Difference between revisions of "John Ward's Latin"

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                                                     '''Following list by Dr. Robert Tallaksen'''
 
                                                     '''Following list by Dr. Robert Tallaksen'''
 
instructions and amounts:<br>
 
instructions and amounts:<br>
• ā, ān., ana = of each  
+
• ā, ān., ana = of each <br>
• a. c., p. c., ante/post cibum = before or after a meal
+
• a. c., p. c., ante/post cibum = before or after a meal<br>
 
• ante pastum = before food<br>
 
• ante pastum = before food<br>
 
• applic., applico -are = apply; e.g., applica ventris = apply to the abdomen<br>
 
• applic., applico -are = apply; e.g., applica ventris = apply to the abdomen<br>

Revision as of 09:49, 24 April 2020

This article features two vocabulary lists of the Latin words and abbreviations in the diaries of John Ward, Folger MS V.a.284 -299.

One list is the work of Callum Simms, a transcriber on Shakespeare's World (a crowd-sourced project between the Folger Shakespeare Library, Zooniverse and the OED, sponsored by EMMO). Some of John Ward's diaries have been transcribed by volunteers on Shakespeare's World. On Shakespeare's World's talk feature, Callum Simms is known as @IntelVoid.

One list is the work of Dr. Robert Tallaksen, a reader and transcriber at the Folger Shakespeare Library.

John Ward was the vicar of Stratford-upon-Avon from 1662 to 1681. The Folger Shakespeare Library has 16 of his 17 diaries. More information on John Ward can be found in A Semi-Diplomatic Transcription of Selections from the John Ward Diaries.

                                                   Following list by Dr. Robert Tallaksen

instructions and amounts:
• ā, ān., ana = of each
• a. c., p. c., ante/post cibum = before or after a meal
• ante pastum = before food
• applic., applico -are = apply; e.g., applica ventris = apply to the abdomen
• bib., bibo -ere = drink; bibit (she/he drinks), bibat (let her/him drink) or bibatur (let X be drunk)
• bullio -ire = boil; bulliant, they should boil
• calcino -are = to calcine; reduce by roasting or burning to a powder or friable substance; una calcinentur, let them be calcined together
• cap., capio -ere = take; also capiat (let him/her take) and capiatur (let X be taken)
• clarific., clarifico -are = clarify
• coch., cochleare = spoonful(s)
• colatus -a -um (also incolatus) = strained, filtered, purified (from colo -are, to strain, filter)
• compos., compositus -a -um = adj., compound; composed, prepared
• cong., congius -i = gallon
• contund., contundo -ere = bruise, crush, beat
• contus., contusus -a -um = adj., bruised, crushed, beaten coq., coqu., coquo -ere = boil
• crebro = adv., frequently, repeatedly
• cum = with - often with a macron: cū
• d., dos., dosis = dose decoq., decoquoere = boil down / reduce
• diluculi., diluculum -i = at daybreak; alternis diluculis, every other morning at dawn
• e, ex = out of / from ebull., ebullio -ire = boil et = and f., facio -ere = make
• fiat X = let X be done/made
• foveo -ere = keep warm; foveatur, let her/him/it be kept warm
• gran. - granum = grain (apothecary measure)* gt, gutt, gutta -ae = drop*
• h. s., hora somni = at bedtime in = in, into
• (in)fund. - (in)fundo -ere = pour (in)
• insideat = let her/him sit (in a bath)
•. inspissat., inspissatus -a -um = adj., thickened, condensed
•. inung., inunguo -ere = rub on (e.g., salve, ointment)
• lb = pound; some liquid measures are in pounds rather than volume m., misc., misceo -ere = mix; misceantur, let them (ingredients) be mixed
• m. f. = misce faci/ fiat, mix the ingredients and make X, or let X be made (e.g., pills, electuary) mane = in the morning
• mortarium -i = mortar; contunde in mortario, crush in a mortar
• mass., massa -ae = the compound out of which pills, etc., are formed
• mundat., mundatus -a -um = cleaned
• no. or no = numero, for the number of things; e.g. succ. Limon. no ii, juice of two lemons nocte = at night
• officin., officinalis -e = from officina -ae, a shop; any medicine directed to be kept in shops
• ꝑreꝑ. or preꝑ.= preparatus -a -um (conjectured)
• paratur = it is prepared; e.g., paratur vnguent., an ointment is prepared
• permisceo -ere = mix thoroughly; permisceantur, let them (ingredients) be thoroughly mixed
• pulveriz., pulverizatus -a -um = powdered
• q. s., quantum satis or quantum sufficit = a sufficient quantity
• s. a., secundem artem = according to art/practice, in the usual way
• s. or ss., semis = one half (see note below)
• saepe, sepe = often; saepius (comparative) = rather often
• semicoch., semicochleare = half a spoonful
• sero = late; e.g., mane et sero, in the morning and late
• setaceum -i = sieve; per setaceum, through a sieve
• siccus -a -um = dry
• spong., spongiā = with a sponge
• stillitat., stillatim = drop by drop
• substituo -ere = substitute; X substituatur, X should/ ought to be substituted, e.g. for a missing ingredient: in defectu vini graeci aliud vinum
•. potens album substituatur, in the absence of Greek wine another strong white wine should be substituted
• sumend., sumendus -a -um = to be or should be taken; e.g., mane et sero sumendum = to be taken early and late
• summo mane = very early in the morning
• ust., ustus -a -um = adj., burnt
• vesperi = in the evening

℥ = ounce; f℥ = fluid ounce

ʒ = dram, drachm

℈ = scruple

M = handful

p = pugil, the amount that can be picked up with the thumb and two fingers

Numerical mounts are most often given in minuscule Roman numerals; e.g., iiii. The last "i" is often written as a "j" or long "i," e.g., iiij, but should be transcribed as a minuscule.

When "s" is used for one half, it follows the last character, e.g., ℈s, 1/2 scruple, or ℥iiis = 3 1/2 ounces.

  • The abbreviations for grain, "gr," and guttae, "gt," can look identical; if the ingredient is a liquid, e.g., a syrup, use "gt;" if a dry substance, use "gr."


                                                   Following list by Callum Simms


• ā - for originally Greek 'ana' = 'of each'
• bib. - bibo = 'drink' - 'bibat' or 'bibatur' ('let him drink', 'let X be drunk')
• cap. - capio = 'take'
• cum = 'with' - often Ward marks non-abbreviated words with an apostrophe
• decoq. - decoquo = 'boil down / reduce'
• e, ex = 'out of / from'
• ebull. - ebullio = 'boil'
• et = 'and'
• f. - facio = 'make'
• (in)fund. - (in)fundo = 'pour (in)'
• in = 'in, into'
• inung. - inunguo = 'salve, rub ointment on'
• m. - misceo = 'mix'
• mane = 'in the morning'
• nocte = 'at night'
in alphabetical order:
• alb. - albus = 'white'
• aq. - aqua = 'water'. 'Water of X' is a common ingredient that means water infused with X (c.f. rosewater).
• bacc. - bacca = 'berry'
• commun. - communis = 'common'
• cortic. - cortex = 'bark'
• decoct. - decoctio = 'decoction'
• fol. - folium = 'leaf'
• gran. - granum = 'kernel'
• gutt. - gutta = 'drop'
• haust. - haustus = 'draught'
• lign. - lignum = 'wood'
• liquor = 'liquid, liquor'
• nigr. - niger = 'black'
• nuc. - nux = 'nut'
• nucl. - nucleus = 'nut'
• officin. - officinalis = 'medicinal'
• ol. - oleum = 'oil'
• optim. - optimus = 'best'
• part. - pars = 'part, side'
• pulveriz. - pulverizatus = 'powdered'
• radic. - radix = 'root'
• semin. - semen = 'seed'
• spec. - species = 'simple' - a 'simple' is a single-ingredient powder
• sal = 'salt' - 'Salt of X' is the name of a number of alchemical products which nowadays have chemical formulae.
• trochisc. - trochiscus - 'troche' (a lozenge)
• ust. - ustus = 'burnt'
• vulgar. - vulgaris = 'common'


ingredients in alphabetical order:
• absynth. - absynthium = 'wormwood'
• acetos. - acetosa = 'sorrel'
• acet. - acetum = 'vinegar'
• agaric. - agaricum = 'tinder fungus'
• alchermes (confectio) = confection of 'Kermes' (crimson 'berry' bug - like cochineal)
• aloe optim. = 'agarwood'
• alth. - althea = 'mallow'
• ammoniac. - 'ammoniacum' = 'gum ammoniac'
• argill. - argilla = '(white) potter's clay, argil'
• aristoloch. - aristolochia = 'birthwort'
• artemis. - artemisia = 'mugwort'
• aven. - avena = 'oats'
• bacon. - baco = 'bacon'
• bezoardic. - bezoardicum = 'bezoar' (antimony salt)
• borac. - borax = 'borax'
• bryon. - bryonia = 'briony'
• bugloss. - buglossa = 'bugloss'
• calaminth. - calamintha = 'calamint'
• camphor. - camphora = 'camphor'
• cappar. - capparis = 'caper'
• cardiac. - (aqua) cardiaca = 'toddy' (a beverage - palm wine?)
• card. - carduus = 'thistle'
• carlin. - carlina = 'carline/silver thistle'
• carn. - caro = 'meat, flesh'
• caryophill. - caryophillus = 'clove'
• caseum = 'cheese'
• cass. - cassia = 'cassia' (a type of cinnamon)
• castoreum = 'castoreum' (beaver musk)
• centaur. - centaurium = 'centaury'
• cervis. - cervisa = 'beer'
• chalyb. - chalybs = 'steel'
• chamamel. - chamamelon = 'chamomile'
• cichor. - cichoria = 'chicory, endive'
• colcothar = 'colcothar, jeweller's rouge' (Ferric Oxide)
• cor. - corium = 'leather'
• coton. - cotone = 'cotton'
• cret. - creta = 'chalk'
• croc. - crocus = 'saffron, crocus flower'; (alchemical) 'liver' - crocus metallorum = liver of antimony
• cumin. - cuminum = 'cumin'
• dia-x = medicine containing x. Usually no other name than the Latin one.
• dictamn. - dictamnus = 'dittany'
• ebul. - ebulum = 'danewort'
• eupator. - eupatoria = 'agrimony'
• fab. - faba = 'broad bean' (= horse, fava)
• faecul. - faecula = 'salt of tartar' (potassium carbonate)
• farin. - farina = 'flour, meal'
• fim. - fimus = 'dung'
• fontan. - fontana (aqua) = 'spring' (-water)
• fumar. - fumaria = 'fumitory'
• gagat. - gagates = 'jet' (stone)
• guaiac. - guaiacum (lignum) = 'guaiac' (wood)
• gumm. - gummi = [tree] 'gum'
• hermodactyl. - hermodactylus = 'hermodactyl' (meadow crocus / autumn saffron roots, not black iris)
• herniar. - herniaria = 'rupturewort'
• iuniper. - iuniperus = 'juniper'; granum juniperi = juniper berry (actually a seed cone)
• jalap. - jalapa = 'jalap'
• jugland. - juglans = 'walnut'
• labdan. - labdanum = 'labdanum' (sticky brown resin from rock roses)
• lappath. - lap(p)athum = 'dock, sorrel'; L. acutum = broad-leafed dock
• laudan. - laudanum = 'laudanum'
• lin. - linum = 'flax'
• lujul. - lujula = 'wood sorrel'
• mac. - macis = 'mace'
• malvatic. - malvaticum (vinum) = 'Malmsey' (wine of the Malvasia grape) - Madeira/Sack
• mastich. - masticha = 'mastic'
• mecon. - meconium = poppy juice (opium)
• meliss. - melissa = 'lemon balm'
• mithridat. - mithridatum = 'Mithridate'
• moschat. - moschata (nux) = 'nutmeg'
• ovin. - ovinus (from ovis) = 'sheep'
• oxycrat. - oxycratum = 'oxycrate' (mixture of vinegar and water)
• papav. - papaver (erraticum) = '(common) poppy'
• paralys. - paralysis = 'cowslip'
• pastinac. - pastinaca = 'parsnip, carrot'
• pentaphyll. - pentaphyllum = 'cinquefoil'
• pinguedin. - pinguedo = 'fat'
• polypod. - polypodium = 'polypody', rockcap fern
• puleg. - pule(g)ium = 'pennyroyal' (/fleabane /fleawort)
• resin. - resina = 'resin, rosin'
• rhab. - rhabarbarum = 'rhubarb'
• rosac. - rosaceum = 'rose oil'
• rosmarin. - rosmarinus = 'rosemary'
• sabin. - sabina = 'savin' (a juniper species)
• sacchar. - saccharum = 'cane sugar'
• santal. - santalum = 'sandalwood'; S. citrinum = citrine/yellow sandalwood
• saxifrag. - saxifraga = 'saxifrage, rockfoil' ('breakstone' in Ward)
• scord. - scordium = 'water germander'
• seb./sev. - se(b/v)um = 'tallow, suet, grease'
• sed. - sedum = 'houseleek'
• semperviv. - sempervivum = 'houseleek' ('liveforever')
• sen. - sena = 'senna'
• ser. - serum = 'whey'
• spic. - spica = 'lavender'
• sucin. - sucinum = 'amber'
• symphit. - symphitum (maius) = (greater) 'comfrey'
• tax. - taxus = 'yew'; 'badger'
• terebinth. - terebinthina = 'turpentine'
• test. - testa = 'shell'
• theriac. - theriaca = 'antidote', 'antivenom', 'treacle'
• thur. - thus = 'frankincense'
• zyth. - zythum = 'zythos' (Egyptian beer)
The symbol (℞) is short for 'recipe' and means 'take' in Latin. This is still used for prescriptions today as Rx.


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