scurvy-grass, Cochlearia hortensis or C. officinalis, or horseradish, C. armoracia; see also sal cochleariae, below; NB don't confuse with coch., cochleare -is, = spoonful
coculus -i indi = India berries; from the tree Anamirta cocculus; source of picrotoxin
colatura -ae = a substance which has been strained; adjective is colaturus -a -um
colcothar = iron peroxide, jeweller's rouge, from ML calcatar; also called crocus martis
collutio -onis = eye-wash
colocynth., colocynthis -idis = bitter-apple (a purgative), Citrullus colocynthis
colophon., colophonia -ae = resin obtained by distillation of turpentine with water
columba -ae = dove, pigeon; a bird of the Columbidae family, containing 50 genera and over 300 species
combustus- a -um (comburo -ere) = burnt up, reduced to ashes
commun., communis -e = common; also expressed as vulgaris -e
concha -ae = mussel, pearl-oyster
cond., conditus -a -um = preserved; e.g., nuces juglandis conditae, preserved walnuts
conf., confect., confectio -onis = compound of vegetable, fruit, etc., with sugar; same as conserva
confectio -onis Hamech = named after an Arabian physician; contains myrobalan, violets, rhubarb, absinthe, etc., made up with honey
confectio -onis Humain = to preserve sight; containing eyebright, fennel seeds, cinnamon, etc.
confectio -onis hyacinthi = not from the flower, but an astringent containing many ingredients including zircon (called hyacinth from its color), red coral, bole armoniac, myrrh, alkermes, etc. confectio -onis liberans = name derives from its property of delivering the patient from the plague; as many as thirty ingredients including Armenian bole, terra sigillata, pearls, coral, &c.
cons., conserv., conserva -ae = compound of vegetable, fruit, etc., with sugar; same as confectio
consolid., rad. consolid., radix -icis consolidae = larkspur (root), Delphinium consolida
consolida -ae saracenica = goldenrod, Virga aurea or Solidago virga-aurea, same as solidago saracenica, below; a vulnerary
contrayerv., contrayerva -ae = contrayerva; the root stock and rhizome of Dorstenia contrayerva, D. brazilensis, or D. virginiana (= Aristolochia serpentaria); used as an antidote to snakebite
convall., convallaria -ae = lily of the valley, Convallaria majalis; or Solomon's seal, C. polygonatum or Polygonatum solomonis
cor., corium -i = leather
coral., corallium -i = general name for coral; most commonly red (rubr.), also black and white
coran. = currants or Corinthian raisins (uvae corinthiacae)
cord., cordial -is = cordial; see also flores cordiales, below
coriand., coriandrum -i = coriander, Coriandrum sativum
cornus -us = the cornel cherry tree, Cornus mascula
coronopus -i = either swinecress or wartcress, Lepidium coronopus, or buckshorn plaintain, Plantago coronopus
cort., cortic., cortex -icis = bark of any tree; occasionally described as cortex medius or cortex interior, middle or inner bark, esp. of the ash tree, Fraxinus excelsior
cort. winteran. = cortex -icis Winterani, Drimys winteri, antiscorbutic; named after a Captain Winter (or Wynter), who accompanied Sir Francis Drake in part of his voyage of 1577 - 80; Winter discovered the tree after rounding Cape Horn and before turning back
coton. = cotton
cotonaria -ae = cottonweed or cudweed, species of genus Gnaphalium
cotul., cotula -ae = mayweed, stinking chamomile; Anthemis cotula
crassula -ae = a genus of succulent plants, e.g., Crassula ovata, the jade plant, and C. aquatica, pigmyweed
crem., cremor -oris tartari = cream of tartar, potassium bitartrate, KC4H5O6; Ward occasionally uses the alchemical symbol for tartar, a square or rectangle with a cross below it ( ); see Alchemical Symbols, below
cret., creta -ae = chalk
creticus -a -um = chalky
cribratus -a -um = strained, sieved, sifted
crithmus -i = probably samphire, otherwise sea or shoreline purslane, Crithmus indicus, C. maritimum, or Sesuvium portulacastrum
croc., crocus -i = saffron, from the crocus flower, Crocus sativus; may be designated austriacus, i.e., from Austria
croc. is = crocus Martis, "saffron of Mars," iron peroxide, colcothar, or jeweler's rouge
croc. metall., crocus -i metallus -i = any of several preparations of metals; e.g., crocus antimonii (antimony), crocus veneris (copper), crocus martis (iron)
crocatus -a -um = of a saffron-yellow color
crocomagma -atis = dregs of the oil of saffron, or an ointment made with it; mentioned by Pliny as being useful for cataracts and stangury
crud., crudus -a -um = raw, unrefined
cubeba -ae = Java pepper, Piper cubeba; an antiseptic; useful in gonorrhea
cucum., cucumer. agrest., cucumis -eris agrestis or c. asinius = wild cucumber, Momordica elaterium, a purgative
cucurbita -ae = any of various gourds of genus Cucurbita; approximately 95 species, including pumpkins and various other squashes
cumin., cuminum -i = cumin, Cumin cyminum
cupressi., cupressus -i = cypress-tree; nux (pl. nuces) cupressi, the fruit or cone of the cypress
cupul. gland., cupula -ae glandis = the cupule, or cap, of the acorn
curcubitula -ae = small cupping glass
cuscuta -ae = dodder, a parasitic twining plant; genus Cuscuta has more than 200 species
cyanus -i = cornflower or bachelor's button, Centaurea cyanus
cyclamen -inis = many species of genus Cyclamen; e.g., C. purpurascens (see artanita, above) and C. hederifolium, ivy-leaved cyclamen, also called sowbread
cydon., cydonium -i = quince; Cydonium oblonga or C. malum; or Pyrus cydonia
cydoniac., cydoniacus -a -um = of or relating to quince; consistentia cydonaci, the consistency of a quince
cynoglossum -i = common hound's tongue, Cynoglossum officinale
cynorrhod., cynorrhodon -i = cynorrhodon, the dog rose, Rosa canina; fructes cynorrh., rose hips
cynosbat., cynosbati fructus = rose hips from Rosa canina
cyperus -i = genus of endogenous plants with around 700 species; Cyperus longus, or sweet cyperus, also called galingale
dactyl., dactylus -i = date; fruit of the date palm, Phoenix dactylifera
dauci, daucus -i = garden carrot, Daucus carota; D. sylvestris or D. vulgaris, wild carrot
decoct., decoctio -onis = decoction; boiling in liquid to extract the soluble parts of a substance
deliquium -i = a melting or flowing down; per deliquium is spontaneous liquification (deliquescence) of a solid by its dissolving in moisture absorbed from the air; e.g., ol. tart. per deliquium, oleum tartaris per deliquium, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) in aqueous solution from water so absorbed
dens dentis leonis = "lion's tooth," dandelion; Taraxacum dens-leonis
dessicativum -i rubrum = see unguentum dessicativum rubrum, below
detract., detractus -a -um = removed; e.g., uva detractis arillis, grapes with the seeds removed; similar to enucleatus -a -um
dia- = a preparation consisting of a main ingredient, usually alluded to in the name and tending to mean made, containing, or consisting of that ingredient, though receipts vary; the New Sydenham's Society's Lexicon names about eighty (OED); the ones mentioned by JW are included below
diambra -ae = powder containing cinnamon, angelica, cloves, nutmeg, galangal, etc. used for nervous afflictions and aphrodisiac
diabotanum = plaster of multiple herbs (Galen); resolvent (tissue softener) and suppurative
diacalciteos = chalcitis (an iron oxide), with plantain and nightshade juice; for cancer
diacarcinon = from crabs; antidote for rabies
diacarthamum = containing safflower (bastard-saffron), hermodactyl, ginger, etc.; a purgative
diachylon cum gummi or d. simplex = ointment containing juices of herbs
diacass., diacassia = a purgative electuary with senna; or the confection of senna; may be designated "cum manna," q. v.
diacatholicon or catholicon = purgative electuary containing senna, cassia, tamarinds, etc., named for its general usefulness
diacorallium = trochisci diacorallium (Galen), containing bole-armoniac, red coral, terra lemnia, etc.; to stop blood, including the bloody flux and menstrual flow
diacinamomum -i = a compound of cinnamon; an antidote
diaclysma, plural diaclysmata = mouthwash; for toothache, cleaning the gums; diaclysma ad scorbutum, an antiscorbutic
diacod., diacodium -i = electuary containing of poppy seeds or heads, used as an opiate
diacorum = electuarium diacorum, electuary of calamus; likely Acorus calamus, sweet flag
diacrocu = a dry collyrium in which saffron is an ingredient (New Sydenham Lexicon)
diacrocuma = an electuary for the stomach, abnormalities of the kidneys and bladder; many ingredients including saffron, asarabacca, parsley, carrot, anise, and smallage seeds, etc.
diacurcuma = numerous ingredients, including saffron (crocus), asarum, rhubarb, phu, etc.; used as an antidote and for cachexia, dropsy, and diseases of the liver and spleen
diacydon. simpl., diacydonium -i simplex = conserve or marmalade of quinces (Cydonium oblonga)
diagalanga -ae = confection of galanga with "hot spices," useful for the wind cholic
diagrid., diagryd, diagrydium -i = electuary containing scammony, a purgative; also "diacrydium"
diair., diaireos = an electuary that contained orris (iris) root; an antidote
dialacca = electuary containing lacca, q. v.; an antidote
dialthaea (cum gummis) = ointment containing marsh-mallow root and seeds boiled with olive oil, beeswax, gums, and resins; for gout and as a suppurative
diamargarit. fr., diamargariton frigida = cooling powder of pearls, compound diamoron or d. abbatis = honey and mulberries, used as a gargle for throat diseases
diamoschu(s) = musk, saffron, galangal, zedoary, lignum aloes; for conditions affecting the head and brain, e.g., vertigo, epilepsy, palsy, also for the stomach, lungs, liver, and spleen
dianisum -i = a compound powder containing aniseed, licorice, mastick, caraway, fennel, mace, cinnamon, pepper, etc.; or an electuary made of the powder and honey
diapalma = desiccating plaster containing palm oil or animal fat, litharge, and zinc sulfate
diapampholigos = see unguentum diapampholigos, below
diaphoenicon = electuary made from cooked and strained dates; a purgative
diaprunum = electuary containing the pulp of damask prunes; a purgative
diarrhod. = either diarrhodomeli (juice of roses, scammony, agaric, pepper, and honey) or diarrhodon (several powders which contain roses); the latter may be designated as being The Abbot's, diarrhodon abbatis, attributed to Abbas Curiae, chaplain to Roger, Duke of Apulia
diascord., diascordium -i = an electuary made with scordium (Teucrium scordium) or germander leaves, roses, storax, cinnamon, etc.; named for Dioscorides, 1st c. Greek physician
diaspoliticum -i = diaspoliticon; electuary containing rue, cumin, pepper, honey, and saltpeter
diatrion., diatrium -i santalorum or santalon = an antidote made from three kinds of sandal-wood with other ingredients
diaturbith = contained turpeth, root of East Indian jalap, Ipomoea turpethum; a purgative
dictamn., dyctamn., dictamnus -i = dittany of Crete, Dictamnus (Origanum) creticus
doronicum -i = a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower family; leopard's bane
dracontium -i = named thus because its roots were said to resemble a dragon's tail; a genus of flowering plants; also known as serpentaria and arum polyphyllum; a stimulant
dypsacus -i = genus of plants including teasel; especially fuller's teasel, Dipsacus fullonum, and wild teasel, D. sylvestris; also spelled dipsacus
ebeni, ebenum -i = ebony (wood)
ebul., ebulus -i = danewort, dwarf elder, Sambucus ebulus
ebori., ebur -oris = ivory; ras. ebori, ivory shavings
echium -i = a genus of plants in the borage family, e.g. Echium plantagineum, purple viper's-bugloss or Paterson's curse
eclegma, ecligma -atis = medicine to be taken by letting it melt in the mouth
elaeosaccharum -i flavedinis citri = "oil sugar" (German Ölzucker), made by grinding an essential oil with eight or ten times the weight of sugar and used for making distilled waters; this particular one would likely have been made with the zest (yellow, flavedo -inis) of a lemon
elaterium -i = purgative made from seeds of the squirting or exploding cucumber, Ecballium elaterium
elect., electuarium -i = electuary; a "medicinal conserve or paste, consisting of a powder or other ingredient mixed with honey, preserve, or syrup of some kind" (OED)
elephang., pill. de elephang = see "pillulae elephanginae," below
elescoph., elescophus -us = elescophus solidum, an electuary containing cloves, cinnamon, ginger, and nutmeg, said to be effective against colic and pains of gout; also known as the Bishop's Electuary, electuarium episcopi
elix., elixir (indecl.) = many different preparations, mostly compound tinctures
elix. proprietat., elixir proprietatis = elixir of special character; contained aloe, saffron, and myrrh
emblicum -i = a type of myrobalan, apparently the same as the one called belliricum; mel emblicorum, honey from this plant
embroc., embrocatio -onis = an embrocation; similar to a liniment but of a thinner consistency, many types; used for bathing or moistening any part, applied by rubbing
emmenagogum -i = emmenagogue, to stimulate blood flow to the pelvis and uterus, esp. to promote menstruation
empetron = from empetros -i, apparently a form of saxifrage (Pliny)
empl., emplastrum -i = plaster; emplastrum Paracelsi (of Paracelsus) is one of many
emplastrum -i Caesaris = red roses, roots of bistort, sanders, and mint, coriander seeds, etc.; for strengthening the back and relief of back pain
emplastrum -i ceroneum = see ceroneum, above
emplastrum -i e crusta panis = plaster of crust of bread; crust of bread toasted and steeped in red rose vinegar, with mastich, mints, spodium, red coral, all the sanders, etc.; to stopp vomiting and strengthen the brain (when applied to the head)
emplastrum -i Cymino = cumin seeds, bay berries, yellow wax, pine resin; to "expel wind"
emplastrum -i gratia dei = herbs boiled in wine, the liquid strained and mixed with olive oil, beeswax, litharge, ceruse, and verdigris; also called emplastrum divinum or manus dei
emplastrum -i de janua = betony, plantain, smallage, with wax, pitch, rosin, and turpentine; for green wounds and ulcers
emplastrum -i nostratibus = "plaster for our people;" described by Culpeper as being called flos unguentorum, the flower of ointments; containing rosin, perrosin, yellow wax, sheep suet, olibanum, turpentine, etc.
emplastrum -i metroproptoticon = mastic, galbanum dissolved in red wine, cypress turpentine, nutmeg, musk, etc.; for looseness, vomiting, and fits of the mother (Culpeper)
emplastrum -i stomachicum magistrale = mint, wormwood, stoechas, bay, marjoram, etc., mixed with resin, wax, and labdanum
emplastrum -i triapharmacum = a plaster made of flour, water, and oil; may be designated triapharmacum Galeni
emuls., emulsio -onis = emulsion
ens ensis or ensis -is veneris = "essence" or "sword" of Venus; sal ammoniac with copper sulfate or "flores veneris," a copper oxide, used in cases of worms, rickets, and "vapors;" or flowers of steel, iron chloride, FeCl2, prepared by heating steel filings with sal ammoniac
enucl., enucleatus -a -um = with the nut or kernel removed; similar to detractus -a -um
enul., enul. campan., enula -ae = elecampane, Inula helenium or Enula campana
emplastrum -i epispasticum = a blistering plaster; several receipts, all containing cantharides with other ingredients, such as melilot plaster, burgundy pitch, Venice turpentine, vinegar, etc.
ephioglossum -i = misspelling for ophioglossum, q. v.
epithema -ae = "Any kind of moist, or soft, external application" (OED)
epithymi., epithymum -i = dodder of thyme or thyme dodder, Cuscuta epithymum
equiset., equisetum -i = mare's tail, Hippurus vulgaris; see also cauda equina, above
ering., eryngium -i = sea holly, Eryngium maritimum
erisimi, erisimum -i, erysimum -i = "irio grain" (Pliny), or Erysimum cheiri, wallflower
errhin., errhinum -i = errhine; medication to be applied into the nose to produce sneezing; sternutatory
eruca -ae = colewort, Brassica oleracea; genus Brassica comprises many common vegetables, incl. cabbage, broccoli, &c.
esula -ae = green or leafy spurge, Euphorbia esula
eupator., eupatorium -i = agrimony or hemp agrimony, Eupatorium cannabinum
euphorb., euphorbia -ae = spurge; a large genus of flowering plants, many of which have an acrid milky juice, used as a purge
euphorbium -i = gum resin from Euphorbia antiquorum
euphrasia -ae = eyebright, Euphrasia officinalis
exicc., exiccatus -a -um = dried
extract., extractum -i = extract
extractum Rudii = see pilulae Rudii, below
fab., faba -ae = bean
faeces, faecul., faecula -ae = sediment or dregs in general, e.g., wine dregs, or material that falls to the bottom of the vessel after grinding plant material in water, or from the infusion of vegetable substances; e.g., faecula A(a)ron, sediment of Arum plants
faenic., faeniculum -i = fennel, Faeniculum vulgare
faenugraec., faenugraecum -i = fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum
farin., farina -ae = flour, meal; farina tritici, wheat flour
farfarus -i = colt's-foot, Tussilago farfara
febrif., febrifugia -ae = feverfew, featherfew; common centaury, Centaurium erythraea
feculae bryoniae = powdered dried bryony root, a purgative
fel fellis = gall, bile; vesica -ae fellis, gallbladder
ferment. acrioris, fermentum -i acrius -oris = a sharper or more bitter fermentation (of ...?)
fic., ficus -i = fig, Ficus carica
filex -icis = fern or bracken, likely Pteris aquilina
filipendula -ae = meadowsweet, Filipendula ulmaria
fim., fimi, fimus -i = dung, excrement
flammula -ae Iovis = "little flames of Jupiter;" Clematis flammula, C. recta; in CL, periwinkle (Vinca species)
flavedins, flavedius = likely misspellings for flavedinis; see elaeosaccharum flavedinis citri, above
flor., flos floris = flower, with the plant name following in the genitive; e.g., flores nymphaeae, water lily flowers
fl. cordial., flores -um cordiales = the four "cordial flowers:" borage, bugloss, roses, and violets
fl., flos floris sulphuris = flowers of sulfur, sublimed sulfur; may appear in conjunction with alchemical symbol for sulfur, , as fl. is
flores florum antimonii = flowers of antimony; antimony (III) oxide, Sb2O3, emetic and expectorant
flores Schoenanthi = flowers presumably from the so-called herba Schoenanthi, Cymbopogon schoenanthus, camel-, fever-, or West Indian lemongrass
fluviatilis -e = of a river or river-; e.g. cancri fluviatiles, river-crabs or freshwater crayfish, Astacus fluviatilis
foeniculum -i = faeniculum, see above
foetid., foetidus -a -um = stinking
fol., folium -i = leaf or leaves (folia) of any plant
fol. acetos., folia acetosae = leaves of common sorrel or sour dock
follicul., follicula -ae = a pericarp or seed pod
fomentum -i, fomentatio -onis = dressing, compress; usually with warm liquids (fomentation) and applied as a poultice or with a pad of material
fontan., fontana (aqua) = spring (-water)
formicar. volant., formica -ae volans -antis = flying ant; there is a receipt that includes oleum formicarum volantium, oil of flying ants (V.a.298, f. 129v)
fotus -us = same as fomentum, above
frag., fragar., fragaria -ae = strawberry, Fragaria vesca; roots (rad.), leaves (fol.) and fruit were used
fraxin., fraxinus -i = ash-tree, Fraxinus excelsior
fumar., fumaria -ae = fumitory, Fumaria officinalis
gagat., gagates -ae = jet, the hard black semi-precious stone
galang., galing., galangala -ae = galangal, aromatic rhizome of plants of genera Alpinia and Kaempferia, of the ginger family; e.g. Alpinia galanga, greater galangal, A. officinarum, lesser galangal, and Kaempferia galanga; also spelled galingale
galban., galbanum -i = gum resin from Ferula gummosa or F. rubrucaulis
galega -ae = galega or goat's-rue, Galega officinalis
galion -i, galium -i = large genus of herbaceous plants, over 600 species, known as bedstraw
galla -ae = galls produced on the Chinese sumac or nutgall tree, Rhus chinensis, by sumac aphids, Melaphis chinensis
gallia moschata = see trochisci gallia moschata, below
gallinaceus -a -um = from or relating to poultry; adipes gallinaceus, chicken fat
gallus -i = relating to a cock or rooster; testicula galli, rooster testes
gargarisma -ae = a gargle, throat-wash
genist., genista -ae = broom, genus Genista, many species
gent., gentiana -ae = gentian, Gentiana lutea, officinal gentian; G. centaurium, lesser centaury
geranium -i columbinum = long-stalked crane's-bill; may also be listed as G. dissectum
gilla Theophrasti = sal vitrioli, i.e. zinc sulphate, ZnSO4; an emetic; origin of "gilla" unknown, but of itself signifies a solution of vitriol
gland., glans glandis = acorn
glicirriz., glycheriz., glycheryz., glychyrriza -ae = licorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra
gram., gramin., gramen -inis = grass, or any kind of grass-like herb
gramen -inis caninum = dog grass, also known as Triticium caninum, reputed to be eaten by dogs to produce vomiting (OED)
gramen purpureum, purple grass or purplewort, Trifolium purpureum
granatus -a -um = containing many seeds; see pomum granatum, below
gratia dei = see emplastrum gratia dei, above
guaiac., guaiacum -i = guaiac gum, guaiacum officinale; lignum guaiacum, guaiac wood
gumm., gummi = [tree] gum
gum. ammoniac., gummi ammoniacum = "gum of Ammon," from the herb Dorema ammoniacum
gumm. anim., gummi anime = gum anime, resin of various tropical trees, e.g., Hymenaea courbaril
gumm. arabic. = gum arabic or gum acacia, hardened sap of Acacia senegal or Vachellia seyal
gumm. ceras. = gummi cerasi, gum of cherry tree (Prunus cerasus) or black cherry tree (Cerasum nigrum)
gum., gummi elemi = a resin from the tree Amyris rumieri or gum elemi tree
gummi gutta -ae, gummi de Gamandra, gummi gamba = gamboge or camboge, a gum resin from various trees of genus Garcinia; a purgative
gumm. tragacanth., gummi tragacantha -ae = gum tragacanth, obtained from shrubs of genus Astragulus, esp. A. tragacantha
haeder., heder., hedera -ae = ivy; Hedera terrestris, ground ivy; H. arborea, tree-climbing ivy
haedinus -a -um = of, relating to, or obtained from a kid
haemagogum -i = antidotum haemagogum, a concoction of Nicholaus's, with numerous ingredients, including black pepper, licorice, birthwort, mugwort, cassia, pellitory of Spain, etc.; a purgative, emmenagogue, and abortifacient
haematit., hematit., lap. hematit. = lapis haematites, hematite; iron oxide, Fe2O3
hallelujah = same as lujula, see below
hamech. = confectio hamech, purgative containing myrobalans, violets, colocynth, etc.
haust., haustu., haustus -us = draught
hedycroi = hedychroi, i.e., "pleasant colored;" see trochisci hedychroi, below
heracleinus - a -um, heraclinus -a -um = relating to hazel-wood; oleum heracleinum, oil of hazelwood, from distillation of small pieces of the wood cut in spring or fall hedysarum -i = genus of annual or perennial herbaceous plants; H. alpinum is an antiscorbutic
helenii., helenium -i, hinula -ae = elecampane, Inula helenium or Enula campana
hellebor., helleborus -i = hellebore, genus Helleborus, around 20 species; may be white, albus; black, niger; stinking, foetidus
helxine = Helxine soleirolii (Soleirolia soleirolii), a plant in the nettle family; many common names, including baby's tears, angel's tears, peace in home, Corsican creeper
hepar -atis = the liver; with the animal source in the genitive; e.g. hepar anatis, duck liver
hepatic., hepatica herba = liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha
herb., herba -ae = herb; used to specify a plant when another substance has a similar name
herba -ae inguinalis = or argemo, mentioned by Pliny; identified by Culpeper as garden star-wort, which, "the ancient writers commended against buboes and swellings in the groin;" in The General Practise of Physicke, C. Wirsung identifies four types
herba -ae trinitatis = heartsease or wild pansy, Viola tricolor; so called because each flower has three colors
herba -ae paris = Paris quadrifolia; named for the regularity (par paris) of its leaves and petals, not for the city in France nor the son of Priam
herba -ae venti = rough-leaved phlomis, Phlomis herba venti
hermodact., hermodactyl., hermodactylus -i = the bulbous root of an unknown plant, possibly Colchicum, used as an antiarthritic; the drug colchicine is derived from Colchicum spp. and is still used to treat gout
herniar., herniaria -ae = rupturewort, Herniaria glabra
hier. picr., hiera picra, or hiera/hierae = aloe powder made with honey into an electuary
hiera diacolocynthidos = an electuary containing colocynth, agaric, germander, white horehound, stoechas, opopanax, etc.
hiera Logaddi = an electuary containing numerous ingredients including colocynth, polypodium, euphorbium; among its virtues it "takes away by the roots daily evils coming of melancholly" (Culpeper)
hippoglossum, hyppoglossum -i = spineless butcher's broom or mouse thor, Ruscus hypoglossum
hircinus -a -um = relating to a goat; esp. hircin, a "peculiar substance existing in the fat of the goat (and in a less degreee, in that of the sheep) on which its strong odour depends" (OED); thus possibly describing goat suet
hirundo -inis, gen. pl. hirundinum = passerine bird of genus Hirundo, especially H. rustica, the barn swallow, but many other species
hollandic., hollandicus -a -um = Dutch; pulvis hollandicus, Dutch powder, apparently a purgative hord., hordeum -i = barley, Hordeum vulgare; French barley, H. spelticum; aq. hordei, barley water
hormini., horminum -i = sage or clary sage, Salvia sclarea (Pliny); there is also a flowering plant, Horminum pyrenalcum, dragonmouth or Pyrenean dead-nettle, apparently not used in medicine
hortensis -e = (adj.) relating to, from a garden, or grown in a garden; e.g., nasturtium hortense, garden nasturtium
hipposelinum, hypposelinum -i = alexanders or allisanders (black lovage), Smyrnium olusatrum
hydrarg., hydrargyrus -i = the element Mercury, Hg, in its liquid state
hydropiper -eris = water pepper, marshpepper knotweed, or tade, Polygonum hydropiper; or arsesmart, Persicaria hydropiper
hyoscyamus -i = henbane, Hyoscamus niger, or an extract or tincture of it
hyperi = misspelling for hyperici, see next entry
hyperici, hypericon, hypericum -i = St. John's wort, especially Hypericum perforatum; see also carellorum, above
hypocistis = solidified juice of Cytinus hypocistis, a parasitic plant used to treat dysentery; JW describes it as "a very great binder"
hyssop., hyssopus -i = hyssop, Hyssopus officinalis, for which H. montanus is a subspecies or an accepted synonym; also H. capitatus, wild thyme
I - J
ialap., jalap., jalapa -ae, jalapium -i = jalap, Ipomoea jalapa; a purgative; NB distinguish from iulap., see next entry
iulapium -i = a mixture, often sweet, used as a vehicle for other medicines
janua = see emplastrum de janua, above
iberis -idis cardamantice = sciatica cress; one of several plants of the family Brassicaceae, the roots of which were supposed to be useful in sciatica when made into a plaster
jejunus -a -um = fasting, abstinent, hungry; e.g., jejuno ventriculo, on a fasting (empty) stomach
imperatoria -ae = master-wort, Peucedanum ostruthium; same as ostruthium
inauratus -a -um = gilded; some pills were gilded, denoted pillulae inauratae
incis., incisus -a -um = incised, cut into, cut open
indica -ae = Tylophora indica, the "purging Indian plum" (Parkinson)
infus., infusio -onis = infusion; steeping or dissolving of a substance in water or other liquid; cf. decoction
inula -ae = elecampane, Inula helenium or Enula campana
ireas., ireos., iridas = iris; probably from iris -idis = iris flower, Iris species; radix ireas, iris root or rhizome, also known as orris or orrice root
isatis -is or -idis = genus of flowering plants including woad, Isatis tinctoria
iugland., jugland., iuglans -andis = walnut; iuglandes virides, green walnuts
jujuba -ae = jujube; or red or Chinese date, Ziziphus jujuba
iuiubinus -a -um = of, from, or related to jujubes, e.g., syrupus jujubinus, jujube syrup; see Ziziphus below
iuniper., juniper., iuniperus -i = juniper; granum juniperi, juniper berry (its seed cone)
iusculum, jusculum -i = broth
iuvenis -is -e = young, youthful
labdan., ladan(um -i)., labdanum = labdanum or ladanum, gum resin from plants of genus Cistus or Cystix, used in perfumes and for fumigation; NB distinguish from laudanum (q. v.)
labrum -i veneris = Venus' lip; the wild or fuller's teasel, Dipsacus silvestris or D. fullonum
lac., lact., lac lactis = milk; lac. rec. or recens (-entis), fresh milk, lac veterum, old milk
lacca = ingredient in trocischi de lacca, which contain the dark red resinous substance produced as a protective coating by the lac insect, Kerria lacca, used to make shellac
lact., lactuca -ae = lettuce, Lactuca sativa
ladanum -i = labdanum, see above
laevigatus -a -um = made smooth, pulverized
lambatiuum, lambativum, lambitivum -i = same as linctus/lohoch, below
lapat., lappath., lapathum -i = dock or sorrel; genus Lapathum now included in genus Rumex
lapis -idis adamas = diamond; see adamas, above
lap. bezoard., lapis -idis bezoardicus = bezoar stone; see bezoar, above
lapis -idis bufonis = toadstone; a stone-like object found in the head of, or produced by, a toad (CL bufo); supposed to have antidotal or therapeutic virtues and worn as a jewel or amulet
lapis -idis caelestis = artificial, Roman, or blue vitriol; copper sulfate, CuSo4
lapis -idis calaminaris = calamine, a zinc ore; zinc carbonate or silicate; used as a component of a lotion to treat itchiness
lapis -idis hirundinis = either a supposed stone from the stomach of a swallow, presumably something like a bezoar; or lapis icterias, the "jaundice stone" (Pliny) used for treating the same
lapis -idis iaspis or jaspis = jasper, a semiprecious stone, red, green, or brown; a variety of silica
lapis -idis nephriticus = nephrite, jade; semiprecious stone of various colors
lapis -idis piperis = "pepper stone;" apparently the same as peppercorn; in V.a.286 44v JW states that it can cause sneezing (sufficit ad sternutationem)
lapp., lappa -ae = burdock, Arctium lappa; also called lapp. maj., lappa major, greater burdock; also known as Bardana
lard., lardum -i = lard, fat
larid., laridum -i = bacon; larid. veter., laridum veterum, old bacon
latericium -i philosophorum = see oleum philosophi, below
lateritium -i = brick cap, cinnamon cap, or chestnut mushroom, Hypholoma lateritium
laudan., laudanum -i = laudanum; alcoholic tincture of opium, also known as tinctura thebiaca; NB distinguish from ladanum, see "labdanum," above
laudan. paracels., Paracelsi = Paracelsus' laudanum; opium and alcohol plus various other ingredients, incl. gold, amber, pearl, musk
lauendul., lavendula -ae =lavender, Lavandula angustifolia (or Spica foemina, spike)
lauri., laurus -i = genus of evergreen trees including the bay tree, Laurus nobilis; L. alexandrina, laurel of Alexandria, uncertain but Culpeper thought it might be the same as the hippoglossum described by Dioscorides
lentiscus -i = the mastic tree, Pistacia lentiscus; mastic is the resin from this tree
leon., leonurus -i = lion's tail; motherwort, Leonurus cardiaca
leporinus -a -um = of or relating to a hare; pilus leporinus, hair of a hare, hare hair
lepidium -i = plants of genus Lepidium, of the Brassicaceae family, including L. densi
lepus -oris = hare; lepus combustus, hare ashes (in a receipt for treatment of urinary stone)
leucoium -i, leucojum -i = genus of plants in the amaryllis family, including Leucojum aestivum and L. vernum; snowbell, dewdrop, St. Agnes' flower
leuisticum, levisticum -i = lovage, Levisticum officinale
lichen -enis arborum = tree lungwort, Sticta pulmonaria, known as lungs of oak; also a similar North American plant, Mertensia virginica
lign., lignum -i = wood, with the name of the source in the genitive; e.g., lignum fraxini
lignum -i aloes = a fragrant dark resinous wood, agarwood or aloeswood, from the heartwood of the aquilaria tree; genus Aquilaria, many species, esp. A. malaccensis, used in incense production; also known as xyloaloes or agaloc(h)um; distinguish from the succulent aloes plant, Aloe vera
lign., lignum -i nephriticum = traditional diuretic derived from wood from narra (Pterocarpus indicus) and Mexican kidneywood (Eysenhardtia polystachya) trees
lign. rhod., lignum -i rhodii = rosewood; rose-scented wood from Convolvulus floridus or C. scoparius
lign. sanct., lignum -i sanctum = guiacaum, holy wood; Guiacum officinale
lill., lillior., lilliorum., lilium -a = lily; flores/folia/radix liliorum, flowers/leaves/root of lilies
limac., limacum, limax -acis = snail, slug; aqua. limacum, snail water
limonium -i = genus of flowering plants known as sea-lavender, statice, caspia, or marsh-rosemary; over 100 species; also, any plant of genus Pyrola, esp. P. rotundifolia, wintergreen
lin., linum -i = flax, Linum usitatissimum; semen or semina lini, flaxseed, linseed
linaria -ae = toad-flax or wild flax, Linaria vulgaris
linctus -a -um = medicine taken by licking (same as lohoch); past participle of lingo -ere
liniment., linamentum -i = liniment; l. arcei, liniment of Arceus; l. elemi, see below under gummi
linteus -a -um = relating to or made from linen
liquirit., liquiritia -ae = licorice, Glychyrrhiza glabra
liquor -oris = liquid, liquor (any)
liquor possetic., posseticus -a -um = posset drink; milk curdled with treacle, wine, or any acid substance
litharg., lytharg., lithargium -i, lithargyrum -i = litharge, lead oxide, PbO; may be white, a byproduct of separation of lead from silver ("litharge of silver") or colored with red lead ("litharge of gold")
lithontribon -i (Lugdunensis) = urinary stone-breaking powder (of Lyon); spikenard, ginger, cinnamon, black pepper, cardamom, saxifrage, etc.
lithontriptic., lythontriptic., lithontripticus -a -um = lithontriptic; having the property of breaking up bladder stones
lixivium -i = water containing alkaline salts leached from wood ashes (OED), used to make soap
lohoch = medicine taken by licking or by letting it melt in the mouth
lohoch sanum = "the healing lohoch;" hyssop, calamint, jujubes, sebestens, raisins, dates etc.; succors the breast, lungs, throat, and trachea (Culpeper); may be titled lochoch sanum et expertum
lot., lotus -a -um = washed
lotus -i = various species of genus Lotus, e.g., L. urbana and L. sylvestris
lucis majores = see pilulae lucis maiores, below
lujul., lujula -ae = wood sorrel, Oxalis acetosella; also called alleluia or hallelujah because it flowers between Easter and Pentecost
lumbricus -i = worm; either the common earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, or intestinal, e.g., Ascaris lumbricoides
lupinus -i = lupin, flowering plants of genus Lupinus; numerous species, including the bluebonnet
lupul., lupulus -i = the hop plant, Humulus lupulus
mac., macis -idis = mace, the covering of the seed in the fruit of Myristica fragrans, the nutmeg tree
macer -eris = the inner bark of the nutmeg tree, M. fragrans (Culpeper)
macri = see pilulae macri, below
magdaleones -um = masses of plaster, or of other composition, in cylindrical form
majoran., majorana -ae = marjoram; see Origanum, below
magistrantia -ae = masterwort, Astrantia maxima
malabathrum or malobathrum -i = aromatic leaf of one of several oriental trees, e.g. Cinnamomum tamala, or the ointment prepared from it
malicorii, malicorium -i = pomegranate rind
malvatic., malvaticum (vinum) = Malmsey (wine of the Malvasia grape); Madeira/sack
malva -ae = common, field, or wild mallow, Malva silvestris; also other species of genus Malva
malv., malvavisc., malvaviscus -i = marshmallow, Althaea officinalis
malus -i persica = peach tree, Malus persica
man., manna -ae = condensed juice of the manna ash tree, Fraxinus ornus; a purgative
margarit., margarita -ae = pearl; prepared pearl is a common ingredient
marina ambra -ae grisea = ambergris
marrub., marrubium -i = common horehound, Marrubium vulgare; other species also; may be designated nigrum (black) or foetidum (stinking)
martiat., martiatus -a -um = pertaining to soldiers; unguentum martiatum, soldiers's ointment
mastich., masticha = mastic, resin of Pistacia lentiscus
matricar., matricaria -ae = feverfew, Matricaria or Tanacetum parthenium
matrisilv., matrisylv., matrisylva -ae = woodruff, Asperula matrisylva or A. odorata
Matt(h)iolus -i = relating to or invented by Pietro Andrea Mattioli (1501 - c. 1577), Italian physician and naturalist; e.g.unguentum Matthioli, leontopodium (edelweiss) Matthioli
mechoach., mechoacan = root of a variety of morning glory, Ipomoea macrorhiza or I. jalapa, from Michoacán (Mexico); may be identified as black (nigr.)
mecon., meconium -i = opium
medull., medulla -ae = the pith or pulp of any vegetable; also bone marrow: medulla spinalis, spinal cord
mel., mel mellis = honey; (e)dulcorandus melle, sweetened with honey; the name of the source plant may be mentioned in the genitive, e.g., mel emblicorum, or a descriptive adjective may be added, e.g. mel rosatum, "rosated" honey with addition of oil of roses
melilot., melilotos -i = melilot, Trifolium melilotus officinalis
meliss., melissa -ae = balm, esp. lemon balm, Melissa officinalis; several other species, also including common, field, & mountain calamint
melissophyllum -i = bastard balm, Melittis melissophyllum
merc. dulc., mercurius dulcis = mercurous chloride, Hg2Cl2; calomel; a purgative
mercur., mercury = annual or French mercury, Mercurialis annua; used in clysters; NB don't confuse with the element Mercury (Hg) , usually referred to as hydrargyrus
mespil., mespilus -i = medlar, fruit of medlar tree, Mespilus germanica; resembles a small apple
metrenchyta -ae = an injection ("clyster") for the uterus
metroproptoticon = see emplastrum metroproptoticon, above
meum -i = spignel, Aethusa meum or Meum athamanticum
mica -ae = crumb, morsel, grain; micae panis, crumbs of bread
micleta -ae = an electuary for treatment of diarrhea or bloody flux; containing mirobalan bark, watercress, cumin, anise, fennel, ammi, etc.
millefolium -i = common yarrow, Achillea millefolium, a flowering plant in the aster family
milii., milium -i = millet seed, Panicum mileaceum; also P. italicum, Indian millet seed
mill., milliped., millipes -pedis = pill-millipede or wood-louse; pulv. milliped., powdered millipede; also prepared by soaking in wine with or without crushing in a mortar; JW mentions a spiritus millipedum in V.a.288, presumably from distilling them
minium -i = native vermilion, read lead; emplastrum de minio, plaster of red lead and olive oil
mithridat., mithridatium -i = mithridate; complex and variable recipe, up to 60 ingredients, including opium
miva -ae = listed (by JW and by Lovell) as miva vel gelatina, quince jelly
mixae -arum, myxae -arum = sebesten plum (tree), Cordia myxa; see sebesten, below
monach., rhab. monach., rhabarbarum -i monachorum = monk's rhubarb, Rumex patientia
morum -i = mulberry; many species, including Mora nigra, black or common mulberry; also as "Celsus's," as in succus mororum Celsi, from Aulus Cornelius Celsus (C. 25 BCE - 50 CE)
mosch., moschat., (nux) moschata = nutmeg; seed of Myristica fragrans
moschelaeum -i = see oleum moschaelum, below
mucilag., mucilago -inis = aqueous solution of gum; e.g., Mucilago arabaci gummi
muscus -i = sphagnum;
musc. pyxidat., muscus -i pyxidatus = a type of lichen (Lichen pyxidatus), used in a decoction for whooping cough
must., mustum -i = must; pressed grapes before fermentation into wine; also mustum cervisiae, beer wort
myristic., nux myristica, myristica -ae = nutmeg, Myristica moschata
myrobalan., myrabalan., myrabalanum -i = myrobalan = Indian gooseberry, Phyllantus emblica; may be designated myrobalan omnium; chebulae refers to the so-called "black myrobalan," Terminalia chebula; indicae (q. v.) refers to a different plant
myrtill., myrtillus -i = myrtle berry, black whortle berry, or bilberry; Vaccinium myrtillus
myrtin., myrtinus -a -um = of or made from myrtle, myrtle-; e.g., syrupus myrtinus, myrtle-syrup
narcissus -i = any of numerous spring-flowering bulbous plant of genus Narcissus; esp. N. poeticus and N. tazetta; many uses, including emetic, emollient, and treatment for cough, baldness, dysentery, etc.
nard, nardin., nardus -i , adj. nardinus -a -um = nard; or the ointment so named; or the plant from which the ointment was prepared, Nardostachys grandiflora, same as Indian spikenard, N. jatamansi; nardus celticus, same as asarabacca, Asarum europaeum
nasturtium -i = genus of watercresses; JW mentions nasturtium aquaticum, probably common watercress, Nasturtium officinale, also known as Sisymbrium nasturtium, and nasturtium hortense, or gardencress, N. hortense
nepetha -ae = genus of flowering plants; esp. catmint/catnip, N. cataria
nervin., nervinus -a -um = pertaining to nerves; e.g., unguentum nervinum, nerve ointment
nicotiana -ae = tobacco, genus Nicotiana; many uses, including unguentum nicotianae, see below
nig., nigr., niger -gra -grum = black
nubiae = granum nubiae; the seed of an unknown plant from Ethiopia, apparently a powerful poison
nuc., nucl., nucleus -i = nut
nucleus -i pinei = pine nuts (pignoli), edible seeds of pine, various species of genus Pinus
nummularia -ae = creeping jenny, moneywort, or herb twopence; Lysimachia nummularia
nux nucis = nut; e.g., nux moschata, nutmeg; nux pinea, pine nut; nux avellana, hazelnut
nymph., nymphaea -ae = water lily; Nymphaea alba, white; other species may have blue, red, or yellow flowers
oculus -i = eye
ocul., oculi cancri = crab's eyes; "A round concretion found in the stomach of crayfish and some other crustacea, consisting mainly of carbonate of lime; it has been used, finely powdered, as an absorbent and antacid" (OED), or possibly Abrus precatorius, the (poisonous) rosary pea. More likely the former, conclusion based on receipt in V.a. 298, f. 160r, calling for "ocul. 69" probably the same as "ocul. Cancri" on the same page, with "69" the astrological symbol for Cancer ( ) rotated 90° ( ); see illustration on last page
ocymi., ocymum -i = basil, Ocimum basilicum
ol., oleum -i = oil; many varieties, with the source in the genitive
ol. dulc., oleum -i dulcis = sweet oil; usually olive or rapeseed
oleum excestrense = oil of Exeter; contains wormwood, lesser centaury, eupatorium, fennel, hyssop, etc., infused in oil
oleum -i lapivum = from Lapivum persicum or Cyclamen persicum, persian cyclamen
ol. lumbric., oleum -i lumbricorum = oil of earthworms; from worms boiled in wine and oil and strained
oleum -i moschaeleum = oil of musk, from secretions of a gland of various animals, esp. the male musk deer, Moscus moschiferus; plus nutmeg, mace, costus, styrax, other herbs, and oil; the animal source of the musk may be named in the genitive, e.g., moschelaeum vulpinum, oil of fox musk; for deafness, cold diseases of the heart, strangury, etc.
ol., oleum -i Nicodemi = leaves of St. John's wort (species of Hypericum), turpentine, litharge, aloes, tutty, saffron, white wine, etc.
ol. philosoph., oleum -i philosophi = philosopher's oil, made from distilling pieces of brick soaked in oil; same as latericium philosophorum
ol. sulph., oleum -i sulphuris = oil of sulfur, various receipts; possibly sulfuric acid, H2SO4
ol. vulpin., oleum -i vulpinum = fox oil; made from a skinned and gutted fox boiled with oil and herbs and pressed
olilban., olibanum -i = aromatic resin from trees of genus Boswellia, esp. B. sacra; frankincense
onon., ononis -idis (spinosa) = restharrow, Ononis repens
ophalmicum = see unguentum ophalmicum, below; distinguish from ophthalmicum
ophioglossum -i = adder's tongue fern; genus of about 50 species; used as an ointment on wounds and burns
opiat., opiatus -a -um = opiated; any preparation containing opium; or other medicines that produce sleep but which may or may not contain opium
opobalsamum -i = Mecca balsam, balm of Gilead; resin produced by the tree Commiphora opobalsamum
opopanax -acis = the "fetid" (OED) gum resin from Opopanax chironium
opt., optim., optimus -a -um = best
origan., origanum -i = oregano; several species, incl. Origanum vulgare, common Mediterranean oregano or wild marjoram; O. creticum, (Spanish) oregano; O. marjorana, sweet marjoram; O. dictamnus, dittany of Crete
os ossis = bone; oss. sep., ossa separata, separated bones, but precise definition uncertain
ostrea -ae = oyster, mussel, sea-snail
ostrutii., ostruthium -i = master-wort, Peucedanum ostruthium
ovin., ovinus -a -um = relating to or belonging to sheep; e.g., sebum ovinum, sheep suet or tallow
oxycrat., oxycratum -i = oxycrate (mixture of vinegar and water with a little honey)
oxycroceum = as emplastrum oxycroceum, plaster made with saffron and vinegar
oxylapathum -i = sharp-pointed dock; Lapathum acutum, or Rumex acutus
oxymel = honey and vinegar boiled to a syrup
oxymel Julianiz., oxymel Iulianizans = a syrup containing the above, with addition of caper root bark, iris root, fennel, rock parsley, endive, etc.
paeon., paeonia -ae = peony, P. officinalis; used by Galen for treatment of epilepsy
palma Christi = see "cataputia," above
pampholix -icis = crude zinc oxide, ZnO
paludapium -i = another term for smallage or water-parlsey
panacea -ae = an herb healing all diseases; specificially, an extract of opopanax (q.v.), allheal, woundwort, or various other herbs; e.g., betony, yarrow, mistletoe
papav., papaver -eris = poppy; many species, including P. somniferum, opium poppy; P. rhoeas or P. erraticum, red corn poppy
paralyseus -a -um = relating to the cowslip, Primula species; e.g., (take/use) flores paralyseos
paralys., paralysis -is = cowslip, e.g., Paralysis fatua (Gerard); also in the usual sense of loss of function
parietar., parietaria -ae = pellitory of the wall, Parietaria officinalis; may be designated "herb. parietar."
part., pars partis = part, side
passer -eris = sparrow, esp. the house sparrow Passer domesticus
pastillus -i = a small flat tablet, may be coated with sugar; similar to a pill, troche, or lozenge
passul., passula -ae = a small raisin; passulae enucleatae/exacinatae, stoned raisins; passulae solis, raisins of the sun; passula Corinthiaca, Corinthian raisin, alias uvae Corinthiacae, Corinthian grapes
pastinac., pastinaca -ae = parsnip, Pastinaca sativa or P. sylvestris
pectoral., pectoralis -is -e = a pectoral; for diseases of the chest
penid., penidium -i = appears as in sacch(arum) penid(ium), a stick of boiled sugar used as a cold remedy
pentaphyll., pentaphyllon, pentaphyllum -i = cinquefoil, Potentilla reptans; Pentaphyllum purpureum, purple cinquefoil, P. rubrum palustre, marsh cinquefoil, etc. (Gerard)
peplium -i = peplion, a species of spurge, probably Euphorbia esula; a purge for bile and phlegm
pepo -onis = pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo
periclymenum -i = common honeysuckle, Lonicera periclymenum
perlarum mater -tris = mother of pearl peru., peruvianus -a -um = Peruvian; e.g, Cortex peruviana (Cinchona), source of quinine
persicaria -ae = spotted persicaria, a common weed; Persicaria maculosa
pes pedis columbinus = dove's foot, Geranium molle; also some other species of cranesbill
petasititid., petasites -idis = butterbur, Petasites fragrans
peto, petum = the tobacco plant, see nicotiana, above
petroselin., petroselinum -i = parsley, Apium petroselinum
petroselin. macedonic., petroselinum -i macedonicum = Macedonian parsley, Bubon macedonicum
peucedani, peucedanum -i = peucedanin, a "colourless crystalline compound... occur[ring] in the root of hog's fennel, Peucedanum officinale" (OED)
philonium persicum = a compound medicine including opium, saffron, white pepper, pearls, and amber; named after Philo of Tarsus, 1st c. BCE Greek physician
phu (indecl.) = "any of several species of valerian having rhizomes used medicinally" (OED); possibilities include Valeriana officinalis, V. dioscoridis, V. phu; mentioned by Pliny
phyllit., phyllitis -is = hart's tongue fern, Scolopendrium vulgare
pic., pix picis = pitch; pix Burgundia, Burgundy pitch, from Norway fir, Picea abies
pilosella -ae = genus of flowering plants, numerous species, esp. Pilosella officinarum, mouse-ear hawkweed; same as auriculus muris
pil., pill., pillul., pil[l]ula -ae = pill pilulae agregativae = aggregative pills, so called because they aggregated many effects; ingredients included aloes, turbith, scammony, rhubarb, myrabalans, agaric, etc.
pilulae aleophanginae = aromatic pills of Mesue; contain aloes, cinnamon, cardamom, nutmeg, mace, etc.; similar to if not identical to pilulae elephanginae, below
pilulae aurae = "golden pills," so called from their color; contained aloes, scammony, roses, smallage seed, etc., but no gold
pilulae Barbaros(s)ae = an anti-syphilitic, containing mercury; apparently named after an Algerian king and not the Holy Roman Emperor
pilulae cochiae = cochiae pills; may be denoted "majores," the greater cochiae pill (hiera picra, alhandal troches, diagrydium, turpentine), or "minores," the lesser cochiae pill (aloes, scammony, colocynth, syrup of buckthorn, oil of cloves)
pill. elephang., pilulae elephanginae = an Arabic term; purging pills containing cinnamon, nutmeg, and other aromatics; also, according to JW (Va293, 71r), "of Diacrydium... a considerable quantitie"
pilulae foetidae = "stinking pills;" containing asafoetida, galbanum, myrrh, confection of roses
pilulae lucis majores = "pills of greater light;" roses, violets, wormwood, colocynth, turbith, cubebs, etc.; for poor vision (hence the name, presumably)
pilulae Macri = Macer's (Aemilius Macer, 1st c. CE) pills, aloes, mastich, marjoram, salt of wormwood, etc.; the poem De viribus herbarum is probably a medieval invention attributed to him
pill. palmarii = Palmarius' pills, or pilulae Cretae Palmarii; aloes, gentian, amber, aristolochia, myrrh, etc.; named after Pierre le Paulmier or Palmier (1568-1610)
pilulae Rudii = black hellebore, colocynth, aloes, scammony, oil of cloves, sulfate of potash
pilulae Scribonii = Scribonius Largus's pills; sagapenum, myrrh, opium, cardamom, castoreum, etc.; good for fluxes, dysentery, hemoptysis, gonorrhea, consumption, and many more afflictions
pilulae sine quibus (esse nolo) = "pills without which (I do not wish to be);" a purgative containing aloe, myrobolans, rhubarb, senna, agaric, etc.
pilulae e tribus = "pills of three things;" RCP Dispensatory lists seven ingredients including mastich, aloes, agaric, hiera picra, rhubarb, cinnamon, and syrup of chicory
pimpinella -ae = burnet saxifrage, Pimpinella saxifraga, or great burnet, Sanguisorba officinalis
pinear., pineus -a -um = of, from, or related to the pine; nuces pinearum, pine nuts
pingued., pinguedin., pinguedo -inis = fat (noun); e.g. pinguedo vulpis, fox fat, pinguedo taxi, badger fat
pingu., pinguis -is = fat (adjective); e.g. ficus pinguis, a fat (ripe) fig
piper -eris = pepper; various species of genus Piper, e.g. Piper nigrum, black pepper, P. longum, long pepper, etc.
plantag., plantago -inis = plantain; broad-leaved plantain, Plantago major
pleres-archonticon = pulvis pleres-archonticon, called by Bates "The great Restorative Pouder;" containing cinnamon, cloves, galangal, nutmeg, ginger, red roses, Indian spikenard, etc.; also known as the Restorative of Nicholas
plumbeus -a -um = made of or derived from lead
plumbum -i = the element lead, Pb
polii., polium -i = felty germander, Teucrium polium
polyidae = see trochisci polyidae Andromachi, below
polypod., polypodium -i = polypody, a genus of fern; e.g., polypody of the oak, Polypodium quercinum or P. vulgare, or polypody of the wall (P. murinum)
polytrich., polytrichum -i = golden maidenhair, Polytrichum commune or Adiantum aureum
polyurus -i = Christ's thorn or Jerusalem thorn, Paliurus spina-christi; JW reports it as being in the Physic Garden
pompholix, pompholyx -ygis = zinc oxide, same as tutia (tutty)
pom., pomum -i = apple, many species of genus Malum
pomat., pomatus -a -um = of, containing, or relating to apples; see unguentum pomatum, below
pomum -i alterans = see syrupus de pomis alterans, below
pomum -i granatum = pomegranate, fruit of Punica granatum
pomum -i purgans = a "purging apple," intended to purge phlegm; an apple stuffed with polypodium and agaric wrapped in a crust and baked; also known as pomum laxativum purgans
pontic., ponticum = Roman wormwood, Artemisia ponticum
popul., populus -i = poplar tree
populeon, populneum = see unguentum populeon, below
porcin., porcinus -a -um = of or relating to a hog or pig
porrum -i = leek, Allium porrum
portulaca -ae = garden purslane, Portulaca oleracea
posset., possetum -i = posset, milk curdled with treacle, wind, or any acid substance; may also appear as liquor posseticus
potio -onis = drink
potus -us = drink
praecipit., praecipitat., praecipitatum -i = precipitate; p. rubrum = red mercuric oxide (HgO); p. album = ammoniated mercury or mercuric amidochloride (HgH2ClN); p. opt., optimum, "the best;" unknown and possibly a description and not an ingredient per se
prasius -i = prase, a green quartz
prassium, -i = white horehound, Marubium vulgare or M. album; a syrup called syrupus de prassio is a pectoral (for chest ailments or as an expectorant) and vulnerary (for wound healing)
priapus, pryapus -i cervi = a stag's penis
primula -ae veris = cowslip (common cowslip, cowslip primrose)
prunell., prunella -ae = self-heal or bugle, Prunella vulgaris
prunum -i = plum; prunum coctum, cooked plum, possibly used as a sweetener
prunus -i = genus of trees and shrubs, including plum, cherry, peach, nectarine, apricot, and almond
prunus -i silvestris = blackthorn (Pliny)
ptarmaca, ptarmica = leaves (folia) of sneezewort, Achillea ptarmaca
ptisan., ptisana -ae = decoction of vegetable matters, e.g., barley, licorice, or raisins; a tisane
puleg., pulegium -i = pennyroyal, also fleabane or fleawort, Mentha pulegium; or wild thyme, Thymus serpyllum; also known as puliol
pulicaria -ae = fleabane, Pulicaria dysenterica
pulm., pulmon. vulp., pulmones vulpis = fox lungs
pulmonaria -ae = lungwort, Pulmonaria officinalis; distinguish from tree lungwort, Sticta pulmonaria
pulpa -ae = pulp (of anything)
pulv., pulvis -eris = powder
pulvis -eris ad casum = a powder against inward bruises by falls (Bate); contained terra sigillata, sanguis draconis, mummy, spermaceti, rhubarb; casum from casus -us, a fall, falling down, accident
pulvis -eris digestivus = a digestive powder of variable compsition
pulvis -eris Haly = Haly's powder, named after 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi, or al-Masoudi (930 - 994), Latinized as Haly Abbas; white poppy seeds, gum arabic, starch, tragacanth, etc.
pulvis -eris Iohannis de Vigo = Vigo's powder, mercuric oxide, HgO
pulvis -eris laetificans Galeni = Galen's gladdening powder, apparently actually invented by Niccolò da Reggio (1280 - ?), a translator of Galen; multiple ingredients, including basil, cloves, saffron, zedoary, nutmeg, styrax, ivory shavings, etc.
pulvis -eris odoratus = sweet, perfumed, or fragrant powder; iris root, rosewood, cloves, lemon peels, etc. (Bate); used as a moth deterrent
pulvis -eris pleres-arc(h)onticon = "the great restorative powder" (Bate); numerous ingredients including cinnamon, cloves, xyloaloes, galangal, nutmeg, ginger, and many others
pulv. sanct., pulvis -eris sanctus = holy powder; recipes vary but usually include senna and cream of tartar, with cloves, cinnamon, ginger, etc.
pulvis -eris saxonicus = the Saxon powder, from its use as an antidote by Christian I, Elector of Saxony (1560 - 1591); angelica, swallow-wort, valerian, polipodium of the oak, marsh-mallow, etc., all steeped in vinegar, dried, and pulverized
purg., purgatio -onis = a purge or laxative
purpureus -a -um = purple
pyra = probably pear, various trees of genus Pyrus; CL pirum -i, pl. pira
pyrethr., pyrethrum -i (salivaris) = root of pellitory (of Spain), also known as Spanish chamomile, Anacyclus pyrethrum; or possibly masterwort, Peucedanum ostriuthum, or sneezewort, Achillea ptarmica
pyrola -ae = round-leaved wintergreen, Pyrola rotundifolia
quercin., quercinus -a -um = made/ derived from oak; e.g., folia quercina, oak leaves; viscus quercini = mistletoe; uvae quercinae, aggregation of galls on oak roots or at the junction of the roots and trunk produced by the oak gall wasp Cynips quercus radicis
quercitanus -i = not an ingredient but a person's name; French physician Joseph du Chesne (c. 1544 - 1609), Latinized as Quercitanus
quercus -us = oak, oak tree, various species of genus Quercus, including Q. suber, the cork oak quinquefolium -i = (creeping) cinquefoil, Potentilla reptans; tormentil (P. erecta) is a relative
rad., radic., radix -icis = root (of any plant)
radices quinque = see syrupus de quinque radicibus, below
ran., rana -ae = frog; ranarum, of frogs, e.g., sperma ranarum, frog spawn
ranunculus -i = about 600 species including the buttercup or crowfoot; JW mentions Ranunculus arvorum, corn-buttercup or fallow-field crowfoot, same as R. arvensis or R.sylvestris
rap., rapum -i = turnip or rape, Brassica rapa; plural genitive raporum, of turnips, e.g. raporum no 4, four (of) turnips
raphan., raphanus -i = radish, Raphanus sativus
ras., rasur., rasus -a -um or rasuratus -a -um = scraped or scrapings of; often found with licorice (glychyrriza or liquiritia), but also of other hard substances, e.g., ivory, hartshorn, boar's tooth, and even human skull (cran., cranium -i humani)
rasp., raspatus -a -um = rasped, essentially the same as above
recent., recens -entis = recent, fresh; e.g., lactis recentis, of fresh milk; cf. ueter., veterus -a -um
reginae coloniens = electuarium reginae coloniens; saxifrage, gromwell, licorice juice, caraway, anise, etc., with sugar and dissolved in white wine; for the stone and wind colic; the name refers to a Queen of Colen, the supposed consort of one of the three kings in attendance at the Nativity and whose relics are said to be in Cologne (Colen) Cathedral
requies -etis Nicholai = a strong sedative of uncertain composition, "Nicholas's relief;" mentioned by Burton in The Anatomy of Melancholy
resin., resina -ae = resin (from any plant)
rhab., rhabarbarum -i = rhubarb, Rheum rhabarbarum
rhamnus -i catharticus = buckthorn, Rhamnus cathartica, also known as Spina cervina; a purgative but quite toxic
rhaphon., rhapontic., rhaponticum -i = rhapontic rhubarb root, Rheum rhaponticum
rhei., rheo, rheum -i = rhubarb, Rheum rhabarbarum
rhead., rhoed., rhoead., rheados., rhoeas -adis = Papaver rhoeas, red corn or wild poppy; see tinctura rubra, below
rhodia, rhodium -i = either rhodium wood (rhodium lignum), from rootstock of bindweed species Convolvulus floridus and C. scoparius; or oil of rhodium, made by distilling it; NB not the metal, which was discovered in 1803
rob (indeclinable?) = inspissated fruit juice, sometimes with sugar added; said (in OED) to be a borrowing from Latin but not yet definitely identified
rorismar., rorismarinus -i = rosemary, Rorismarinus officinalis
ros., rosa -ae = rose, various species of genus Rosa
ros. sol., rosa solis = rose of the sun, not a flower; altered from Latin ros solis, dew of the sun, a cordial originally made from the juice of the sundew plant (genus Drosera), later from spiced and flavored spirits; receipt in V.a.21, p. 183 (not JW)
rosac., rosaceus -a -um = made of or from roses; oleum rosaceum, rose oil
rosata -ae novella = an electuary of roses, containing rose leaves, sugar, licorice, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, honey, etc.
rosatus -a -um = treated with oil of roses; e.g., aloe rosata, mel rosatum
rosmarin., rosmarinus -i = rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis
rubellum = vinum rubellum, reddish wine; "vomiting claret" (New London Dispensatory), an emetic; contained antimony in powder, cloves, claret wine
ruber -bra -brum = red
rubus -i viticosus = sarsaparilla (q.v.)
rumex -icis = dock, various species of genus Rumex; see folia acetosae, above
ruta -ae = rue, Ruta graveolens and other species; see also vepris, below
rutaceus -a -um = from or relating to rue
rutaceum = acetum rutaceum, vinegar of rue
sabin., sabina -ae = savin or savin juniper, Juniperus sabina (a juniper species); an abortifacient
sacchar., saccharum -i = sugar, any type, esp. cane sugar; also sacchar. cand., saccharum candidum, sugar candy; can be flavored, e.g., saccharum rosatum, sugar of roses made by melting sugar in rose water and adding juice of roses, or saccharum perlatum, sugar of roses
sagapenum -i, sagapenon -eni = gum resin from Ferula persica; antispasmodic & emmenogogue
sal X = salt (of) X, with X in the genitive; numerous examples, including table salt and other acid and alkali salts; may be prepared from various plants by boiling, straining, concentration, and crystallization, otherwise by calcination of the material, dissolving it in liquid, filtration, and coagulation
sal absynthii = see under "absynthium," above
sal -is chalybeatus = salt of steel, usually iron chloride, FeCl2, but also other salts of iron
sal -s cochleariae = salt of scurvy-grass
sal -is marini = sea salt
sal. prunell., sal -is prunella = fused potassium nitrate (saltpeter) in balls, cakes, or sticks
salicis, salix -icis = willow
salv., salvia -ae = common sage, Salvia officinalis
sambuc., sambucus -i = elder tree, Sambucus nigra
sanal = a salve containing litharge of silver, red bole, balsam of Peru, etc.; but may be a misspelling for "santal," q.v.
sandarach., sandaraca -ae = gum sandarac, from Iuniperus communis; may also refer to arsenic sulfide or realgar (red arsenic, red orpiment)
satureia (satureja) -ae = genus of aromatic plants including Satureja hortensis, summer savory, and S. montana, winter savory; related to thyme and rosemary
sangu. dracon., sanguis -is draconis = dragon's blood, a red resin made from various trees
sanic., sanicula -ae = wood sanicle, Sanicula europaea; can be a synonym for saxifraga (q. v.)
santal., santalum -i = sandalwood, saunders, various species of genus Santalum; red, white, and yellow varieties; may appear as lignum santalum
santon., santonic., sem. santonic., semina santonica/ santonici = southernwood (Artemisia santonica) seeds or wormseeds (Absinthium santonicum)
sanum = see lohoch sanum, above
saphirus -i = sapphire; CL sapphirus -i
sap., sapo -onis = soap; black soap, sapo niger, appears in some receipts
sarcocolla -ae = gum resin or balsam from shrub Astragalus sarcocolla
sars., sarsaparilla -ae = root of Smilax sarsaparilla, S. aspera, or Rubus viticosus
satureia -ae = Satureia montana, winter savory or mountain savory
sassaf., sassaphr., sassafras = bark of the sassafras tree, Sassafras officinale or Laurus sassafras
satyrion satyrii maris = tuber or rhizome of the early purple orchid, Orchis mascula; may also refer to other orchids, the cuckoo-pint, Arum maculatum, or dragon arum, Dracunculus vulgaris
saxifrag., saxifraga -ae = saxifrage, breakstone, Saxifraga species, esp. S. granulata; for treatment of urinary stones and as an antiseptic; related plants may be termed golden, burnet (rough), great, or meadow saxifrage; S. anglica, pepper saxifrage
scabios., scabiosa -ae = common scabious, Scabiosa arvensis
scariola -ae, seriola -ae = defined by JW as endive, but actually a genus of Asian plants in the daisy family
schoenanthus -i = camel-, fever-, or West Indian lemongrass, Cymbopogon schoenanthus scill., scilla -ae = see squill, below
scilliticus -a -um = derived from or containing squill
scob., scobis -is = powder or dust produced by sawing, rasping, filing, etc.; e.g. scob. dent. apri, scobis dentis apri, powdered wild boar's tooth
scolopend., scolopendria -ae = spleenwort, Asplenium ceterach
scolopend., scolopendr., scolopendrium -i = hart's tongue fern, Scolopendrium vulgare; phyllitis
scord., scordium -i = water germander, Teucrium scordium
scoria -ae ferri = iron dross, impurities which float on the surface of or are dispersed in the molten metal; also found in other low-melting-point metals, e.g., tin, lead, zinc
scorpion., scorpio -onis = the stinging arachnid, order Scorpiones; ol. scorpion., oleum scorpionum, oil of scorpions, appears to have been made by steeping scorpions in olive or other oil
scorzon., scorzoner., scorzonera -ae = viper's grass, Scorzonera humilis, for treatment of any venomous bite
scrophularia -ae = genus of herbaceous flowering plants, the figworts; named for their purported usefulness in scrofula (King's Evil, tuberculous cervical adenitis)
seb., sebum -i = tallow, suet, grease
sebest., sebesten = sebesten (or Assyrian) plum, from the tree Cordia myxa; used in a purging electuary and for "ruggedness of the throat" (Gerard)
secalini., secale -is = a genus of grasses; e.g., rye
sed., sedum -i = wall-pepper, stone-crop; Sedum majus = sempervivum, see below
seif = see sief, below
selinum -i = selinum, a genus of plants in the parsley family Apiaceae; see petroselinum, above
sem., semen -inis, (plural) semina = seed(s) of any plant
sem. frigid. maj., semina frigida majora = the four greater cold seeds: cucumber, melon, watermelon, and gourd or pumpkin
sem. frigid. min., semina frigida minora = the four lesser cold seeds: endive, lettuce, purslane, and succory
semperviv., sempervivum -i = houseleek, S. tectorum ("live forever," because it is always green)
sen., sena, senna -ae = senna
senecion., senecio -onis = groundsel, Senecio vulgaris, or S. iacobaea, Jacobaea (St. James' wort) or ragwort
senella -ae = same as spina alba, see below; may refer to the haw, fruit of the common hawthorn
serpentar., serpentaria -ae = snake-root; includes Aristolochia serpentaria and Serpentaria virginiana; rad. serpentar. = radix serpentariae
ser., serum -i lactis = milk whey
sericum -i crudum = raw silk in the form of cocoons
serpillum, serpyllum -i = wild thyme, Thymus serpillum
seselios, seseli -is = various umbelliferous plants of several genera including Tordylium, Laserpitum, Seseli, and Levisticum among others, >100 species; collectively called hartwort
sief = a medication for disorders of the eye; may be described with an adjective, e.g. sief album, or with an indication of an ingredient, e.g., sief de plumbo
sigill. Solom., sigillum -i Solomonis = Solomon's seal, Polygonatum multiflorum
silic., silicea -ae = shell or carapace of sea animals, e.g., bivalves and crustaceans
simpl., simplex -icis = a simple; a preparation with a single active ingredient, unblended, same as species
sinap., sinapis -is = mustard; sem. sinap., semina sinapis, mustard seeds
sine quibus = see pilulae sine quibus, above
sisarum -i = skirret, Sium sisarum; a perennial umbelliferous plant, a species of water parsnip
sisymbr., sisymbrium -i = watercress, Sisymbrium nasturtium
smaragdus -i = emerald; can also refer to beryl or jasper
smilax -acis = common smilax, rough bindweed, sarsaparilla; Smilax aspera
smyrnium -i = species of flowering plants, family Apiaceae (carrots, anise, fennel, and many others); S. olusatrum, alexanders
solea -ae = sole of a shoe, a sandal, or possibly the violet (the flowering plant); appears as "soleae veterementeriae ustae" in V.a.286, 58v
solan., solanum -i = nightshade, Solanum nigrum; several other species, e.g., bitter-sweet, S. dulcamara, and the common tomato, S. lycopersicum
soldanella -ae = species of bindweed, Convolvulus soldanella, or a primulaceous plant of genus Soldanella
solidago -inis saracenica = goldenrod, same as Virga aurea or Solidago virga-aurea, as in consolida saracenica, above; a vulnerary
sonchus -i = genus of flowering plants, including the common sowthistle, Sonchus oleraceus; JW mentions levis (S. levis, broad-leaved sowthistle) and asper (S. asper, spiny or prickly sowthistle)
sophia -ae chirurgorum = "the wisdom of the surgeons," Descurainia sophia; also known as flixweed, herb-sophia, and tansy mustard; used for treatment of dysentery
spatula -ae foetida = stinking iris, Iris foetidissima; also known as Gladwin iris or gladdon
sp., spec., species = a simple, or single ingredient or element; i.e., uncompounded or unmixed
species laetificans = see pulvis laetificans, above
sp. ceti., spermaceti = from sperma + ceti (genitive of cetus -i); a fatty substance found in the head of the sperm whale, Physteter macrocephalus and used in various preparations
spic., spica -ae = a spike or common stalk bearing numerous flowers; Spica foemina = lavender
spica -ae nardi = spikenard; aromatic substance from Nardostachys jatamansi (India), or the plant itself; or sometimes lavender
spin. alb., spina -ae alba = "white thorn;" precise identification uncertain, with several possibilities, incl. common hawthorn, Crategeus monogyna or C. oxyacantha, Our Lady's thistle, Carduus lacteus or C. mariae, various species of acacia, etc.
sp. sal., spiritus -us salis = spirit of salt, muriatic (hydrochloric) acid, HCl
sp. sulph., spiritus -us sulphuris = sulfurous acid, H2SO3
sp. vin., sp. vini, spiritus -us vini = alcohol, rectified spirit; used as solvent for tinctures, &c.
spod., spodium -i = a fine powder obtained from various substances by calcination (OED)
spuma -ae maris = literally, sea-foam; likely powdered pumice, or the mineral meerschaum
squill., squilla -ae = squill; the bulb or root of the sea-onion, Scilla (or Drima) maritima, used as diuretic and expectorant
squillitic., squilliticus -a -um = of, treated with or derived from squill; e.g., acetum squilliticum
staphid. agr., staphis -idis agria, staphisagria -ae = stavesacre, Delphinium staphisagria
stoechad., stoechas -adis = French lavender, Lavandula stoechas
stercor., stercus -oris = dung, excrement, feces, with the animal of origin in the genitive; e.g., of dog, canis; horse, equi; peacock, pavonis; also others
stipul., stipula -ae = stalk, stem
stomachicum magistrale = see emplastrum stomachicum magistrale, above
stramen -inis = straw; e.g., stramen fabarum, bean straw
sturionis, sturio -onis = European sea sturgeon, Acipenser sturio; ova sturionis, caviar
styrac. calamit., styrax -acis calamita = storax, gum-resin from Styrax officinalis
suber -is = the cork oak, Quercus suberis
suc[c]in., suc[c]inum -i = amber
succisa -ae = a genus of flowering plants, family Caprifoliaceae, including devil's bit scabious, Succisa pratensis
succ., succus -i = juice of anything
suillus -a -um = of, from, or related to pigs; adipes suillus, pig fat or lard
summit., summitat., summitas -tatis = top or tops, with the name of the plant in the genitive; e.g., summitates absynthii, absinthe tops; summitates hyssopi, hyssop tops
symphit., symphyt., symphitum -i = comfrey; Symphytum maius, greater comfrey
syr., syrup., syrrup., sirup., sirupus, syrrupus -i = syrup
sirrupus -i bizantinus, byzantinus = juices of endive, smallage, hops, and bugloss, with sugar, boiled to a syrup (Mesue); aniseed, roses, licorice, and other ingredients may be added
syrrupus -i cardiacus = a cordial syrup; receipt in Pharmacopoiea Londinensis includes Rhenish wine, rose water, cloves, cinnamon, ginger, and sugar boiled together, with the addition of ambergris and musk
syrupus -i de pomis alterans = apple juice and bugloss juice, violet leaves, rose water and sugar, boiled to a syrup
syrupus de quinque radicibus = syrup of the five roots; celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum officinale), parsley (Petroselinum sativum), butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) and asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) with sugar and water; a cholagogue and diuretic
tachamah., tacamahaca -ae = aromatic resin from Bursera (or Elaphrium) tomentosa
tamarind., tamarindus -i = tamarind tree, Tamarindus indica; source of tamarind fruit, a purgative
tamarisc., tamarix -icis or tamariscus -i = tamarisk tree, various species of genus Tamarix
tanacetum -i = genus of flowering plants in the aster family; about 160 species, including Tanacetum vulgare (common tansy), T. balsamita (costmary), and T. parthenium (feverfew)
tapsus -i barbatus = black mullein, Verbascum nigrum
taraxicum -i = Taraxicum officinalis, dandelion; also as "herba taraxici" or "dens leonis," q.v.
tartar., tartarus -i = tartar, potassium bitartrate, KC4H5O6; when purified forms white crytals and is referred to as cream of tartar; see cremor tartaris, above
tax., taxus -i = yew tree (Taxus baccata); or badger, Taxidea taxus; pinguedo taxi, badger fat
terebinth., terebinthina -ae = turpentine; terebinth. uenet. (Veneta), Venice turpentine; many others including terebinthina communis, Cypria, vulgaris; for Chio terebinth., see Chio, above terr., terra -ae = earth
terr. Lemni., terra -ae Lemnia = Lemnian earth or clay, a medicinal clay originally obtained from the island of Lemnos
terr. sigillat., terra sigillata = "sealed earth;" Lemnian clay shaped into tablets or cakes into which decorative seals were pressed; same as terra Lemnia
test., testa -ae = shell of a molllusc, or the skin or coating of a seed
testud., testudo -inis = tortoise, various species of genus Testudo
thapsia -ae = genus of umbilliferous perennials; Thapsia garganica or T. villosa, deadly carrot
thebaic., thebaica -ae = opium; thebaic tincture or extract = laudanum
theriac., theriacal., theriaca -ae = antidote; treacle; e.g., Theriaca andromachi or T. veneta (of Venice), mithridatium (q. v.), T. coelestis, laudanum
thur., thus thuris = frankincense or olibanum, aromatic resin from trees of genus Boswellia, esp. B. sacra
thym., thymi., thymum -i = thyme, various species of genus Thymus, esp. T. vulgaris
thymelaea = sparrow-wort, a genus of about 30 species of evergreen shrubs and herbs
til., tilia -ae = lime-tree, linden, Tilia europaea; T. alba, white lime-tree
tinct., tinctura -ae = a solution of anything in spirit of wine; very many types
tinct. rub., tinctura -ae rubra = tincture of red corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas), similar to laudanum
tinctura -ae thebiaca = laudanum, tincture of opium
tithymalus -i = any of a number of plants of genus Euphorbia, q. v.
tormentill. tormentilla -ae = upright septfoil, tormentil; Tormentilla (or Potentilla) erecta
torrefact., torrefactus -a -um = dried of moisture by heat, scorched, roasted, toasted
tostus -a -um = roasted, parched; past participle of torreo -ere, parch, roast, baked
tragacanth., dragacanth., tragacanthum -i = gum tragacanth (q.v.) derived from shrubs of genus Astragalus or from trees of genus Sterculia
tragea -ae = likely a powder of some kind
triapharmacum = see emplastrum triapharmacum, above
tripolium -i = sea or seashore aster, Tripolium pannonicum
triphera, tryphera -ae major = triphera the greater, a mixture of various myrobalans, emblic, nutmeg, watercress seeds, asarabacca roots, etc.; for excessive menstruation in women and hemorrhoids in men, also weakness of the stomach; there is also a triphera solutiva, an electuary
tritus -a -um = rubbed to pieces; ground up
troch., trochisc., trochiscus -i = a pill, troche, tablet, or lozenge
trochisci albi Rhasis = ceruse, sarcocolla, starch, gum arabic, tragacanth, and camphor; sometimes with added opium
trochisci gallia moschata = aloes, amber, musk, gum tragacanth, rose-water
trochisci hedychroi = "pleasantly colored lozenges;" marum leaves, marjoram leaves, yellow saunders, asarum roots, calamus aromaticus, etc.
trochisci hysterici = lozenges made of castor, amber, powder of millipedes, etc.; used for treatment of palsy; also known as trochisci de mirrha
trochisci polyidae andromachi = pomegranate flowers, white roach, frankincense, myrrh, bull's gall, aloes, etc.; for green wounds and ulcers; Culpeper says "I fancy them not"
trochisci Ramich = perfumed troches of Rhasis; juice of sorrel, red roses, unripe grapes, myrtle berries, etc.; for diarrhea, including the bloody flux
trochisci de vipera = trochisci de vipera ad theriacam, troches of vipers for treacle (Culpeper); viper flesh boiled with dill, made into lozenges with bread and oil of nutmeg or opobalsamum turbasis -is = starch made of wheat bran or cuckoo-pint (Arum maculatum) roots; for purging phlegm
turbith., turbithum -i, turpethum -i = turbith or turpeth, from Convulvulus turpethum; a purgative
tussilago -inis = a genus of plants in the aster family; T. farfara, colt's-foot, is the only recognized species
tutia -ae = tutty; zinc oxide
U - V
valerian., valeriana -ae = wild valerian, Valeriana officinalis
verbascum -i = genus of flowering plants, especially Verbascum thapsus, mullein
vepris -is = genus of plants in the Rutaceae (rue) family; approximately 80 species
verbena -ae = common vervain, Verbena officinalis, or other plants in genus Verbena
verdigris = green substance from treatment of Copper with dilute acetic acid, or occurring naturally on copper or brass; may be an acetate, carbonate, or chloride
veronic., veronica -ae = speedwell, Veronica officinalis
ueter., veter., veterus -a -um = old; cf. recens, recent., recentis, new or fresh
viciar., vicia -ae = vetch; JW mentions species "vulgaris," same as fava bean/ broad bean
Vigo = Giovanni de Vigo (1460 - 1519); emplastrum Vigonis, Vigo's plaster (lead, wax, mercury, turpentine, various herbs)
vincetoxicum -i = white swallow-wort, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria or officinale; a poison antidote
vin., vinum -i = wine; vinum album, white wine; vinum rubrum/rubellum/roseum, red wine
vinum -i Martiale = globuli martiales or Mars balls, consisting of potassium-iron tartrate (tartrate of potash and iron, C8H8FeK2O12), dissolved in wine
vinum -i absinthites = vermouth; made from white wine and absinth; also as vinum florum absinthites, of absinth flowers
viola -ae = violet, various species of genus Viola, esp. V. odorata; violarum, of violets
viridis -e = green; e.g., ficus virides, green figs
visc. querc., viscus -i quercinus = mistletoe, Viscum album
vitell., vitellus -i = egg yolk; vitelli ovorum, yolks of eggs;
vitis -is = vine; folia vitis, grape leaves
vitriol., vitriolum -i = vitriol; various metallic sulfates, esp. iron sulfate ("green copperas," vitriolum martis) and vitr. album (zinc sulfate); oil of vitriol = sulfuric acid, H2SO4; the famous acronym "visite interiora terrae rectificando invenies occultum lapidem" is likely a spurious back formation; for "Roman vitriol," see lapis caelestis, above
vitriolum -i camphoratum = camphorated vitriol or Captain Green's powder; for sores and sore eyes
vitis -is vinifera = the common grape vine; the leaves "strongly bind," stop the bloody and other fluxes, stop vomiting, help heart-burning, etc. (Pharmacopoiea Londinensis)
vitulinus -a -um = from or related to a calf (i.e., veal)
ulmor., ulmorum, ulmus -i = elm tree
umbilicus -i veneris = (Venus's) navelwort, Omphalodes linifolia
ung., unguentum -i = any ointment or unguent, either with the origin or association in the genitive, or with a descriptive adjective
unguentum Agrippae = an ointment containing briony roots, squill, iris root, dwarf elder, oil, and wax; so called because of a supposed association with Herod Agrippa
ung., unguentum -i album = a drying ointment containing olive oil, white wax, and white lead
unguentum Arragon = rosemary, marjoram, thyme, aron and cucumber roots, bay, sage and juniper leaves, etc.; also spelled "Aragon" and "Arregon"
ung., vng. apostol., unguentum apostolorum = containing 12 ingredients (hence the name), incl. turpentine, resin, yellow wax, aristolochia, frankincense, etc.
ung., vng. basilic., or just basilic., unguentum -i basilicum or basilicon = basilicum ointment; yellow, black, or green, each containing beeswax and rosin and other ingredients but not basil unguentum -i de calce = ointment of lime; contained slaked lime and rose oil
ung., unguentum -i catapsoras = ointment containing cerussa, calamine, etc., with hog's grease, sublimated mercury, etc.
ung., unguentum -i Comitissae = complex ointment containing many types of bark, berries, and roots boiled in plantaine water, then mixed with yellow wax and several powders; Culpeper terms it "a gallant binding Oyntment, composed neatly by a judicious brain"
unguentum -i dessicativum rubrum = red drying ointment; contains litharge of gold, white lead, calamine, yellow wax, oil of roses, camphor, terra sigillata
ung., unguentum -i diapampholigos = cited by Aristotle, who recommended it for what sounds like diaper rash; contains rose oil, white wax, monkshood juice, white lead, frankincense, etc.
unguentum -i diapompholigos nihili = oil of roses, juice of nightshade, wax, ceruse, lead, pompholix, frankincense; significance of the word nihili, "of nothing" or "worthless," unknown
unguentum Egyptiac., Egyptiacum, Ægyptiacum = ointment containing verdigris, honey, and vinegar
unguentum -i nervinum = southernwood, marjoram, mint, pennyroyal, etc., with oils and suet
unguentum -i e nicotiana or nicotianae = tobacco leaves from various species of genus Nicotiana (e.g. N. tabacum and N. rustica), steeped in wine then boiled in hog's grease, with addition of tobacco juice, aristolochia, rosin, new wax; Culpeper thought very highly of it: "It would ask a whole Summers day to write the particular vertues of this ointment, and my poor Genius is too weak to give it the hundredth part of its due praise..."
unguentum -i nutritum = see unguentum triapharmacum, below
unguentum -i ophalmicum = ointment of red mercury; cinnabar, HgS, or calomel, Hg2Cl2; NB distinguish from unguentum ophthalmicum, eye ointment
ung., vng. pomat., unguentum pomatum = ointment containing pork fat, rose water, and apple pulp
unguentum populeon or populneum = ointment containing poplar buds, pork fat, and leaves of black poppy, mandrake, madder, henbane, nightshade, etc.
unguentum -i splanchnicum or splenicum = oil of capers and of white lilies, calomel, butter, juice of bryony and sowbread, etc.
unguentum -i triapharmacum = litharge of gold, vinegar, and oil of roses; also called unguentum nutritum
unicornu -us = when termed "at large," described by JW as "either ebonie, hartshorne, or bone of a stagg's heart"
unicornu -us solare = solar unicorn, a compound and not an animal; Mynsicht (1662) terms it "efficacissimum & inaccessum remedium;" his ingredients include gold and hazelnuts
unicornu -us fossile = defined by JW as "Lapis Ceratites," which is a fossilized ammonite, properly "cornu fossile;" if "unicornu," refers to fossil or excavated unicorn; one such having been calcined by order of King Christian IV of Denmark was thought by Thomas Bartholin to be a narwhal horn
urtic., vrtic., urtica -ae = nettle, esp. the common nettle Urtica dioica; urtic. urent., Urtica urens (burning), dwarf/ annual/ dog nettle
ung., ungula -ae = hoof, claw, talon; ung. caballin. (caballinus -a -um), horse's hoof
usquebach = whisky
ustus -a -um = burnt
uter- utra- utrumque, (genitive) utriusque = either, each one, both, the one and the other; e.g., bryoniae utriusque, of both types of bryony, i.e., white and red
vulgar., vulgaris -e = common, usual
vulp., vulpes -is = wolf
uva -ae = grape; uvae quercinae or oak grapes, see above under quercinus -a -um
uva -ae crispa rubra = gooseberry, Ribes uva-crispa; rubra, red
uva -ae lupina = monkshood, wolfsbane; Aconitum species, especially A. napellus
uvae quercinae = see under quercinus -a -um, above
Winterani = occurs only in (Captain) Winter's bark; see under cortex winterani, above
xyloaloes = see lignum aloes, above
zalap., zalapium, -i = same as ialap/jalap, q.v.
zedoar., zedoaria -ae = zedoary, Curcuma zedoaria
zibet., zibetha -ae = civet, civet musk; from several species, best known being the African civet, Civettictis civetta
ziziphus -i = jujube; from Ziziphus species, e.g., Z. jujuba, the tree that produces the edible jujube fruit, resembling a small date
zyth., zythum -i = zythos, unfermented Egyptian beer
zythogala -ae = posset drink; see liquor posseticus, above
zz or ZZ = zinziber = ginger, Zinziber officinale; sometimes indicates myrrh
- "Quivering on amaranthine asphodel," W. S. Gilbert, Patience, act 1
- Shakespeare, Much Ado About Nothing, 3, iv, 73-5: "Get you some of this distilled Carduus benedictus, and lay it to your heart: it is the only thing for a qualm."
- Shakespeare, As You Like It, 2, i, 12-14: "Sweet are the uses of adversity, which, like the toad, ugly and venemous, wears yet a precious jewel in his head."
- V.a.286, 76r: "Granum nubiae inter decem homines divisum spatio quadrantis horae omnes interimit:" One grain of Nubia divided among ten persons kills them all in the space of a quarter hour.
Alchemical Symbols and Other Abbreviations
Ward very occasionally used these, e.g.,
♀️ symbol for tartar (symbol unicode 🜿); crem.♀️is = cremor tartaris, cream of tartar
♂️symbol for Mars; croc.♂️is = crocus Martis = "saffron of Mars," iron peroxide, colcothar, or jeweler's rouge) (symbol unicode ♂)
[add symbol] , symbol for sulfur (symbol unicode 🜍); flores is = "flowers of sulfur," powdered sulfur produced by sublimation as opposed to natural crystalline sulfur (i.e., brimstone)
[add symbol], symbol for vitriol (symbol unicode 🜖)
69: see above, "oculi cancri;" image from Zwinger, Theatri Praxeos Medicae (1710), p. 150
[add thumbnail here] : Oculi cancri praecipitatum ana ʒss
9 (superscript 9) = "-us;" a common medieval contraction, as in "corp9 "= corpus
See various additional abbreviations in "John Ward's Alphabet."
Glossary of Latin terms by Callum Simms
• absynth. - absynthium = 'wormwood'
• acetos. - acetosa = 'sorrel'
• acet. - acetum = 'vinegar'
• agaric. - agaricum = 'tinder fungus'
• alchermes (confectio) = confection of 'Kermes' (crimson 'berry' bug - like cochineal)
• aloe optim. = 'agarwood'
• alth. - althea = 'mallow'
• ammoniac. - 'ammoniacum' = 'gum ammoniac'
• argill. - argilla = '(white) potter's clay, argil'
• aristoloch. - aristolochia = 'birthwort'
• artemis. - artemisia = 'mugwort'
• aven. - avena = 'oats'
• bacon. - baco = 'bacon'
• bezoardic. - bezoardicum = 'bezoar' (antimony salt)
• borac. - borax = 'borax'
• bryon. - bryonia = 'briony'
• bugloss. - buglossa = 'bugloss'
• calaminth. - calamintha = 'calamint'
• camphor. - camphora = 'camphor'
• cappar. - capparis = 'caper'
• cardiac. - (aqua) cardiaca = 'toddy' (a beverage - palm wine?)
• card. - carduus = 'thistle'
• carlin. - carlina = 'carline/silver thistle'
• carn. - caro = 'meat, flesh'
• caryophill. - caryophillus = 'clove'
• caseum = 'cheese'
• cass. - cassia = 'cassia' (a type of cinnamon)
• castoreum = 'castoreum' (beaver musk)
• centaur. - centaurium = 'centaury'
• cervis. - cervisa = 'beer'
• chalyb. - chalybs = 'steel'
• chamamel. - chamamelon = 'chamomile'
• cichor. - cichoria = 'chicory, endive'
• colcothar = 'colcothar, jeweller's rouge' (Ferric Oxide)
• cor. - corium = 'leather'
• coton. - cotone = 'cotton'
• cret. - creta = 'chalk'
• croc. - crocus = 'saffron, crocus flower'; (alchemical) 'liver' - crocus metallorum = liver of antimony
• cumin. - cuminum = 'cumin'
• dia-x = medicine containing x. Usually no other name than the Latin one.
• dictamn. - dictamnus = 'dittany'
• ebul. - ebulum = 'danewort'
• eupator. - eupatoria = 'agrimony'
• fab. - faba = 'broad bean' (= horse, fava)
• faecul. - faecula = 'salt of tartar' (potassium carbonate)
• farin. - farina = 'flour, meal'
• fim. - fimus = 'dung'
• fontan. - fontana (aqua) = 'spring' (-water)
• fumar. - fumaria = 'fumitory'
• gagat. - gagates = 'jet' (stone)
• guaiac. - guaiacum (lignum) = 'guaiac' (wood)
• gumm. - gummi = [tree] 'gum'
• hermodactyl. - hermodactylus = 'hermodactyl' (meadow crocus / autumn saffron roots, not black iris)
• herniar. - herniaria = 'rupturewort'
• iuniper. - iuniperus = 'juniper'; granum juniperi = juniper berry (actually a seed cone)
• jalap. - jalapa = 'jalap'
• jugland. - juglans = 'walnut'
• labdan. - labdanum = 'labdanum' (sticky brown resin from rock roses)
• lappath. - lap(p)athum = 'dock, sorrel'; L. acutum = broad-leafed dock
• laudan. - laudanum = 'laudanum'
• lin. - linum = 'flax'
• lujul. - lujula = 'wood sorrel'
• mac. - macis = 'mace'
• malvatic. - malvaticum (vinum) = 'Malmsey' (wine of the Malvasia grape) - Madeira/Sack
• mastich. - masticha = 'mastic'
• mecon. - meconium = poppy juice (opium)
• meliss. - melissa = 'lemon balm'
• mithridat. - mithridatum = 'Mithridate'
• moschat. - moschata (nux) = 'nutmeg'
• ovin. - ovinus (from ovis) = 'sheep'
• oxycrat. - oxycratum = 'oxycrate' (mixture of vinegar and water)
• papav. - papaver (erraticum) = '(common) poppy'
• paralys. - paralysis = 'cowslip'
• pastinac. - pastinaca = 'parsnip, carrot'
• pentaphyll. - pentaphyllum = 'cinquefoil'
• pinguedin. - pinguedo = 'fat'
• polypod. - polypodium = 'polypody', rockcap fern
• puleg. - pule(g)ium = 'pennyroyal' (/fleabane /fleawort)
• resin. - resina = 'resin, rosin'
• rhab. - rhabarbarum = 'rhubarb'
• rosac. - rosaceum = 'rose oil'
• rosmarin. - rosmarinus = 'rosemary'
• sabin. - sabina = 'savin' (a juniper species)
• sacchar. - saccharum = 'cane sugar'
• santal. - santalum = 'sandalwood'; S. citrinum = citrine/yellow sandalwood
• saxifrag. - saxifraga = 'saxifrage, rockfoil' ('breakstone' in Ward)
• scord. - scordium = 'water germander'
• seb./sev. - se(b/v)um = 'tallow, suet, grease'
• sed. - sedum = 'houseleek'
• semperviv. - sempervivum = 'houseleek' ('liveforever')
• sen. - sena = 'senna'
• ser. - serum = 'whey'
• spic. - spica = 'lavender'
• sucin. - sucinum = 'amber'
• symphit. - symphitum (maius) = (greater) 'comfrey'
• tax. - taxus = 'yew'; 'badger'
• terebinth. - terebinthina = 'turpentine'
• test. - testa = 'shell'
• theriac. - theriaca = 'antidote', 'antivenom', 'treacle'
• thur. - thus = 'frankincense'
• zyth. - zythum = 'zythos' (Egyptian beer)
The symbol (℞) is short for 'recipe' and means 'take' in Latin. This is still used for prescriptions today as Rx.
• ā - for originally Greek 'ana' = 'of each'
• bib. - bibo = 'drink' - 'bibat' or 'bibatur' ('let him drink', 'let X be drunk')
• cap. - capio = 'take'
• cum = 'with' - often Ward marks non-abbreviated words with an apostrophe
• decoq. - decoquo = 'boil down / reduce'
• e, ex = 'out of / from'
• ebull. - ebullio = 'boil'
• et = 'and'
• f. - facio = 'make'
• (in)fund. - (in)fundo = 'pour (in)'
• in = 'in, into'
• inung. - inunguo = 'salve, rub ointment on'
• m. - misceo = 'mix'
• mane = 'in the morning'
• nocte = 'at night'
in alphabetical order:
• alb. - albus = 'white'
• aq. - aqua = 'water'. 'Water of X' is a common ingredient that means water infused with X (c.f. rosewater).
• bacc. - bacca = 'berry'
• commun. - communis = 'common'
• cortic. - cortex = 'bark'
• decoct. - decoctio = 'decoction'
• fol. - folium = 'leaf'
• gran. - granum = 'kernel'
• gutt. - gutta = 'drop'
• haust. - haustus = 'draught'
• lign. - lignum = 'wood'
• liquor = 'liquid, liquor'
• nigr. - niger = 'black'
• nuc. - nux = 'nut'
• nucl. - nucleus = 'nut'
• officin. - officinalis = 'medicinal'
• ol. - oleum = 'oil'
• optim. - optimus = 'best'
• part. - pars = 'part, side'
• pulveriz. - pulverizatus = 'powdered'
• radic. - radix = 'root'
• semin. - semen = 'seed'
• spec. - species = 'simple' - a 'simple' is a single-ingredient powder
• sal = 'salt' - 'Salt of X' is the name of a number of alchemical products which nowadays have chemical formulae.
• trochisc. - trochiscus - 'troche' (a lozenge)
• ust. - ustus = 'burnt'
• vulgar. - vulgaris = 'common'