Difference between revisions of "John Ward's Latin"

 
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This article features two vocabulary lists of the Latin words and abbreviations in the diaries of [https://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/vi0hc7 John Ward], Folger MS V.a.284 -299.  
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This article features two glossaries of the Latin words and abbreviations in the diaries of [https://luna.folger.edu/luna/servlet/s/vi0hc7 John Ward], Folger MS V.a.284 -299. The words are all associated with medical receipts. At the bottom of the article are links to a cribsheet for John Ward's handwriting, several sites that depict alchemical symbols, and a Greek keyboard.  
  
One list is the work of Callum Simms, a transcriber on [https://www.shakespearesworld.org/#/ Shakespeare's World] (a crowd-sourced project between the Folger Shakespeare Library, Zooniverse and the OED, sponsored by [[Early Modern Manuscripts Online (EMMO)|EMMO]]). Some of John Ward's diaries have been transcribed by volunteers on Shakespeare's World. On Shakespeare's World's talk feature, Callum Simms is known as @IntelVoid. <br>
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The first glossary was compiled by Dr. Robert Tallaksen, a reader and transcriber at the Folger Shakespeare Library. It is regularly updated with new words. Last update was March 26, 2021.
  
One list is the work of Dr. Robert Tallaksen, a reader and transcriber at the Folger Shakespeare Library.
+
The second glossary is the work of Callum Simms, a transcriber on [https://www.shakespearesworld.org/#/ Shakespeare's World] (a crowd-sourced project between the Folger Shakespeare Library, Zooniverse and the OED, sponsored by [[Early Modern Manuscripts Online (EMMO)|EMMO]]).  Some of John Ward's diaries have been transcribed by volunteers on Shakespeare's World. On Shakespeare's World's talk feature, Callum Simms is known as @IntelVoid.  
  
 
John Ward was the vicar of Stratford-upon-Avon from 1662 to 1681. The [[Folger Shakespeare Library]] has 16 of his 17 diaries. More information on John Ward can be found in [https://folgerpedia.folger.edu/A_Semi-Diplomatic_Transcription_of_Selections_from_the_John_Ward_Diaries,_vol._9_(1662-1663),_V.a.292 A Semi-Diplomatic Transcription of Selections from the John Ward Diaries].
 
John Ward was the vicar of Stratford-upon-Avon from 1662 to 1681. The [[Folger Shakespeare Library]] has 16 of his 17 diaries. More information on John Ward can be found in [https://folgerpedia.folger.edu/A_Semi-Diplomatic_Transcription_of_Selections_from_the_John_Ward_Diaries,_vol._9_(1662-1663),_V.a.292 A Semi-Diplomatic Transcription of Selections from the John Ward Diaries].
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=='''John Ward's Latin medical words and abbreviations (Dr. Robert Tallaksen, compiler)'''==
== '''Following list by Dr Robert Tallaksen''' ==
 
  
== Instructions and Amounts ==
+
==Instructions and Amounts==
  
 
ā, ān., ana = of each   
 
ā, ān., ana = of each   
 
a. c., p. c., ante/post cibum = before or after a meal
 
  
ad. grat. acid., ad gratem aciditatem = to an agreeable sourness  
+
a. c., p. c., ante/post cibum = before or after a meal
 +
 
 +
ad. grat. acid., ad gratem aciditatem = to an agreeable sourness
 +
 
 +
ante pastum = before food
 +
 
 +
ante/post prandium = before/after a meal (lunch)
 +
 
 +
applic., applico -are = apply; e.g., applica ventre = apply to the abdomen
 +
 
 +
balneum -i = bath; e.g., BV, balneo vaporoso, in a steam bath; BM, balneo Mariae, in a bain-marie
 +
 
 +
bib., bibo -ere = drink; bibit (she/he drinks), bibat (let her/him drink) or bibatur (let X be drunk )
 +
 
 +
bullio -ire = boil; bulliant, they should boil or let them boil
 +
 
 +
calcino -are = to calcine; reduce by roasting or burning to a powder or friable substance; una calcinentur, let them be calcined together
 +
 
 +
cap., capio -ere = cape, take; also capiat (let him/her take X) and capiatur (let X be taken)
 +
 
 +
chartula -ae = a small piece of paper; specifically, such a piece of paper twisted or folded and containing a single dose of medicinal powder
 +
 
 +
clarific., clarifico -are = clarify
 +
 
 +
coch., cochleare  = spoonful(s)
 +
 
 +
colatus -a -um (also incolatus) = strained, filtered, purified (from colo -are = strain, filter); colatura -ae, material which has been filtered or strained
 +
 
 +
compos., compositus -a -um = adj., compound; composed, prepared
 +
 
 +
cong., congius -i = gallon
 +
 
 +
contund., contundo -ere = bruise, crush, beat
 +
 
 +
contus., contusus -a -um = adj., bruised, crushed, beaten
 +
 
 +
coq., coqu., coquo -ere = boil
 +
 
 +
crebro = adv., frequently, repeatedly
 +
 
 +
cum =  with; often abbreviated with macron:  cū
 +
 
 +
cuspis -idis cultelli = point of a knife; as much medicine as will lie on a knife point; a small but uncertain amount, likely a few grains
 +
 
 +
d., da, datur detur = da, give; datur X, X is given; detur X, let X be given
 +
 
 +
d., dos., dosis -es = dose
 +
 
 +
decoq., decoquo -ere =  boil down / reduce
 +
 
 +
diluculi., diluculum -i = at daybreak; alternis diluculis, every other morning at dawn
 +
 
 +
dulcorand., edulcorand., dulcorandus -a -um = sweetened; from dulcoro -are
 +
 
 +
e, ex =  out of / from
 +
 
 +
ebull., ebullio -ire =  boil
 +
 
 +
epotus -a -um = swallowed, quaffed, drunk up
  
ante pastum = before food
+
erasus -a -um = scraped; see also rasus -a -um, below
  
ante prandium = before a meal (lunch)
+
et = and
  
applic., applico -are = apply; e.g., applica ventris = apply to the abdomen
+
exacin., exacinatus -a -um = with the seeds or stones removed; e.g. raisins
  
balneum -i = bath; e.g., balneo vaporoso, in a steam bath; balneo Mariae, in a bain-marie
+
excorticatus -a -um = peeled, skinned, stripped of outer covering
  
bib., bibo -ere = drink; bibit (she/he drinks), bibat (let her/him drink) or bibatur (let X be drunk )  
+
f. (face), facio -ere =  make
  
bullio -ire = boil; bulliant, they should boil
+
fiat X = let X be done/made
  
calcino -are = to calcine; reduce by roasting or burning to a powder or friable substance; una calcinentur, let them be calcined together
+
foveo -ere = keep warm; foveatur, let her/him/it be kept warm
cap., capio -ere =  take; also capiat (let him/her take) and capiatur (let X be taken)
 
  
chartula -ae = a small piece of paper; specifically, such a piece of paper containing a single dose of medicinal powder 
+
frigid., frigidus -a -um = cold; e.g., capiat frigida, let it be taken cold
  
clarific., clarifico -are = clarify
+
gran., granum = grain (apothecary measure)*
  
coch., cochleare = spoonful(s)
+
gt, gutt, gutta -ae = drop*
  
colatus -a -um (also incolatus) = strained, filtered, purified (from colo -are, to strain, filter)
+
h. s., hora somni, hora somnj = at bedtime
  
compos., compositus -a -um = adj., compound; composed, prepared
+
in = in, into
  
cong., congius -i = gallon
+
incid., incido -ere = cut open/into; incisus -a -um, incised, cut open
  
contund., contundo -ere = bruise, crush, beat
+
(in)fund. - (in)fundo -ere = pour (in)
  
contus., contusus -a -um = adj., bruised, crushed, beaten
+
insideat = let her/him sit (in a bath)
coq., coqu., coquo -ere = boil
 
  
crebro = adv., frequently, repeatedly
+
inspissat., inspissatus -a -um = adj., thickened, condensed
  
cum = with; often abbreviated with macron:  cū
+
inung., inunguo -ere = rub on (e.g., salve, ointment)
  
d., da, datur = give; detur X, let X be given
+
ieiuno or jejuno ventriculo = on a fasting (empty) stomach
  
d., dos., dosis -es = dose
+
lambend., lambo -ere = lick/ lap up; sensim lambendus, to be licked up slowly
decoq., decoquo -ere = boil down / reduce 
 
  
diluculi., diluculum -i = at daybreak; alternis diluculis, every other morning at dawn
+
lb, sometimes lib, or crossed, "℔" = pound; liquid measures often in pounds rather than volume
  
e, ex = out of / from 
+
m., misc., misceo -ere = mix; misceantur, let them (ingredients) be mixed
  
ebull., ebullio -ire =  boil  
+
m. f. = misce face/ misceat or misceant fiatmix (the ingredients) and make X, or let (the ingredients) be mixed and X be made (e.g., pills, electuary)
  
epotus -a -um = swallowed, quaffed, drunk up
+
magistral., magistralis -e = related to magister -tri, a master or teacher; can refer to something that is a practitioner's own formulation (as opposed to officinalis -e, see below), or a remedy that is supremely effective
  
et = and  
+
mane in the morning
  
f., facio -ere =  make 
+
manica hyppocratis = Hippocrates' sleeve, a kind of conical strainer made of linen or flannel; e.g., clarificentur per manicam hyppocratis, let them be clarified through a Hippocrates' sleeve
  
fiat X = let X be done/made
+
mass., massa -ae = the compound out of which pills, etc., are formed
  
foveo -ere = keep warm; foveatur, let her/him/it be kept warm
+
matut., matutinus -a -um, matutine = in the (early) morning
  
frigid., frigidus -a -um = cold; e.g., capiat frigida, let it be taken cold
+
mortarium -i = mortar; tunde, or contunde in mortario, crush in a mortar
  
gran., granum = grain (apothecary measure)* 
+
mundat., mundatus -a -um = cleaned
  
gt, gutt, gutta -ae =  drop*
+
no. or no = numerus, for the number of things; e.g. succ. Limon. no (numero) ii, juice of two lemons (in the number of two)
  
h. s., hora somni, hora somnj = at bedtime
+
nocte = at night
  
in = in, into 
+
nodulo, nodulus -i = a little knot, from nodus -i; in nodulo ligat., tied in a little knot
  
incid., incido -ere = cut open/into
+
officin., officinalis -e = from officina -ae, a shop; any standard medicine or ingredient kept in apothecary shops
  
(in)fund. - (in)fundo -ere =  pour (in)
+
ꝑreꝑ. or preꝑ.= preparatus -a -um (conjectured)
  
insideat = let her/him sit (in a bath)
+
paratur = it is prepared; e.g., paratur vnguent., an ointment is prepared
  
inspissat., inspissatus -a -um = adj., thickened, condensed
+
pauxill., pauxillatum = little by little
  
inung., inunguo -ere = rub on (e.g., salve, ointment)  
+
permisceo -ere = mix thoroughly; permisceantur, let them (ingredients) be thoroughly mixed
  
jejuno ventriculo = on a fasting (empty) stomach
+
pisto -are = pound, stamp, crush; pistentur, let them be pounded
  
lambend., lambo -ere = lick/ lap up; sensim lambendus, to be licked up slowly
+
pomeridiane = (adv.) in the afternoon
  
lb = pound; some liquid measures are in pounds rather than volume
+
pulveriz., pulverizatus -a -um = powdered
  
m., misc., misceo -ere = mix; misceantur, let them (ingredients) be mixed
+
q. s., quantum satis or quantum sufficit = a sufficient quantity
  
m. f. = misce faci/ fiat, mix the ingredients and make X, or let X be made (e.g., pills, electuary)
+
q. s. m. f. = quantum satis misce face (or misceantur fiat), take a sufficient quantity of the last ingredient or ingredients named, mix, (and) make X; or let the ingredients be mixed and let X be made
  
mane = in the morning 
+
ras., rasur., rasus -a -um or rasuratus -a -um = scraped or scrapings of
  
manica hyppocratis = Hippocrates' sleeve, a kind of conical strainer made of linen or flannel; e.g., clarificentur per manicam hyppocratis, let them be clarified through a Hippocrates' sleeve
+
redig., redige, redigo -ere = reduce (into); e.g., redig. in cataplasma, reduce to a poultice
  
mass., massa -ae = the compound out of which pills, etc., are formed
+
s. a., secundem artem = according to art/practice, in the usual way; connotation is that the method requires particular skill and/or experience
  
matut., matutinus -a -um, matutine = in the (early) morning
+
s. or ss., semis = one half (see note below)
  
mortarium -i = mortar; tunde, or contunde in mortario, crush in a mortar
+
saepe, sepe = often; saepius (comparative) = rather often, more often
  
mundat., mundatus -a -um = cleaned
+
semicoch., semicochl., semicochleare = half a spoonful
  
no. or no = numerus, for the number of things; e.g. succ. Limon. no ii, juice of two lemons
+
sero = late; e.g., mane et sero, in the morning and late
  
nocte = at night
+
setaceum -i = sieve; per setaceum, through a sieve
  
officin., officinalis -e = from officina -ae, a shop; any medicine directed to be kept in shops 
+
siccus -a -um = dry
  
ꝑreꝑ. or preꝑ.= preparatus -a -um (conjectured)
+
singul., singulus -a -um = one at a time, individually, singly
  
paratur = it is prepared; e.g., paratur vnguent., an ointment is prepared
+
spatha -ae, spatula -ae = a flat piece of wood, a stirrer; diminutive is spatula -ae
  
permisceo -ere = mix thoroughly; permisceantur, let them (ingredients) be thoroughly mixed
+
spong., spongiā, spongiis = with a sponge or sponges
  
pisto -are = pound, stamp, crush; pistentur, let them be pounded
+
stillitat., stillatim = drop by drop
  
pomeridiane = (adv.) in the afternoon
+
substituo -ere = substitute; X substituatur, X should/ought to be substituted; e.g. for a missing ingredient, in defectu vini graeci aliud vinum potens album substituatur, in the absence of Greek wine another strong white wine should/may be substituted
  
pulveriz., pulverizatus -a -um = powdered 
+
subtilissime, subtilissimus -a -um = very finely, minutely; e.g., face pulverem subtilissimam, make a very fine powder; contunde in mortario subtilissime, crush very finely in a mortar
  
q. s., quantum satis or quantum sufficit = a sufficient quantity
+
sumend., sumendus -a -um = to be or should be taken; e.g., mane et sero sumendum = to be taken early and late
  
redig., redigo -ere = redige, reduce (into); e.g., redig. in cataplasma, reduce to a poultice
+
summo mane = very early in the morning
  
s. a., secundem artem = according to art/practice, in the usual way; connotation is that the method requires particular skill and/or experience
+
superbib., superbibo -ere = drink after or upon another substance; superbibendus -a -um, it should be taken after something else
  
s. or ss., semis = one half (see note below)
+
ust., ustus -a -um =  adj., burnt
  
saepe, sepe = often; saepius (comparative) = rather often
+
vesperi = in the evening
  
semicoch., semicochl., semicochleare = half a spoonful
+
==Measurements==
  
sero = late; e.g., mane et sero, in the morning and late
+
lb or ℔ = pound; NB the unit of weight, not of money
  
setaceum -i = sieve; per setaceum, through a sieve
+
M = handful
  
siccus -a -um = dry
+
p = pugil, the amount that can be picked up with the thumb and two fingers
  
singul., singulus -a -um = one at a time, individually, singly
+
= ounce (available on EMROC toolbar in Dromio)
  
spong., spongiā, spongiis = with a sponge or sponges
+
f℥ = fluid ounce, though the "f" is generally omitted
  
stillitat., stillatim = drop by drop
+
ʒ = dram, drachm (available on EMROC toolbar in Dromio)
  
substituo -ere = substitute; X substituatur, X should/ought to be substituted, e.g. for a missing ingredient:  in defectu vini graeci aliud vinum potens
+
= scruple (available on EMROC toolbar in Dromio)
  
album substituatur, in the absence of Greek wine another strong white wine should be substituted
+
20 grains = 1 scruple; 3 scruples = 1 dram; 8 drams = 1 ounce
  
sumend., sumendus -a -um = to be or should be taken; e.g., mane et sero sumendum = to be taken early and late
+
Numerical amounts are most often given in minuscule Roman numerals; e.g., iiii. The last "i" is very often written as a "long i" or "j," e.g., iiij, but should be transcribed as a minuscule: iiii. 
  
summo mane = very early in the morning
+
When "s" or "ss" is used for one half, it follows the last character, thus
  
superbib., superbibo -ere = take after or upon another substance; superbibendus -a -um, it should be taken after something else
+
*℈s, 1/2 scruple
 +
*℥iiis = 3 1/2 ounces
 +
*ʒiss = 1 1/2 drams
 +
*the "s" can look like a long "i" but will lack a dot.
  
ust., ustus -a -um =  adj., burnt 
 
  
vesperi = in the evening
+
The abbreviations for grain, "gr," and guttae, "gt," can look very similar; if so:
  
== Measurements ==
+
*when the ingredient is a liquid, e.g., a syrup, suggest using "gt"
 +
*if a dry substance, e.g., saffron, use "gr."
  
lb or ℔ = pound
+
==Types of Receipts==
  
= ounce; f℥ = fluid ounce
+
alviducum -i = "opener of the belly;" i.e. a laxative
  
ʒ = dram, drachm
+
apozema -atis = infusion, decoction, concentration by boiling
  
= scruple
+
aq. x = water of x; common ingredient meaning water infused or distilled with x (e.g., rosewater)
  
M = handful
+
balneum -i = bath
  
p = pugil, the amount that can be picked up with the thumb and two fingers
+
bocheti, bochetum -i = a liquid produced in this way:  after a decoction of woods, roots, and/or barks, fresh water is added to the same ingredients to make a second decoction for ordinary drinking
  
Numerical amounts are most often given in minuscule Roman numerals; e.g., iiii.  The last "i" is often written as a "long i" or "j," e.g., iiij, but should be transcribed as a minuscule:  iiii. 
+
carminativus -a -um = serving to expel flatulence, as in "emplastrum carminativum"
  
When "s" is used for one half, it follows the last character, e.g., ℈s, 1/2 scruple, or ℥iiis = 3 1/2 ounces.  The "s" can look like a long "i" but will lack a dot.
+
cataplasm., cataplasma -is = poultice or plaster
  
**The abbreviations for grain, "gr," and guttae, "gt," can look identical; if the ingredient is a liquid, e.g., a syrup, suggest using "gt;" if a dry substance, use "gr."
+
cholagog., cholagogum -i = cholagogue, a medication that promotes discharge of bile
  
== Types of Receipts ==
+
clyster -eris = enema
  
apozema -atis = infusion, decoction, concentration by boiling
+
collutio -onis = a rinse or wash; e.g. "collutio oris," mouth-wash
  
aq. x = water of x; common ingredient meaning water infused or distilled with x (e.g., rosewater)
+
collyrium -i = eye-wash
  
arillus -i = seed/stone; uva passa detractis arillis, dried grapes with the seeds removed
+
decoct., decoctio -onis = decoction
  
balneum -i = bath
+
embroc., embrocatio -onis = an embrocation; like a liniment but of a thinner consistency, many types; used for bathing or moistening any part, applied by rubbing
  
bocheti, bochetum -i = a liquid thus produced:  after a decoction of woods, roots, and/or barks, fresh water is added to the same ingredients to make a second decoction for ordinary drinking
+
eclegma, ecligma -atis = medicine to be taken by letting it melt in the mouth
  
carminativus -a -um = serving to expel flatulence, as in "emplastrum carminativum"  
+
elect., electuarium -i = electuary; a "medicinal conserve or paste, consisting of a powder or other ingredient mixed with honey, preserve, or syrup of some kind" (OED)
  
cataplasm., cataplasma -is = poultice or plaster  
+
empl., emplastrum -i = plaster; emplastrum Paracelsi (of Paracelsus) is one of many
  
cholagog., cholagogum -i = cholagogue, a medication that promotes discharge of bile
+
emuls., emulsio -onis = emulsion
  
clyster -eris = enema
+
epithema -ae = "Any kind of moist, or soft, external application" (OED)
  
decoct., decoctio -onis = decoction 
+
errhin., errhinum -i = errhine; medication to be applied into the nose to produce sneezing
  
embroc., embrocatio -onis = an embrocation; like a liniment but of a thinner consistency, many types
+
fomentum -i, fomentatio -onis = dressing, compress; usually with warm liquids (fomentation) and applied as a poultice or with a pad of material
  
eclegma, ecligma -atis = medicine to be taken by letting it melt in the mouth
+
fotus -us = same as fomentation, above
  
elect., electuarium -i = electuary
+
gargarisma -ae = a gargle, throat-wash
  
empl., emplastrum -i = plaster; emplastrum Paracelsi (of Paracelsus) is one of many
+
haust., haustu., haustus -us = draught
  
emuls., emulsio -onis = emulsion
+
infus., infusio -onis = infusion
  
errhin., errhinum -i = errhine; medication to be applied into the nose to produce sneezing
+
iulap., iulep., iulapium -i = a mixture, often sweet, used as a vehicle for medicines
  
fomentum -i, fomentatio -onis = poultice, dressing, compress; may be with warm liquids (fomentation)
+
iusculum, jusculum -i = broth
  
gargarisma -ae = a gargle, throat-wash
+
lambatiuum, lambativum, lambitivum -i = same as lohoch/linctus, below
  
haust., haustus -us = draught 
+
linctus = medicine that is to be taken by licking (same as lohoch)
  
iulap., iulep., iulapium -i = a mixture, often sweet, used as a vehicle for medicines
+
liniment., linamentum -i = liniment; l. arcei = liniment of Arceus, l. elemi (see below under gummi)
  
iusculum, jusculum -i = broth
+
lithontriptic., lythontriptic., lithontripticus -a -um = lithontriptic; having the property of breaking up bladder stones
  
lambatiuum, lambativum, lambitivum -i = same as lohoch/ linctus, below
+
lohoch = medicine that is to be taken by licking (same as linctus)
  
linctus, lohoch = medicine that is to be taken by licking
+
lot., lotio -onis = lotion; fluid applied externally
  
liniment., linamentum -i = liniment; l. arcei = liniment of Arceus, l. elemi (see below under gummi)
+
metrenchyta -ae = injection ("clyster") for the uterus
  
lithontriptic., lythontriptic., lithontripticus -a -um = lithontriptic; having the property of breaking up bladder stones
+
pectoral., pectoralis -e = for diseases of the chest
  
lot., lotio -onis = lotion; fluid applied externally
+
pill., pillulae = pill(s)
  
metrenchyta -ae = injection ("clyster") for the uterus
+
possetum -i, liquor posseticus = posset; milk curdled with treacle, wine, or any acid substance
  
pill., pillulae = pill(s)
+
potio -onis = drink
  
possetum -i, liquor posseticus = posset; milk curdled with treacle, wine, or any acid substance
+
potus -us = drink
  
potio -onis = drink
+
ptisan., ptisana -ae = decoction of vegetable matters, e.g., barley, licorice, or raisins; a tisane
  
potus -us = drink
+
pulv., pulver., pulvis -eris = powder
  
ptisan., ptisana -ae = decoction of vegetable matters, e.g., barley, licorice, or raisins; a tisane
+
purg., purgatio -onis = laxative
  
pulv., pulver., pulvis -eris = powder
+
sorbilis -e = something that can be sucked up
  
purg., purgatio -onis = laxative
+
syr., syrup., syrrup., sirup., sirupus -i = syrup
  
sorbilis -e = something that can be sucked up
+
tragea = powder (?)
  
troch., trochisc., trochiscus -i =  troche  (lozenge)  
+
troch., trochisc., trochiscus -i =  troche  (lozenge)
  
ungu., vngu., unguentum -i = oil, salve, or ointment; for some types, see below  
+
ungu., vngu., unguentum -i = oil, salve, or ointment; for some types, see below
  
== Ingredients and Descriptions ==
+
''Italic text''
 +
==Ingredients and Descriptions==
  
== A ==
+
==A==
 
   
 
   
abrotan., abrotanum -i = artemisia or southernwood, Artemisia abrotanum  
+
abrotan., abrotanum -i = artemisia or southernwood, ''Artemisia abrotanum''
 +
 
 +
absynth., absynthium -i = wormwood, ''Artemisia absinthium''
 +
 
 +
acetos., acetosa -ae = sorrel or sour dock, ''Rumex acetosa''; fol. acetos., folia acetosae, leaves of this plant
 +
 
 +
acet., acetum -i = vinegar; a. theriacale, treacle vinegar
 +
 
 +
acori., acorus -i = sweet flag plant, Acorus calamus
  
absynth., absynthium -i = wormwood, Artemisia absinthium
+
adiant., adianth., adiantum -i = maidenhair fern, Adiantum capillus-veneris
  
acetos., acetosa -ae = sorrel or sour dock, Rumex acetosa; fol. acetos., folia acetosae, leaves of this plant
+
agaric., agaricus -i = originally the bracket fungus, Formitopsis officinalis, later any mushroom with a cap, various species including Agaricus cantharellus, the chanterelle
  
acet., acetum -i = vinegar 
+
agni cast., agni casti = Vitex agnus-castus; chaste tree, chasteberry, Abraham's balm, etc.
  
acori., acorus -i = sweet flag plant, Acorus calamus
+
agrimon., agrimonia -ae = common agrimony, Agrimonia eupatoria
  
adiant., adianth., adiantum -i = maidenhair fern, Adiantum capillus-veneris
+
alb., albus -a -um = white
  
agaric., agaricus -i = originally the bracket fungus, Formitopsis officinalis, later any mushrooms with a cap, various species including Agaricus cantharellus, the chanterelle
+
alb. graec., album graecum = the dry white excrement of a dog, hyena, or other bone-eating carnivore, esp. when used as an ingredient in medicinal preparations (OED)
  
agni cast., agni casti = Vitex agnus-castus; chaste tree, chasteberry, Abraham's balm, etc.  
+
alchermes, alkermes (confectio -onis) = confection of Kermes  (crimson insect, cf. cochineal)
  
agrimon., agrimonia -ae = common agrimony, Agrimonia eupatoria
+
alhandal = Arabic name for colocynth (q. v.); troches of alhandal also contained bdellium & gum tragacanth
alb., albus -a -um =  white 
 
  
alb. graec., album graecum = the dry white excrement of a dog, hyena, or other bone-eating carnivore, esp. when used as an ingredient in medicinal preparations (OED)
+
alkakeng., alkekengi = winter cherry, Physalis alkekengi, a diuretic
  
alchermes, alkermes (confectio -onis) = confection of Kermes  (crimson insect, cf. cochineal)
+
aloe -es = aloe; common aloe, Aloe hepatica
  
alhandal = Arabic name for colocynth (q. v.); troches of alhandal also contained bdellium & gum tragacanth
+
aloe depurata = extract made by boiling aloe with water and then concentrating the liquid; if the water was replaced with juice of violet flowers, "aloe violata;" if with juice of rose leaves, "aloe rosata"
  
alkakeng., alkekengi = winter cherry, Physalis alkekengi, a diuretic
+
alth., althe., althea/althaea -ae = mallow or marsh-mallow, Althea officinalis; also called malvaviscus
  
aloe -es = aloe; common aloe, Aloe hepatica
+
alumin., alumina -ae = alum; argil or argillaceous earth
  
aloe depurata = extract made by boiling aloe with water and then concentrating the liquid; if the water was replaced with juice of violet flowers, "aloe violata;" if with juice of rose leaves, "aloe rosata"
+
ambra = amber, or ambergris
  
alth., althe., althea -ae = mallow or marshmallow, Althea officinalis; also called malvaviscus
+
ammi -ii = umbelliferous plant, Ammi vulgare (maius), common bishop's weed
  
alumin., alumina -ae = alum; argil or argillaceous earth
+
ammoniac., ammoniacum -i = gum ammoniac, gum resin of Dorema ammoniacum
  
ambra = amber, or ambergris
+
amomi., amomum -i = genus of aromatic plants including black cardamom, Amomum sublatum
  
ammoniac., ammoniacum -i = gum ammoniac, gum resin of Dorema ammoniacum
+
amylum -i = white starch
  
aneth., anethum -i = dill, Anethum graveolens
+
anagallis -idis = common or "scarlet" pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis
  
anis., anisum -i = anise, Pimpinella anisum; semina anisi, aniseed
+
aneth., anethum -i = dill, Anethum graveolens
  
anserin., anserinus -a -um = of, relating to, or obtained from a goose
+
anis., anisum -i = anise, Pimpinella anisum; semina anisi, aniseed
  
antepileptic., antepilepticus -a -um = anti-epileptic; e.g., aqua antepileptica
+
anserin., anserinus -a -um = of, relating to, or obtained from a goose; adipes anserinus, goose fat
  
anthos = rosemary flowers
+
antepileptic., antepilepticus -a -um = anti-epileptic; e.g., aqua antepileptica
  
apium -i = smallage or any of several kinds of celery or parsley, esp. wild celery, Apium graveolens
+
anthos = rosemary flowers
  
aq., aqua -ae = water; aqua fontis, spring or well water
+
apium -i = smallage or any of several kinds of celery or parsley, esp. wild celery, Apium graveolens dulce
  
aq. histeric., aqu -ae histerica = anti-hysteric water; recipes vary
+
aq., aqua -ae = water; aqua fontis, spring or well water
  
aq. vit., aqua vitae = distilled spirit
+
aq. calc., aqua -ae calcis = lime water (whitewash)
  
argill., argilla -ae = argil, argillaceous earth, alumina 
+
aq. fort., aqua -ae fortis = nitric acid, HNO3; may also be called "spirit of niter"
  
ari., arum -i = common arum, Arum maculatum
+
aq. histeric., aqu -ae histerica = anti-hysteric water; receipts vary
  
aristoloch., aristolochia -ae = birthwort, Aristolochia clematitis 
+
aq. naphae, aqua -ae naphae = orange flower water
  
aromat. rosat., aromaticum rosatum = aromatic medicine containing roses
+
aq. vit., aqua vitae = distilled spirit
  
artemis., artemisia -ae = various species including southernwood, wormwood, mugwort, etc.
+
argentum -i = the element Silver, Ag; argentum vivum ("alive") = mercury (Hg), see hydrargyrus, below
  
artanit., artanita -ae = probably sow-bread, Cyclamen purpurascens
+
argill., argilla -ae = argil, argillaceous earth, alumina
  
asar., asarum -i = asarabacca or hazelwort, Asarum europaeum 
+
arillus -i = seed/stone; uva passa detractis arillis, dried grapes with the seeds removed
  
asparag., asparagus -i = asparagus, Asparagus officinalis; the root was used as a diuretic
+
ari., arum -i = common arum, Arum maculatum
  
asell., asellus -i = wood louse, Oniscus asellus; pulv. (onisc.) asell., powder of wood lice
+
aristoloch., aristolochia -ae = many species, including birthwort, Aristolochia clematitis; JW also mentions A. rotunda, smearwort or round-leaved birthwort; see also serpentaria, below
  
ass. foetid., assafoetida -ae = asafoetida, dried gum of  root of Ferula foetida or F. assa-foetida
+
aromat. rosat., aromaticum rosatum = aromatic medicine containing roses
  
auri = uncertain; appears in V.a.298 as "fol. auri," possibly leaves of Aurus brasiliensis, also known as Calamus aromaticus asiaticus, Asian sweet-scented flag
+
artemis., artemisia -ae = mugwort, Artemisia vulgaris; also other species including southernwood, wormwood, tarragon
  
aur., aurum -i = gold; golden pills, see pillulae aurae below
+
artanit., artanita -ae = probably sow-bread, Cyclamen purpurascens
  
aurant., aurantior., aurantium -i = orange, Citrus aurantium; cortex aurantiorum, orange peel
+
asar., asarum -i = asarabacca or hazelwort, Asarum europaeum
  
aven., avena -ae = oats, Avena sativa; wild oats, A. fatua
+
asparag., asparagus -i = asparagus, Asparagus officinalis; the root was used as a diuretic
  
avenac., avenaceus -a -um = of or relating to oats; oaten
+
asell., asellus -i = wood louse, Oniscus asellus; pulv. (onisc.) asell., powder of wood lice
  
axung., axungia -ae = lard or fat of an animal; e.g., axung. porcin., hog lard
+
ass. foetid., assafoetida -ae = asafoetida, dried gum of  root of Ferula foetida or F. assa-foetida
  
== B ==
+
auri = uncertain; appears in V.a.298 as "fol. auri," possibly leaves of Aurus brasiliensis, also known as Calamus aromaticus asiaticus, Asian sweet-scented flag
 +
 
 +
aur., aurum -i = gold; golden pills, see pillulae aurae below
 +
 
 +
aurant., aurantior., aurantium -i = orange, Citrus aurantium; cortex aurantiorum, orange peel
 +
 
 +
aurant. chinens., aurantium -i chinense = Chinese (sweet) orange, Citrus sinensis
 +
 
 +
auripigment., auripigmentum -i = auripigment, arsenic trisulfide (As2S3), used by painters under the name of King's Yellow (OED); also appears as arsenicum auripigmentum
 +
 
 +
avellan., avellanus -a -um = hazel- or filbert; nux avellana, hazel-nut; from the name of the town Avellana in Campania, well known for its fruit and nut trees
 +
 
 +
aven., auenaceae, avena -ae = oats, Avena sativa; wild oats, A. fatua
 +
 
 +
avenac., avenaceus -a -um = of or relating to oats; oaten
 +
 
 +
axung., axungia -ae = lard or fat of an animal; e.g., axung. porcin., hog lard
 +
 
 +
==B==
 
   
 
   
bacc., bacca -ae =  berry
+
bacc., bacca -ae =  berry  
 +
 
 +
bacon., baco -onis = bacon
 +
 
 +
balaust., balaustium -i = pomegranate flower
 +
 
 +
balsam., balsamum -i = balsam, any strongly scented resin; many types; can be solid, e.g., benzoin (see below), or liquid, e.g., Peruvian balsam, balsam of Tolu
 +
 
 +
basilic. = see ung., vng. basilic. below
 +
 
 +
bechicus -a -um, bechinus -a -um = for treatment of a cough
 +
 
 +
bechion bechii = coltsfoot, Tussilago farfara
 +
 
 +
bdell., bdellium -i = gum resin from shrubs of Balsamodendron species, used as pectoral (for diseases of the chest) and emmenagogue (to promote menstrual flow)
 +
 
 +
becabung., beccabunga -ae = water pimpernel, brooklime; Veronica beccabunga
 +
 
 +
bened. laxat., benedicta laxativa or benedictum laxativum = another name for rhubarb, or the laxative electuary made from it
 +
 
 +
benedict. = carduus benedictus, q. v.
 +
 
 +
benz., benzoin., belzuinum -i = benzoin, gum benzoin; gum obtained from Styrax benzoin
  
bacon., baco -onis = bacon
+
berber., berberis -is = barberry tree, Berberis vulgaris or the berry itself
  
balaust., balaustium -i = pomegranate flower
+
beta -ae = beetroot, Beta vulgaris; also appears as "rad. betae"
  
balsam., balsamum -i = balsam, any strongly scented resin; many types; can be solid, e.g., benzoin, or fluid, e.g., Peruvian balsam, balsam of Tolu
+
beton., betonic., betonica -ae = betony, Stachys betonica
  
basilic. = see ung., vng. basilic. below
+
bezoar (indecl.); bezoart., bezoarticum -i = a stone or concretion found in animal intestines; eight types are described (mineral, biliary, resinous, fibrous, etc.) and may be described with an adjective, e.g., bezoart. minerale, animale
  
bechicus -a -um, bechinus -a -um = for a cough
+
bezoard., bezoardic., bezoardicus -a -um = relating to or in description of a bezoar
  
bechion bechii = coltsfoot, Tussilago farfara
+
bismalv., bismalva -ae = althea, marshmallow; or related species Malva bismalva or M. moschata, musk-mallow
  
bdell., bdellium -i = gum resin from shrubs of Balsamodendron species, used as pectoral (for diseases of the chest) and emmenagogue (to promote menstrual flow)
+
bol. armen., bolus -i Armeniae = Armenian bole, bole armoniac; an argillaceous earth
  
becabung., beccabunga -ae = water pimpernel, brooklime; Veronica beccabunga
+
bombac., bombax -acem = cotton, cotton-wool, stuffing
  
bened. laxat., benedicta laxativa or benedictum laxativum = another name for rhubarb, or the laxative electuary made from it
+
borac., borax (-acis) = borax (sodium borate, disodium tetraborate), Sodae biboras
  
benedict. = carduus benedictus, q. v.  
+
brassica -ae = cabbage; also a genus of numerous cruciferous plants incl. turnip, rape, etc.
  
benz., benzoin., belzuinum -i = benzoin, gum benzoin; gum obtained from Styrax benzoin
+
bryon., bryonia -ae = briony, Bryonia dioica, may also be denoted red or white; black bryony = lady's seal
  
berber., berberis -is = barberry tree, Berberis vulgaris or the berry itself
+
bubula -ae = beef; bubulus -a -um, derived from beef; medulla bubula, beef marrow
  
beton., betonic., betonica -ae = betony, Stachys betonica
+
bugloss., buglossa -ae = bugloss (various species of Anchusa, Echium, and others)
  
bezoar (indecl.) = a stone or concretion found in animal intestines; eight types are described (mineral, biliary, resinous, fibrous, etc.)
+
bugul., bugula -ae = numerous herbaceous plants including common bugle, Ajuga reptans
  
bezoard., bezoardic., bezoardicus -a -um =  relating to or in description of a bezoar 
+
bupthalmi., bupthalmum -i = common ox-eye, Bupthalmum salicifolium
  
bismalv., bismalva -ae = althea, marshmallow; or related species Malva bismalva or M. moschata, musk-mallow
+
butyr., butyron -i = butter; butryr. rancid., rancid butter; butyr. recens, recent. = fresh butter
  
bol. armen., bolus -i Armeniae = Armenian bole, bole armoniac; an argillaceous earth
+
==C==
  
borac., borax (-acis?) borax (sodium biborate, biborate of soda), Sodae biboras
+
calaminth., calamintha -ae calamint; various species of Calamintha, e.g. officinalis, sylvatica
  
breakstone, pass-breakstone = saxifrage, Saxifraga species, esp. S. granulata
+
calc. viv., calx calcis = lime, limestone, chalk; calx vivum, unslaked lime
  
bryon., bryonia -ae = briony, Bryonia dioica, also called red or white; black bryony = lady's seal
+
calendul., calendula -ae = garden or common marigold, Calendula officinalis
  
bugloss., buglossa = bugloss (various species of Anchusa)
+
campan., campanula -ae = throat-wort, bell-flower; Campanula trachelium
  
butyr., butyron -i = butter; butryr. rancid., rancid butter
+
camphir., camphor., camphora -ae = camphor, from Laurus camphora or Dryobalanops camphora
  
== C ==
+
cancror., cancer cancri = crab; cancrorum vivorum, (of) live crabs; see also "oculi cancri," below
  
calaminth., calamintha -ae = calamint; various species of Calamintha
+
canell., canella -ae = canella tree; Canella alba, wild cinnamon
  
calc. viv., calx calcis vivum = unslaked lime 
+
cantharid., cantharis -idis = blistering fly or Spanish fly, Musca hispanica; decoction of the insects used externally and internally as powder or tincture; can be poisonous in overdose
  
calendul., calendula -ae = garden or common marigold, Calendula officinalis
+
caphura -ae = camphor
  
campan., campanula -ae = throat-wort, bell-flower; Campanula trachelium
+
capill. vener., capillus veneris = maidenhair fern, Adiantum capillus-veneris
  
camphor., camphora -ae = camphor, from Laurus camphora or Dryobalanops camphora 
+
cappar., capparis -is = caper, Capparis spinosa; ol., oleum capparibus, oil of capers
  
canell., canella -ae = canella tree; Canella alba, false Winter's bark
+
carabe, carabes = likely a name for white amber (V.a. 298, f. 161r, receipt in Latin, "Carab. pulueriz.," followed by receipt in English, "the white amber powderd")
  
cantharid., cantharis -idis = blistering fly or Spanish fly, Musca hispanica; decoction of the insects used externally and internally as powder or tincture; can be poisonous in overdose
+
cardiac., cardiacus -a -um = cordial, for stimulating, invigorating, or restoring the heart, aqua cardiaca =  cordial water
  
capill. vener., capillus veneris = maidenhair fern, Adiantum capillus-veneris
+
card., carduus -i = thistle (various species)
  
cappar., capparis -is = caper, Capparis spinosa; ol., oleum capparibus, oil of capers 
+
card. ben., card. bened., card. benedict., carduus -i benedictus = holy thistle, Cnicus benedictus, widely used
  
carabe, carabes = likely a name for white amber (see V.a. 298, f. 161r, receipt in Latin, "Carab. pulueriz.," followed by receipt in English, "the white amber powderd")
+
cardam., cardamomum -i = cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum
  
cardiac., cardiacus -a -um; aqua cardiaca =  cordial water
+
caric., carica -ae = fig, Ficus carica; may be described as ficus pinguis, a fat or ripe fig
  
card., carduus -i =  thistle (various species)
+
carlin., carlina -ae carline or silver thistle, Carlina vulgaris
  
card. bened., card. benedict., carduus -i benedictus = holy thistle, Centaurea benedicta, widely used {''Shakespeare, Much Ado About Nothing, 3, iv, 73-5: "Get you some of this distilled Carduus benedictus, and lay it to your heart: it is the only thing for a qualm."''}
+
caro carnis = meat, flesh (any kind)
  
cardam., cardamomum -i = cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum
+
carthami., carthamus = saffron flower, Carthamus tinctorius
  
caric., carica -ae = fig, Ficus carica
+
carui., carvi., carum -i = caraway, Carum carui
  
carlin., carlina -ae = carline or silver thistle, Carlina vulgaris
+
caryocost., caryostinum -i = caryocostinum, an electuary so called because it contains cloves and costus, Saussurea costus, also known as costus, kuth, and putchuk, a species of Indian thistle
  
caro carnis = meat, flesh (any kind)
+
caryophill., caryophillus -i = clove, Caryophyllus aromaticus
  
carthami., carthamus = saffron flower, Carthamus tinctorius
+
caseum -i = cheese
  
carui., carvi., carum -i = caraway, Carum carui
+
cass., cassia -ae = cassia (various species; e.g, Cassia fistula, purging cassia)
  
caryophill., caryophillus -i = clove, Caryophyllus aromaticus 
+
cass. lign., cassia -ae lignum = cassia wood
  
caseum -i = cheese 
+
castanea -ae = chestnut or chestnut-tree, Castana vesca
  
cass., cassia -ae = cassia (various species; e.g, Cassia fistula, purging cassia)
+
castoreum -i = castoreum; beaver musk
  
castoreum -i = castoreum; beaver musk
+
catholicum -i = a universal purging electuary
  
C.C. = cornu cervi (deer or hart's horn); not the plant  
+
C.C. = cornu cervi (deer or hart's horn), source of ammonia; not the plant (Plantago coronopus)
  
centaur., centaurium -i = centaury; Centaurea magnum or maius = C. erythraea; C. minus or C. parvum = Chironia centaurium (?)
+
centinodii, centinodium -i = knotgrass, Polygonum aviculare; post-classical Latin "centinodia," Anglo-Norman "centinodie"
  
cera -ae = wax; cera alba or citrina = beeswax
+
centaur., centaurium -i = centaury, feverfew, or featherfew; Centaurea magnum or maius = C. erythraea; C. minus or C. parvum = Chironia centaurium (?)
  
ceras. nigr., cerasum -i nigrum = black cherry, Cerasum nigrum; aq. cerasorum nigrorum, black cherry water; gummi cerasi, (black) cherry tree gum
+
cera -ae = wax; cera alba or citrina = beeswax
  
cerat., ceratio -onis = covering or smearing over of a portion of the body with wax
+
ceras. nigr., cerasum -i nigrum = black cherry, Cerasum nigrum; aq. cerasorum nigrorum, black cherry water; gummi cerasi, (black) cherry tree gum
  
cerevis., cerevisia -ae = beer or ale
+
cerat., ceratio -onis = covering or smearing over of a portion of the body with wax
  
ceruss., cerussa -ae = lead carbonate, white lead
+
cerevis., cerevisia -ae = beer or ale
  
cervis., cervisia -ae = beer or ale; cervisia tenuis, thin or small (weak, inferior) beer
+
ceruss., cerussa -ae = mixture of lead carbonate and hydrate, white lead
  
ceterach. = spleenwort or rustyback fern, Asplenium ceterach
+
cervin., cervinus -a -um = of or pertaining to a deer or stag
  
chalyb., chalybs chalyibis = steel 
+
cervis., cervisia -ae = beer or ale; cervisia tenuis, thin or small (i.e., weak or inferior) beer
  
chamamel., chamaemelum -i = chamomile, Anthemis nobilis
+
ceterach. = spleenwort or rustyback fern, Asplenium ceterach
  
chamaepit., chamaepitys -yos = common ground pine, Teucrium chamaepitys
+
chalyb., chalybs chalyibis = steel
  
chamedr., chaemedr., chamaedrys = germander speedwell, Veronica chamaedrys, or wall germander, Teucrium chamaedrys 
+
chamamel., chamaemel., chamaemelum -i = chamomile, Anthemis nobilis
  
chel. 69., chelae -arum cancri = crab's claws; for explanation of "69," see oculi cancri, below
+
chamaepit., chamaepitys -yos = common ground pine, Teucrium chamaepitys
  
chelidon., chelidonium -i = common or greater celandine, Chelidonium magnus
+
chamedr., chaemedr., chamaedrys = germander speedwell, Veronica chamaedrys, or wall germander, Teucrium chamaedrys
  
chio, chia., terebinth. chia = turpentine from the tree Pistacia tereb
+
chel. 69., chelae -arum cancri = crab's claws; for explanation of "69," see oculi cancri, below
  
inthus, also called Cyprus, Chio, or Chian
+
chelidon., chelidonium -i = common or greater celandine, Chelidonium magnus
  
chin., china -ae = china root, Smilax china, similar to sarsaparilla
+
chio, chia., terebinth. chia = turpentine from the tree Pistacia terebinthus, also called Cyprus, Chio, or Chian turpentine
  
cicer -i = chickpea, Cicer arietinum; several varieties, including white (album), red (rubrum), and black (nigrum)
+
chin., china -ae = china root, Smilax china, similar to sarsaparilla
  
cich., cichor., cichorium -i = wild chicory or succory, Cichorium intybus; C. endivia, endive
+
cicer -i = chickpea, Cicer arietinum; several varieties, including white (album), red (rubrum), and black (nigrum)
  
cinamomi., cinnamomum -i = true cinnamon, bark of Cinnamonum zeylanicum; wild cinnamon, Canella alba
+
cich., cichor., cichorium -i = wild chicory or succory, Cichorium intybus; C. endivia, endive
  
cinabrii., cinabrium -i = cinnabar, or vermilion; mercuric sulfide, HgS
+
cinamomi., cinnamomum -i = true cinnamon, bark of Cinnamonum zeylanicum; wild cinnamon, Canella alba
  
ciner., cinis -eris = ashes
+
cinabrii., cinabrium -i = cinnabar, or vermilion; mercuric sulfide, HgS
  
citrin., citrinula -ae = a small citron or lemon
+
ciner., cinis -eris = ashes
  
coccinel., cocinella -ae = cochineal; the red dye from the insect Coccus cacti, or the insect itself
+
citrin., citrinula -ae = a small citron or lemon
  
cochlear., cochlearia -ae = lemon scurvy-grass;
+
coccinel., cocinella -ae = cochineal; the red dye from the insect Coccus cacti, or the insect itself
Cochlearia hortensis or C. officinalis, or horseradish, C. armoracia; NB don't confuse with coch.,
 
  
cochleare -is, spoonful  
+
cochlear., cochlearia -ae = lemon scurvy-grass, Cochlearia hortensis or C. officinalis, or horseradish, C. armoracia; NB don't confuse with coch., cochleare -is, = spoonful
  
colatura -ae = something that has been strained; adjective is colaturus -a -um
+
coculus -i indi = India berries; possibly from a tree of genus Natsiatum
  
colcothar = iron peroxide, jeweller's rouge; also called crocus martis
+
colatura -ae = something that has been strained; adjective is colaturus -a -um
  
colocynth., colocynthis -idis = bitter-apple (purgative), Citrullus colocynthis
+
colcothar = iron peroxide, jeweller's rouge; also called crocus martis
  
colophon., colophonia -ae = resin obtained by distillation of turpentine with water
+
colocynth., colocynthis -idis = bitter-apple (a purgative), Citrullus colocynthis
  
combustus- a -um (comburo -ere) = burnt up, reduced to ashes
+
colophon., colophonia -ae = resin obtained by distillation of turpentine with water
  
commun., communis -e = common
+
combustus- a -um (comburo -ere) = burnt up, reduced to ashes
  
cond., conditus -a -um = preserved; e.g., nuces juglandis conditae, preserved walnuts
+
commun., communis -e = common; also expressed as vulgaris -e
  
conf., confect., confectio -onis = same as conserva -ae
+
cond., conditus -a -um = preserved; e.g., nuces juglandis conditae, preserved walnuts
  
confectio -onis Hamech = named after an Arabian physician; contains myrobalan, violets, rhubarb, absinthe, etc., made up with honey 
+
conf., confect., confectio -onis = compound of vegetable, fruit, etc., with sugar; same as conserva
  
confectio -onis hyacinthi = not from the flower, but an astringent containing many ingredients including zircon (called hyacinth from its color), red coral, bole armoniac, myrrh, alkermes, etc.  
+
confectio -onis Hamech = named after an Arabian physician; contains myrobalan, violets, rhubarb, absinthe, etc., made up with honey
  
cons., conserv., conserva -ae = compound of vegetable, fruit, etc., with sugar 
+
confectio -onis hyacinthi = not from the flower, but an astringent containing many ingredients including zircon (called hyacinth from its color), red coral, bole armoniac, myrrh, alkermes, etc.
  
consolid., rad. consolid., radix -icis consolidae = larkspur (root), Delphinium consolida
+
confectio -onis liberans -antis = name derives from its property of delivering the patient from the plague; as many as thirty ingredients including Armenian bole, terra sigillata, pearls, coral, &c.
  
contrayerv., contrayerva -ae = contrayerva, Dorstenia contrayerva or D. virginiana (= Aristolochia serpentaria)
+
cons., conserv., conserva -ae = compound of vegetable, fruit, etc., with sugar; same as confectio
  
convall., convallaria -ae = lily of the valley, Convallaria majalis; or Solomon's seal, C. polygonatum or Polygonatum solomonis
+
consolid., rad. consolid., radix -icis consolidae = larkspur (root), Delphinium consolida
  
cor., corium -i = leather 
+
contrayerv., contrayerva -ae = contrayerva; the root stock and rhizome of Dorstenia contrayerva, D. brazilensis, or D. virginiana (= Aristolochia serpentaria); used as an antidote to snakebite
  
coral., corallium -i = general name for coral; most commonly red (rubr.), also black  and white
+
convall., convallaria -ae = lily of the valley, Convallaria majalis; or Solomon's seal, C. polygonatum or Polygonatum solomonis
  
coriand., coriandrum -i = coriander, Coriandrum sativum
+
cor., corium -i = leather
  
cortic., cortex -icis = bark of any tree; occasionally described as cortex medius or cortex interior, middle or inner bark, esp. of the ash tree, Fraxinus excelsior
+
coral., corallium -i = general name for coral; most commonly red (rubr.), also black  and white
  
cort. winteran. = cortex winterani, Drimys winteri, antiscorbutic; named after a Captain Winter
+
coran. = uncertain; but possibly currants or Corinthian raisins (uvae corinthiacae)
  
coton. = cotton 
+
cord., cordial -is = cordial; see also flores cordiales, below
  
cotul., cotula -ae = mayweed, stinking chamomile; Anthemis cotula
+
coriand., coriandrum -i = coriander, Coriandrum sativum
  
crem., cremor -oris tartari = cream of tartar, potassium bitartrate; Ward occasionally uses the alchemical symbol for tartar, a square or rectangle with a cross below it; see ''Alchemical Symbols'' below
+
cortic., cortex -icis = bark of any tree; occasionally described as cortex medius or cortex interior, middle or inner bark, esp. of the ash tree, Fraxinus excelsior
  
cret., creta -ae =  chalk 
+
cort. winteran. = cortex -icis Winterani, Drimys winteri, antiscorbutic; named after a Captain Winter (or Wynter), who accompanied Sir Francis Drake in part of his voyage of 1577 - 80; Winter discovered it after rounding Cape Horn and before turning back
  
croc., crocus -i = saffron, crocus flower, Crocus sativus
+
coton. = cotton
  
croc. metall., crocus -i metallus -i = several preparations of metals; e.g., crocus antimonii (antimony), crocus veneris (copper), crocus martis (iron)
+
cotul., cotula -ae = mayweed, stinking chamomile; Anthemis cotula
  
crocatus -a -um = saffron-yellow
+
crem., cremor -oris tartari = cream of tartar, potassium bitartrate, KC4H5O6; Ward occasionally uses the alchemical symbol for tartar, a square or rectangle with a cross below it (  ); see Alchemical Symbols, below
  
crud., crudus -a -um = raw, unrefined
+
cret., creta -ae = chalk
  
cucum., cucumer. agrest., cucumis (-eris) agrestis = wild cucumber, Momordica elaterium, a purgative
+
croc., crocus -i = saffron, from the crocus flower, Crocus sativus
  
cumin., cuminum -i = cumin, Cumin cyminum 
+
croc. metall., crocus -i metallus -i = several preparations of metals; e.g., crocus antimonii (antimony), crocus veneris (copper), crocus martis (iron)
  
cupul. gland., cupula -ae glandis = the cupule, or cap, of the acorn
+
crocatus -a -um = saffron-yellow
  
curcubitula -ae = cupping glass; also a bitter gourd
+
crud., crudus -a -um = raw, unrefined
  
cydon., cydonium -i = quince; Cydonium oblonga or C. malum; or Pyrus cydonia
+
cucum., cucumer. agrest., cucumis (-eris) agrestis or c. asinius = wild cucumber, Momordica elaterium, a purgative
  
cydoniac., cydoniacus -a -um = of or relating to quince; consistentia cydionaci, the consistency of a quince 
+
cumin., cuminum -i = cumin, Cumin cyminum
  
cynorrhod., cynorrhodon -i = cynorrhodon, the dog rose, Rosa canina; fructes cynorrh., rose hips
+
cupressi., cupressus -i = cypress-tree; nux (pl. nuces) cupressi, the fruit or cone of the cypress
  
== D ==
+
cupul. gland., cupula -ae glandis = the cupule, or cap, of the acorn
  
dactyl., dactylus -i = date, Phoenix dactylifera
+
curcubitula -ae = cupping glass; also a bitter gourd
  
dauci, daucus -i = garden carrot, Daucus carota; D. sylvestris or D. vulgaris, wild carrot
+
cuscuta -ae = dodder, a parasitic twining plant; genus Cuscuta has more than 200 species
  
detract., detractus -a -um = removed; e.g., uva detractis arillis, grapes with the seeds removed; similar to enucleatus -a -um
+
cyclamen -inis = many species of genus Cyclamen; e.g., C. purpurascens (see artanita, above) and C. hederifolium, ivy-leaved cyclamen, also called sowbread
  
dia- =  a preparation consisting of a main ingredient, usually alluded to in the name, though receipts vary;
+
cydon., cydonium -i = quince; Cydonium oblonga or C. malum; or Pyrus cydonia
e.g., diambra -ae (powder containing cinnamon, angelica, cloves, nutmeg, galangal, etc. used for nervous afflictions and aphrodisiac); diabotanum (plaster of herbs); diacarcinon (from crabs, antidote for rabies); diachylon cum gummi or d. simplex (juices of herbs); diacurcuma (turmeric); dialthaea (marsh-mallow); diamoron or d. abbatis (honey and mulberries); diamoschus (musk); diapalma (desiccating plaster containing palm oil, litharge, and zinc sulfate); diaphenaenicon (dates); diaprunum (damask prunes); diaturbith (Convolvulus turpethum); the New Sydenham's Society's Lexicon names about eighty (OED); a few of the more common ones are given below
 
  
diacass., diacassia = a purgative electuary with senna; or the confection of senna; may be designated "cum manna," q. v.
+
cydoniac., cydoniacus -a -um = of or relating to quince; consistentia cydonaci, the consistency of a quince
  
diacatholicon = a laxative electuary containing senna, cassia, tamarinds, etc.
+
cynorrhod., cynorrhodon -i = cynorrhodon, the dog rose, Rosa canina; fructes cynorrh., rose hips
  
diacod., diacodium -i = syrup of poppies
+
cynosbat., cynosbati fructus = rose hips from Rosa canina
  
diacydon. simpl., diacydonium -i simplex = conserve or marmalade of quinces 
+
==D==
  
diagrid., diagryd, diagrydium -i = old name for scammony (not a preparation)
+
dactyl., dactylus -i = date, ''Phoenix dactylifera''
  
diair., = either diaireos, an antidote that contained iris, or diaium -orum, a troche having violets as its main ingredient
+
dauci, daucus -i = garden carrot, ''Daucus carota''; ''D. sylvestris'' or ''D. vulgaris'', wild carrot
  
diamargarit. fr., diamargariton frigida = cooling powder of pearls, compound
+
deliquium -i = melting, flowing down; per deliquium = spontaneous liquification (deliquescence) of a solid by dissolving in moisture absorbed from the air; e.g., ol. tart. per deliquium = oleum tartaris per deliquium, potassium carbonate (K<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub>) in aqueous solution from water so absorbed
  
diarrhod. = either diarrhodomeli (juice of roses, scammony, agaric, pepper, and honey) or diarrhodon (several powders which contain roses)
+
detract., detractus -a -um = removed; e.g., uva detractis arillis, grapes with the seeds removed; similar to enucleatus -a -um
  
diatrion., diatrium -i santalorum = an antidote made from three kinds of sandal wood with other ingredients
+
dia- =  a preparation consisting of a main ingredient, usually alluded to in the name, though receipts vary; e.g., diambra -ae (powder containing cinnamon, angelica, cloves, nutmeg, galangal, etc. used for nervous afflictions and aphrodisiac); diabotanum (plaster of herbs); diacarcinon (from crabs, antidote for rabies); diacarthamum (safflower (a. k. a. bastard-saffron), hermodactyl, ginger, etc.); diachylon cum gummi or d. simplex (juices of herbs); diacorallium (diarrhodon abbatis (q. v.) plus coral, sugar, rosewater); diacurcuma (turmeric); dialthaea (marsh-mallow); diamoron or d. abbatis (honey and mulberries); diamoschus (musk); diapalma (desiccating plaster containing palm oil, litharge, and zinc sulfate); diaphaenicon (dates); diaprunum (damask prunes); diaturbith (''Convolvulus turpethum''); the ''New Sydenham's Society's Lexicon'' names about eighty (''OED''); a few of the more common ones are given below
  
dictamn., dyctamn., dictamnus -i = dittany, Dictamnus creticus
+
diacass., diacassia = a purgative electuary with senna; or the confection of senna; may be designated "cum manna," q. v.
  
== E ==
+
diacatholicon = laxative electuary containing senna, cassia, tamarinds, etc., named for its general usefulness
  
ebul. ebulus -i = danewort,  dwarf elder, Sambucus ebulus
+
diaclysma, plural diaclysmata = mouthwash
  
ebori., ebur -oris = ivory; ras. ebori, ivory shavings
+
diacod., diacodium -i = syrup of poppies
  
elix., elixir (indecl.) = many different preparations, mostly compound
+
diacydon. simpl., diacydonium -i simplex = conserve or marmalade of quinces
  
elix. proprietat., elixir proprietatis = elixir of special character; contained aloe, saffron, and myrrh 
+
diagrid., diagryd, diagrydium -i = old name for scammony (NB not a preparation) cv
  
ens entis veneris = "essence" (?) of Venus; sal ammoniac with copper sulfate or "flores veneris," a copper oxide; used in cases of worms, rickets, and "vapors"
+
diair., = either diaireos, an antidote that contained iris, or diaium -orum, a troche having violets as its main ingredient
  
enucl., enucleatus -a -um = with the nut or kernel removed; similar to detractus -a -um
+
diamargarit. fr., diamargariton frigida = cooling powder of pearls, compound
  
enul., enul. campan., enula -ae = elecampane, Inula helenium or Enula campana
+
diarrhod. = either diarrhodomeli (juice of roses, scammony, agaric, pepper, and honey) or diarrhodon (several powders which contain roses); the latter may be designated being The Abbot's:  "diarrhodon abbatis"
  
epithymi., epithymum -i = dodder of thyme, thyme dodder, Cuscuta epithymum
+
diascord., diascordium -i = an electuary made with scordium (''Teucrium scordium'') or germander leaves, roses, storax, cinnamon, etc.; named for Dioscorides, 1st c. Greek physician
  
equiset., equisetum -i = mare's tail, Hippurus vulgaris
+
diatrion., diatrium -i santalorum = an antidote made from three kinds of sandal-wood with other ingredients
  
ering., eryngium -i = sea holly, Eryngium maritimum
+
dictamn., dyctamn., dictamnus -i =  dittany, ''Dictamnus creticus''
  
eupator., eupatorium -i = agrimony or hemp agrimony, Eupatorium cannabinum
+
==E==
  
euphorb., euphorbia -ae = euphorbium, gum resin from Euphorbia antiquorum
+
ebeni, ebenum -i = ebony (wood)
  
exicc., exiccatus -a -um = dried
+
ebul. ebulus -i = danewort,  dwarf elder, ''Sambucus ebulus''
  
extract., extractum -i = extract  
+
ebori., ebur -oris = ivory; ras. ebori, ivory shavings
 +
 
 +
elaterium -i =  purgative made from seeds of the squirting or exploding cucumber, ''Ecballium elaterium''
 +
 
 +
elephang., pill. de elephang = elephangma (?) (unknown; V.a.294, f. 33r; possibly but unlikely to be ''Phytelephas macrocarpa,'' alias ''Elephantusia'')
 +
 
 +
elix., elixir (indecl.) = many different preparations, mostly compound
 +
 
 +
elix. proprietat., elixir proprietatis = elixir of special character; contained aloe, saffron, and myrrh
 +
 
 +
ens ensis or possibly ensis -is veneris = "essence" or "sword" of Venus; sal ammoniac with copper sulfate or "flores veneris," a copper oxide; used in cases of worms, rickets, and "vapors"
 +
 
 +
enucl., enucleatus -a -um = with the nut or kernel removed; similar to detractus -a -um
 +
 
 +
enul., enul. campan., enula -ae = elecampane, ''Inula helenium'' or ''Enula campana''
 +
 
 +
epithymi., epithymum -i = dodder of thyme, thyme dodder, ''Cuscuta epithymum''
 +
 
 +
equiset., equisetum -i = mare's tail, ''Hippurus vulgaris''
 +
 
 +
ering., eryngium -i = sea holly, ''Eryngium maritimum''
 +
 
 +
erisimi, erisimum -i = "irio grain" (Pliny), or ''Erysimum cheiri'', wallflower
 +
 
 +
eruca -ae = colewort, ''Brassica oleracea''; many common vegetables incl. cabbage, broccoli, &c.
 +
 
 +
eupator., eupatorium -i = agrimony or hemp agrimony, ''Eupatorium cannabinum''
 +
 
 +
euphorb., euphorbia -ae = euphorbium, gum resin from ''Euphorbia antiquorum''
 +
 
 +
euphrasia -ae = eyebright, ''Euphrasia officinalis''
 +
 
 +
exicc., exiccatus -a -um = dried
 +
 
 +
extract., extractum -i = extract
  
 
extractum Rudii = see pilulae Rudii, below
 
extractum Rudii = see pilulae Rudii, below
  
== F ==
+
==F==
  
fab., faba -ae = bean   
+
fab., faba -ae = bean      
  
faecul., faecula -ae = sediment, e.g., wine dregs, or material that falls to the bottom after grinding plant material in water
+
faeces, faecul., faecula -ae =  sediment, e.g., wine dregs, or material that falls to the bottom after grinding plant material in water
  
faenic., faeniculum -i = fennel, Faeniculum vulgare  
+
faenic., faeniculum -i = fennel, ''Faeniculum vulgare''
  
faenugraec., faenugraecum -i = fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum  
+
faenugraec., faenugraecum -i = fenugreek, ''Trigonella foenum-graecum''
  
farin., farina -ae = flour, meal; farina tritici, wheat flour
+
farin., farina -ae =  flour, meal; farina tritici, wheat flour
  
ferment. acrioris, fermentum -i acrius -oris = a sharper or more bitter fermentation (of ...?)
+
febrif., febrifugia -ae = feverfew, featherfew; common centaury, ''Centaurium erythraea''
  
fic., ficus -i = fig, Ficus carica
+
feculae bryoniae = powdered dried bryony root, a purgative
  
fim., fimus -i = dung, excrement
+
ferment. acrioris, fermentum -i acrius -oris = a sharper or more bitter fermentation (of ...?)
  
flor., flos floris = flower; e.g., flores nymphaeae, water lily flowers
+
fic., ficus -i = fig, ''Ficus carica''
  
fl. cordial., flores -um cordiales = the four "cordial flowers," borage, bugloss, roses, and violets
+
fim., fimi, fimus -i =  dung, excrement
  
fl., flos floris sulphuris = flowers of sulfur; sublimed sulfur
+
flammula -ae Iovis = "little flames of Jupiter;" ''Clematis flammula'', ''C. recta''; in classical Latin, periwinkle (''Vinca'' species)
  
foetid., foetidus -a -um = stinking
+
flor., flos floris = flower, with the plant name following; e.g., flores nymphaeae, water lily flowers
  
fol., folium -i = leaf or leaves
+
fl. cordial., flores -um cordiales = the four "cordial flowers:" borage, bugloss, roses, and violets
  
fol. acetos., folia acetosae = leaves of common sorrel or sour dock
+
fl., flos floris sulphuris = flowers of sulfur, sublimed sulfur; may appear in conjunction with alchemical symbol for sulfur,                              , as fl.  is
  
follicul., follicula -ae = a pericarp or seed pod
+
foetid., foetidus -a -um = stinking
  
fontan., fontana (aqua) = spring (-water)  
+
fol., folium -i =  leaf or leaves (folia) of any plant
  
formicar. volant., formica -ae volans -antis = flying ant; there is a receipt that includes oleum formicarum volantium, oil of flying ants (V.a. 298, f. 129v)
+
fol. acetos., folia acetosae = leaves of common sorrel or sour dock
  
frag., fragar., fragaria -ae = strawberry, Fragaria vesca; roots (rad.), leaves (fol.) and fruit were used
+
follicul., follicula -ae = a pericarp or seed pod
  
fraxin., fraxinus -i = ash-tree, Fraxinus excelsior
+
fontan., fontana (aqua) =  spring (-water)
  
fumar., fumaria -ae = fumitory, Fumaria officinalis
+
formicar. volant., formica -ae volans -antis = flying ant; there is a receipt that includes oleum formicarum volantium, oil of flying ants (V.a. 298, f. 129v)
+
 
== G ==
+
frag., fragar., fragaria -ae = strawberry, ''Fragaria vesca''; roots (rad.), leaves (fol.) and fruit were used
 +
 
 +
fraxin., fraxinus -i = ash-tree, ''Fraxinus excelsior''
 +
 
 +
fumar., fumaria -ae =  fumitory, ''Fumaria officinalis''
 +
 
 +
==G==
 +
 
 +
gagat., gagates -ae =  jet  (mineral)
 +
 
 +
galang., galing., galangala -ae = galangal, ''Maranta galanga''
 +
 
 +
galban., galbanum -i = gum resin from ''Ferula gummosa'' or ''F. rubrucaulis''
 +
 
 +
gallinaceus -a -um = from or relating to poultry; adipes gallinaceus, chicken fat
 +
 
 +
genist., genista -ae = broom, genus ''Genista'', many species
 +
 
 +
gent., gentiana -ae = gentian, ''Gentiana lutea'', officinal gentian; ''G. centaurium'', lesser centaury
 +
 
 +
gland., glans glandis = acorn
 +
 
 +
glicirriz., glycheriz., glycheryz., glychyrriza -ae = licorice, ''Glycyrrhiza glabra''
 +
 
 +
gram., gramin., gramen -inis = grass, or any kind of grass-like herb
 +
 
 +
gramen purpureum, purple grass or purplewort, ''Trifolium purpureum''
 +
 
 +
guaiac., guaiacum -i = guaiac gum, guaiacum officinale; lignum guaiacum, guaiac wood
 +
 
 +
gumm., gummi (undecl.) = [tree] gum
 +
 
 +
gumm. arabic. = gum arabic or gum acacia, hardened sap of ''Acacia senegal'' or ''Vachellia seyal''
 +
 
 +
gumm. ceras. = gummi cerasi, cherry tree (''Prunus cerasus'') or black cherry tree (''Cerasum'' nigrum) gum
 +
 
 +
gummi elemi = a resin from the tree ''Amyris rumieri'' or gum elemi tree
 +
 
 +
gum. ammoniac., gummi ammoniacum = "gum of Ammon," from the herb ''Dorema ammoniacum''
 +
 
 +
gumm. anim., gummi anime = gum anime, resin of various tropical trees, e.g., ''Hymenaea courbaril''
 +
 
 +
gumm. tragacanth., gummi tragacantha -ae = gum tragacanth, obtained from shrubs of genus ''Astragulus'', esp. ''A. tragacantha''
 +
 
 +
==H==
 +
 
 +
haeder., heder., hedera -ae = ivy; ''Hedera terrestra'', ground ivy
  
gagat., gagates =  jet  (stone)
+
haedinus -a -um = of, relating to, or obtained from a kid
  
galang., galangala -ae = galangal, Maranta galanga
+
hamech. = confectio hamech, purgative containing myrobalans, violets, colocynth, etc.
  
galban., galbanum -i = gum resin from Ferula gummosa or F. rubrucaulis
+
helenii., helenium -i, hinula -ae = elecampane, ''Inula helenium'' or ''Enula campana''
  
genist., genista -ae = broom, genus Genista, many species
+
hepatic., hepatica herba = liverwort, ''Marchantia polymorpha''
  
gent., gentiana -ae = gentian, Gentiana lutea, officinal gentian; G. centaurium, lesser centaury
+
herb., herba -ae = herb; used to specify a plant when another substance has a similar name
  
gland., glans glandis = acorn
+
hellebor., helleborus -i = hellebore, genus ''Helleborus'', around 20 species; may be white, albus; black, niger; stinking, foetidus
  
glicirriz., glycheriz., glycheryz., glychyrriza -ae = licorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra
+
haematit., hematit., lap. hematit. = lapis haematites, hematite; iron oxide, Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>
  
gram., gramin., gramen -inis = grass; any kind of grass-like herb
+
heracleinus - a -um, heraclinus -a -um = relating to hazel-wood; oleum heracleinum, oil of hazelwood, from distillation of small pieces of the wood cut in spring or fall
  
gramen purpureum, purple grass or purplewort, Trifolium purpureum
+
hermodact., hermodactyl., hermodactylus -i = a bulbous root, possibly ''Colchicum'', used as an antiarthritic
  
guaiac., guaiacum -i = guaiac gum, guaiacum officinale; lignum guaiacum, guaiac wood 
+
herniar., herniaria -ae =  rupturewort, ''Herniaria glabra''
  
gumm., gummi (undecl.) = [tree] gum 
+
hier. picr., hiera picra, or hiera/hieræ = aloe powder made with honey into an electuary
  
gumm. arabic. = gum arabic or gum acacia, hardened sap of Acacia senegal or Vachellia seyal
+
hircinus -a -um = relating to a goat; esp. hircin, a "peculiar substance existing in the fat of the goat (and in a less degreee, in that of the sheep) on which its strong odour depends" (''OED''); thus possibly describing goat suet
  
gumm. ceras. = gummi cerasi, cherry tree (Prunus cerasus) or black cherry tree (Cerasum nigrum) gum
+
hollandic., hollandicus -a -um = Dutch; pulv. hollandic., Dutch powder, apparently a purgative
  
gummi elemi = a resin from the tree Amyris rumieri or gum elemi tree
+
hord., hordeum -i = barley, ''Hordeum vulgare''; French barley, ''Hordeum spelticum''; aq. hordei, barley water
  
gum. ammoniac., gummi ammoniacum = "gum of Ammon," from the herb Dorema ammoniacum
+
hormini., horminum -i = sage or clary sage, ''Salvia sclarea'' (Pliny); there is also a flowering plant, ''Horminum'' ''pyrenalcum'', dragonmouth or Pyrenean dead-nettle, apparently not used in medicine
  
gumm. anim., gummi anime = gum anime, resin of various tropical trees, e.g., Hymenaea courbaril
+
hipposelinum, hypposelinum -i = alexanders or allisanders (black lovage), ''Smyrnium olusatrum''
  
gumm. tragacanth., gummi tragacantha -ae = gum tragacanth, obtained from shrubs of genus Astragulus, esp. A. tragacantha
+
hydrarg., hydrargyrus -i = the element Mercury, Hg, in its liquid state
  
== H ==
+
hyoscyamus -i = henbane, ''Hyoscamus niger'', or an extract or tincture of it
  
haedinus -a -um = of, relating to, or obtained from a kid
+
hyperici, hypericon, hypericum -i = St. John's wort, especially ''Hypericum perforatum''
  
hamech. = confectio hamech, purgative containing myrobalans, violets, colocynth, etc.
+
hyssop., hyssopus -i = hyssop, ''Hyssopus officinalis'', for which ''H. montanus'' is a subspecies or an accepted synonym; also ''H. capitatus'', wild thyme
  
helenii., helenium -i, hinula -ae = elecampane, Inula helenium or Enula campana
+
==I - J==  
  
heder., hedera -ae = ivy; Hedera terrestra, ground ivy
+
ialap., jalap., jalapa =  jalap, ''Ipomoea jalapa''; a purgative; NB distinguish from iulap., iulep., iulapium -i, see "Types of Receipts," above
  
hepatic., hepatica herba = liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha
+
jejunus -a -um = fasting, abstinent, hungry; e.g., jejuno ventriculo, on a fasting (empty) stomach
  
herb., herba -ae = herb; used to specifiy a plant when another substance has a similar name
+
imperatoria -ae = master-wort, ''Peucedanum ostruthium''; same as ostruthium
  
hellebor., helleborus -i = hellebore, genus Helleborus, around 20 species; may be white, albus; black, niger; stinking, foetidus
+
inauratus -a -um = gilded; some pills were gilded, denoted pillulae inauratae
  
hermodactyl., hermodactylus -i = a bulbous root, possibly Colchicum, used as an antiarthritic
+
incis., incisus -a -um = incised, cut into, cut open
  
herniar., herniaria -ae = rupturewort, Herniaria glabra 
+
inula -ae = elecampane, ''Inula helenium'' or ''Enula campana''
  
hier. picr., hiera picra, or hiera/hieræ = aloe powder made with honey into an electuary
+
ireas., ireos., iridas, probably from iris -idis = iris flower, ''Iris'' species; radix ireas, iris root or rhizome, also known as orris or orrice root
  
hollandic., hollandicus -a -um = Dutch; pulv. hollandic., Dutch powder, apparently a purgative
+
iugland., jugland., iuglans -andis =  walnut
  
hord., hordeum -i = barley, Hordeum vulgare; French barley, Hordeum spelticum
+
iuiubinus -a -um = relating to jujubes; see zizyphus, below
  
hipposelinum, hypposelinum -i = alexanders or allisanders (black lovage), Smyrnium olusatrum
+
iuniper., juniper., iuniperus -i =  juniper; granum juniperi, juniper berry (its seed cone)
  
hyssop., hyssopus -i = hyssop, Hyssopus officinalis; also H. capitatus, wild thyme
+
jujuba -ae, jujubinus -a -um = jujube; of, from, or related to jujubes; see ''Zizyphus'' below
  
== I - J ==  
+
==L==
  
ialap., jalap., jalapa = jalap, Ipomoea jalapa; a purgative
+
labdan., ladan(um -i)., labdanum =  labdanum or ladanum, gum resin from plants of genus ''Cistus'', used in perfumes and for fumigation; NB don't confuse with laudanum (q. v.)
  
jejunus -a -um = fasting, abstinent, hungry; e.g., jejuno ventriculo, on a fasting (empty) stomach 
+
lac., lact., lac lactis = milk; lac. rec. or recens (-entis), fresh milk, lac veterum, old milk
  
inauratus -a -um = gilded; some pills were gilded, pillulae inauratae
+
lact., lactuca -ae = lettuce, ''Lactuca sativa''
  
incis., incisus -a -um = cut into, cut open
+
laevigatus -a -um = made smooth, pulverized
  
inula -ae = elecampane, Inula helenium or Enula campana
+
lap. bezoard., lapis -idis bezoardicus = bezoar stone; see bezoar, above
  
ireas., ireos., probably from iris -idis = iris flower, Iris species; radix ireas, iris root or rhizome, also known as orris root
+
lapis -idis calaminaris = calamine, a zinc ore; either zinc carbonate or silicate
  
iugland., jugland., iuglans -andis = walnut 
+
lapat., lappath., lapathum =  dock, sorrel; ''Lapathum''
  
iuniper., juniper., iuniperus -i = juniper; granum juniperi, juniper berry (its seed cone)
+
lapp., lappa -ae = burdock, ''Arctium lappa''; also called lapp. maj., lappa major, greater burdock
  
jujuba -ae, jujubinus -a -um = jujube; of, from, or related to jujubes; see Zizyphus below
+
lard., lardum -i = lard, fat
 
== L ==
 
  
labdan., labdanum = labdanum, gum resin from plants of genus Cistus, used for perfumes
+
larid., laridum -i = bacon; larid. veter., laridum veterum, old bacon
  
lac., lact., lac lactis = milk
+
laudan., laudanum -i =  laudanum; alcoholic tincture of opium; also known as tinctura thebiaca; NB don't confuse with ladanum, see "labdanum," above
  
lact., lactuca -ae = lettuce, Lactuca sativa
+
laudan. paracels., Paracelsi = Paracelsus' laudanum; opium and alcohol plus various other ingredients, incl. gold, amber, pearl, musk
  
laevigatus -a -um = made smooth, pulverized
+
lauendul., lavendula -ae =lavender, ''Lavandula angustifolia'' (or ''Spica foemina'', spike)
  
lap. bezoard., lapis -idis bezoardicus = bezoar stone; see bezoar, above
+
lauri., laurus -i = laurel, bay tree, ''Laurus nobilis''
  
lapat., lappath., laplapathum = dock, sorrel; Lapathum
+
lenitiv., lenitivus -a -um = soothing, gently laxative
  
lapp., lappa -ae = burdock, Arctium lappa; also called lapp. maj., lappa major, greater burdock
+
leon., leonurus -i = lion's tail; motherwort, ''Leonurus cardiaca''
  
lard., lardum -i = lard, fat
+
leporinus -a  -um = of or relating to a hare; pilus leporinus, hair of a hare, hare hair
  
larid., laridum -i = bacon; larid. veter., laridum veterum, old bacon
+
lepus -oris = hare; lepus combustus, hare ashes (in a receipt for treatment of urinary stone)
  
laudan., laudanum -i = laudanum; alcoholic tincture of opium
+
lign., lignum -i =  wood, with the name of the source in the genitive; e.g., lignum aloes
  
laudan. Paracelsi = Paracelsus' laudanum; opium and alcohol plus various other ingredients, incl. gold, amber, pearl, musk
+
lign. rhod., lignum -i rhodii = rosewood; rose-scented wood from ''Convolvulus floridus'' or ''C. scoparius''
  
lauendul., lavendula -ae =lavender, Lavandula angustifolia (or Spica foemina, spike)
+
lign. sanct., lignum -i sanctum = guiacaum, holy wood; ''Guiacum officinale''
  
lauri., laurus -i = laurel, bay tree, Laurus nobilis
+
lill., lillior., lilliorum., lilium -a = lily; flores/folia/radix liliorum, flowers/leaves/root of lilies
  
lenitiv., lenitivus -a -um = soothing, gently laxative
+
limac., limacum, limax -acis = snail, slug; aq. limacum, snail water
  
leon., leonurus -i = lion's tail; motherwort, Leonurus cardiaca
+
lin., linum -i =  flax, ''Linum usitatissimum''; semen or semina lini, flaxseed, linseed
  
leporinus --um = of or relating to a hare; pilus leporinus, hair of a hare, hare hair
+
linaria -ae = toad-flax or wild flax, ''Linaria vulgaris''
  
lepus -oris = hare; lepus combustus, hare ashes (in a receipt for urinary stone)
+
liquirit., liquiritia -ae = licorice, ''Glychyrrhiza glabra''
lign., lignum -i = wood, with the name of the source in the genitive; e.g., lignum aloes
 
  
lign. rhod., lignum -i rhodii = rosewood; rose-scented wood from Convolvulus floridus or C. scoparius
+
liquor -oris =  liquid, liquor
  
lign. sanct., lignum -i sanctum = guiacaum, holy wood; Guiacum officinale
+
liquor possetic., posseticus = posset; milk curdled with treacle, wine, or any acid substance
  
lill., lillior., lilliorum., lilium -a = lily; flores/folia/radix liliorum, flowers/leaves/root of lilies
+
litharg., lytharg., lithargium -i = litharge, lead oxide; can be white ("litharge of silver") or red ("litharge of gold")
  
limac., limax -acis = snail, slug
+
lixivium -i = water containing alkaline salts leached from wood ashes (''OED''), used to make soap
  
lin., linum -i = flax, Linum usitatissimum
+
lot., lotus -a -um = washed
  
liquirit., liquiritia -ae = licorice, Glychyrrhiza glabra
+
lujul., lujula -ae = wood sorrel, ''Oxalis acetosella''; or common or garden sorrel, ''Rumex acetosa''
liquor =  liquid, liquor 
 
  
liquor possetic., posseticus = posset; milk curdled with treacle, wine, or any acid substance
+
lupul., lupulus -i = hops; ''Humulus lupulus''
  
lot., lotus -a -um = washed
+
==M==
  
lujul., lujula -ae = wood sorrel, Oxalis acetosella; common or garden sorrel, Rumex acetosa
+
mac., macis -idis =  mace; the covering of the nutmeg seed of ''Myristica fragrans'' 
  
lupul., lupulus -i = hops; Humulus lupulus
+
majoran., majorana -ae = marjoram; see ''Origanum'', below
  
litharg., lytharg., lithargium -i = litharge, lead oxide; can be white ("litharge of silver") or red ("litharge of gold")
+
malabathrum or malobathrum -i = aromatic leaf of one of several oriental trees, e.g. ''Cinnamomum tamala''
  
lixivium -i = water containing alkaline salts leached from wood ashes (OED)
+
malicorii, malicorium -i = pomegranate rind
  
== M ==
+
malvatic., malvaticum (vinum) =  Malmsey (wine of the Malvasia grape); Madeira/sack
  
mac., macis -idis = mace; the covering of the nutmeg seed of Myristica fragrans 
+
malv., malvavisc., malvaviscus -i = marshmallow, ''Althaea officinalis''
  
majoran., majorana -ae = marjoram; see Origanum, below
+
man., manna -ae = condensed juice of the manna ash tree, ''Fraxinus ornus''; a purgative
  
malvatic., malvaticum (vinum) = Malmsey (wine of the Malvasia grape); Madeira/sack
+
margarit., margarita -ae = pearl; prepared pearl is a common ingredient
  
malv., malvavisc., malvaviscus -i = marshmallow, Althaea officinalis
+
marrub., marrubium -i = common horehound, ''Marrubium vulgare''; other species also
  
man., manna -ae = condensed juice of the manna ash tree, Fraxinus ornus; a purgative
+
martiat., martiatus -a -um = pertaining to soldiers; unguentum martiatum, soldiers's ointment
  
margarit., margarita -ae = pearl
+
mastich., masticha = mastic, resin of ''Pistacia lentiscus''
  
marrub., marrubium -i = common horehound, Marrubium vulgare; other species also
+
matricar., matricaria -ae = feverfew, ''Matricaria'' or ''Tanacetum parthenium''
  
martiat., martiatus -a -um = pertaining to soldiers; unguentum martiatum, soldiers's ointment
+
matrisilv., matrisylv., matrisylva -ae = woodruff, ''Asperula matrisylva'' or ''A. odorata''
  
mastich., masticha = mastic, resin of Pistacia lentiscus
+
mechoach., mechoacan = root of a variety of morning glory, ''Ipomoea macrorhiza'' or ''I. jalapa,'' from ''Michoacán'' (Mexico); may be identified as black (nigr.)
  
matricar., matricaria -ae = feverfew, Matricaria parthenium
+
mecon., meconium -i = opium
  
matrisilv., matrisylv., matrisylva -ae = woodruff, Asperula matrisylva or A. odorata
+
medull., medulla -ae = the pith or pulp of any vegetable; also bone marrow: medulla spinalis, spinal cord
  
mechoach., mechoacan = root of a variety of morning glory, Ipomoea macrorhiza or I. jalapa, from Michoacán (Mexico); may be identified as black (nigr.)
+
mel., mel mellis =  honey; (e)dulcorandus melle = to be sweetened with honey
  
mecon., meconium -i = opium
+
melilot., melilotos -i = melilot, ''Trifolium melilotus officinalis''
  
medull., medulla -ae = the pith or pulp of any vegetable; marrow; medulla spinalis, spinal cord
+
meliss., melissa -ae =  balm, esp. lemon balm, ''Melissa officinalis''; several other species, also including common, field, & mountain calamint
  
mel., mel mellis = honey; melle, with honey
+
merc. dulc., mercurius dulcis = mercurous chloride, Hg<sub>2</sub>Cl<sub>2</sub>; calomel; a purgative
  
melilot., melilotos -i = melilot, Trifolium melilotus officinalis
+
mercur., mercury = annual or French mercury, ''Mercurialis annua''; used in clysters; NB don't confuse with the element Mercury (Hg) , usually referred to as hydrargyrus
  
meliss., melissa -ae = balm, esp. lemon balm, Melissa officinalis; several other species, also including common, field, & mountian calamint
+
mespil., mespilus -i = medlar, fruit of medlar tree, ''Mespilus germanica''; resembles a small apple
  
merc. dulc., mercurius dulcis = mercurous chloride, Hg2Cl2; calomel; a purgative
+
meum -i = spignel, ''Aethusa meum'' or ''Meum athamanticum''
  
mercur., mercury = annual or French mercury, Mercurialis annua; used in clysters
+
mica -ae = crumb, morsel, grain; micae panis, crumbs of bread
  
mespil., mespilus -i = medlar, fruit of medlar tree, Mespilus germanica; resembles a small apple
+
milii., milium -i = millet seed, ''Panicum mileaceum''; also ''P. italicum'', Indian millet seed
  
meum -i = spignel, Aethusa meum or Meum athamanticum
+
mill., milliped., millipes -pedis = pill-millipede or wood-louse; pulv. milliped., powdered millipede; also prepared by soaking in wine with or without crushing in a mortar
  
mica -ae = crumb, morsel, grain; micae panis, crumbs of bread
+
minium -i = native vermilion, read lead; emplastrum de minio, plaster of red lead and olive oil
  
milii., milium -i = millet seed, Panicum mileaceum; also P. italicum, Indian millet seed
+
mithridat., mithridatium -i = mithridate; complex and variable recipe, up to 60 ingredients, including opium
  
mill., milliped., millipes -pedis = pill-millipede or wood-louse; pulv. milliped., powdered millipede; they were also prepared by soaking in wine with or without crushing in a mortar
+
monach., rhab. monach., rhabarbarum -i monachorum = monk's rhubarb, ''Rumex patientia''
  
mithridat., mithridatium -i = mithridate; complex recipe, up to 60 ingredients, including opium
+
mora -ae = mulberry; many species, including ''Mora nigra'', black or common mulberry
  
monach., rhab. monach., rhabarbarum -i monachorum = monk's rhubarb, Rumex patientia
+
mosch., moschat., (nux) moschata =  nutmeg; seed of ''Myristica fragrans''
  
mosch., moschat., (nux) moschata =  nutmeg; seed of Myristica fragrans
+
mucilag., mucilago -inis = aqueous solution of gum; e.g., ''Mucilago arabaci gummi''
  
mucilag., mucilago -inis = aqueous solution of gum; e.g., Mucilago arabaci gummi
+
must., mustum -i = must; pressed grapes before fermentation into wine; also mustum cervisiae, = wort
  
must., mustum -i = must; pressed grapes before fermentation into wine; also mustum cervisiae, wort
+
myristic., nux myristica, myristica -ae = nutmeg, ''Myristica moschata''
  
myrabalan., myrabalanum -i = Indian gooseberry, Phyllantus emblica  
+
myrobalan., myrabalan., myrabalanum -i = myrobalan = Indian gooseberry, ''Phyllantus emblica''; may be designated myrobalan omnium
  
myristic., myristica -ae = nux myristica, same as nutmeg, Myristica moschata
+
myrtill., myrtillus -i = myrtle berry, black whortle berry, or bilberry; ''Vaccinium myrtillus''
  
myrtill., myrtillus -i = myrtle berry, black whortle berry, or bilberry; Vaccinium myrtillus
+
myrtin., myrtinus -a -um = of or made from myrtle, myrtle-; e.g., syrupus myrtinus, myrtle-syrup
  
nigr., niger -gra -grum = black 
+
==N==
  
== N ==
+
nard, nardin., nardus -i or nardinus -a -um  = nard; or the ointment so named; or the plant from which the ointment was prepared, ''Nardostachys grandiflora,'' possibly the same as spikenard, ''Nardostachys jatamansi''
  
nervin., nervinus -a -um = pertaining to nerves; e.g., unguentum nervinum, nerve ointment  
+
nervin., nervinus -a -um = pertaining to nerves; e.g., unguentum nervinum, nerve ointment
  
nig., nigr., niger -gra -grum = black  
+
nig., nigr., niger -gra -grum = black
  
nuc., nux nucis = nut; nux moschata, nutmeg; nux pinea, pine nut  
+
nuc., nux nucis =  nut; e.g., nux moschata, nutmeg; nux pinea, pine nut; nux avellana, hazelnut
  
nucl., nucleus -i = nut
+
nucl., nucleus -i =  nut  
  
nymph., nymphaea -ae = water lily; Nymphaea alba, white; other species may have blue, red, or yellow flowers  
+
nymph., nymphaea -ae = water lily; ''Nymphaea alba'', white; other species may have blue, red, or yellow flowers
  
== O ==
+
==O==
  
 
oculus -i = eye  
 
oculus -i = eye  
  
ocul., oculi cancri = crab's eyes; "A round concretion, found in the stomach of crayfish and some other crustacea, consisting mainly of carbonate of lime; it has been used, finely powdered, as an absorbent and antacid" (OED), or possibly Abrus precatorius, the (poisonous) rosary pea. More likely the former, conclusion based on receipt in V.a. 298, f. 160r, calling for "ocul. 69" likely the same as "ocul. Cancri" on the same page, with "69" uncertain, but probably the astrological symbol for Cancer (♋︎) rotated 90°.  
+
ocul., oculi cancri = crab's eyes; "A round concretion, found in the stomach of crayfish and some other crustacea, consisting mainly of carbonate of lime; it has been used, finely powdered, as an absorbent and antacid" (''OED''), or possibly ''Abrus precatorius'', the (poisonous) rosary pea. More likely the former, conclusion based on receipt in V.a. 298, f. 160r, calling for "ocul. 69" probably the same as "ocul. Cancri" on the same page, with "69" uncertain, but resembling the astrological symbol for Cancer (                                ) rotated 90'''°''' (   ); see illustration on last page
 +
 
 +
ocymi., ocymum -i = basil, ''Ocimum basilicum''
 +
 
 +
ol., oleum -i =  oil; many varieties, named from the source
 +
 
 +
ol. dulc., oleum -i dulcis = sweet oil; usually olive or rapeseed
 +
 
 +
ol. lumbric., oleum -i lumbricorum = oil of earthworms; from worms boiled in wine and oil and strained
 +
 
 +
ol. philosoph., oleum -i philosophi = philosopher's oil, made from distilling pieces of brick soaked in oil
 +
 
 +
ol. sulph., oleum -i sulphuris = oil of sulfur, various receipts
 +
 
 +
ol. vulpin., oleum -i vulpinum = fox oil; made from a skinned and gutted fox boiled with oil and herbs and pressed
 +
 
 +
olilban., olibanum -i = aromatic resin from trees of genus ''Boswellia'', esp. ''B. sacra''; frankincense
 +
 
 +
onon., ononis -is spinosa = restharrow, ''Ononis repens''
 +
 
 +
opiat., opiatus -a -um = opiated; anything containing opium; other medicines that produce sleep but which may or may not contain opium
 +
 
 +
opt., optim., optimus -a -um = best
 +
 
 +
origan., origanum -i = several species, incl. ''Origanum vulgare'', common Mediterranean oregano or wild marjoram; ''O. creticum,'' (Spanish) oregano; ''O. marjorana,'' sweet marjoram; ''O. dictamnus,'' dittany of Crete
 +
 
 +
os ossis = bone; oss. sep., ossa separata, separated bones, but definition uncertain
 +
 
 +
ostrutii., ostruthium -i = master-wort, ''Peucedanum ostruthium''
 +
 
 +
ovin., ovinus -a -um = relating to or belonging to sheep
 +
 
 +
oxycrat., oxycratum -i = oxycrate  (mixture of vinegar and water with a little honey)
 +
 
 +
oxycroceum = as emplastrum oxycroceum, plaster made with saffron and vinegar
 +
 
 +
oxymel = honey and vinegar boiled to a syrup
 +
 
 +
oxymel Julianiz., oxymel Iulianizans = a syrup containing the above, also caper root bark, iris root, fennel, rock parsley, endive, etc.
 +
 
 +
==P==
 +
 
 +
paeon., paeonia -ae = peony, ''P. officinalis''; used by Galen for treatment of epilepsy 
 +
 
 +
papav., papaver -eris = poppy; many species, including ''P. somniferum'', opium poppy; ''P. rhoeas'' or ''P. erraticum,'' red corn poppy
 +
 
 +
paralys., paralysis -is = cowslip, e.g., ''Paralysis fatua'' (Gerard); also in the sense of loss of function
 +
 
 +
parietar., parietaria -ae = pellitory of the wall, ''Parietaria officinalis''; may be designated "herb. parietar."
 +
 
 +
part., pars partis =  part, side
 +
 
 +
passul., passula -ae = a small raisin; passulae enucleatae/exacinatae, stoned raisins; passulae solis, raisins of the sun; passula Corinthiaca, Corinthian raisin, alias uvae Corinthiacae, Corinthian grapes
 +
 
 +
pastinac., pastinaca -ae =  parsnip, ''Pastinaca sativa'' or ''P. sylvestris''
 +
 
 +
penid., penidium -i = appears as in sacch(arum) penid(ium), a stick of boiled sugar used as a cold remedy
 +
 
 +
pentaphyll., pentaphyllon, pentaphyllum -i = cinquefoil, ''Potentilla reptans''; ''Pentaphyllum purpureum'', purple cinquefoil, ''P. rubrum palustre'', marsh cinquefoil, etc. (Gerard)
 +
 
 +
perlarum mater = mother of pearl
 +
 
 +
peru., peruvianus -a -um = Peruvian; e.g, ''Cortex peruviana'' (''Cinchona''), source of quinine
 +
 
 +
pes pedis columbinus = dove's foot, ''Geranium molle''; also some other species of cranesbill
 +
 
 +
petasititid., petasites -idis = butterbur, ''Petasites fragrans''
 +
 
 +
petroselin., petroselinum -i = parsley, ''Apium petroselinum''
 +
 
 +
petroselin. macedonic., petroselinum macedonicum = Macedonian parsley, ''Bubon macedonicum''
  
ol., oleum -i = oil; many varieties, named from the source
+
peucedani, peucedanum -i = peucedanin, a "colourless crystalline compound... occur[ring] in the root of hog's fennel, ''Peucedanum officinale''" (''OED'')
  
ol. dulc., oleum -i dulcis = sweet oil; usually olive or rapeseed
+
phyllit., phyllitis -is = hart's tongue fern, ''Scolopendrium vulgare''
  
ol. lumbric., oleum -i lumbricorum = oil of earthworms; from worms boiled in wine and oil
+
pic., pix picis = pitch; pix Burgundia, Burgundy pitch, from Norway fir, ''Picea abies''
  
ol. philosoph., oleum -i philosophi = philosopher's oil, made from distilling pieces of brick soaked in oil
+
pil., pill., pillul., pil[l]ula -ae = pill
  
ol. sulph., oleum -i sulphuris = oil of sulfur, various receipts
+
pilulae aurae = "golden pills," so called from their color; contained aloes, scammony, roses, smallage seed, etc., but no gold
  
ol. vulpin., oleum -i vulpinum = fox oil; made from a skinned and gutted fox boiled with oil and herbs and pressed
+
pilulae agregativae = aggregative pills, so called because they aggregated many effects; ingredients included aloes, turbith, scammony, rhubarb, myrabalans, agaric, etc.
  
olilban., olibanum -i = aromatic resin from trees of genus Boswellia, esp. B. sacra; frankincense
+
pilulae cochiae = cochiae pills; may be denoted "majores," the greater cochiae pill (hiera picra, alhandal troches, diagrydium, turpentine), or "minores," the lesser cochiae pill (aloes, scammony, colocynth, syrup of buckthorn, oil of cloves)
  
onon., ononis -is spinosa = restharrow, Ononis repens
+
pilulae foetidae = "stinking pills;" asafoetida, galbanum, myrrh, confection of roses
  
opiat., opiatus -a -um = opiated; anything containing opium; other medicines that produce sleep but which may or may not contain opium
+
pilulae Rudii = black hellebore, colocynth, aloes, scammony, oil of cloves, sulfate of potash
  
opt., optim., optimus -a -um = best 
+
pimpinella -ae = burnet saxifrage, ''Pimpinella saxifraga'', or great burnet, ''Sanguisorba officinalis''
  
origan., origanum -i = several species, incl. Origanum marjorana, sweet marjoram; O. dictamnus, dittany of Crete; O. vulgare, wild marjoram
+
pinear., pineus -a -um = of, from, or related to the pine; nuces pinearum, pine nuts
  
os ossis = bone; oss. sep., ossa separata, separated bones, but definition uncertain
+
pingued., pinguedin., pinguedo -inis =  fat (noun); e.g. pinguedo vulpis, fox fat, pinguedo taxi, badger fat
  
ostrutii., ostruthium -i = master-wort, Peucedanum ostruthium
+
pingu., pinguis -is = fat (adjective); e.g. ''ficus pinguis'', a fat (ripe) fig
  
ovin., ovinus -a -um = relating to or belonging to sheep
+
piper -eris = pepper; various species of genus ''Piper'', e.g. ''Piper nigrum'', black pepper, ''P. longum'', long pepper, etc.
  
oxycrat., oxycratum -i = oxycrate  (mixture of vinegar and water with a little honey)
+
plantag., plantago -inis = plantain; broad-leaved plantain, ''Plantago major''
  
oxymel = honey and vinegar boiled to a syrup
+
plumbeus -a -um = made of or derived from lead
  
oxymel Julianiz., oxymel Iulianizans = a syrup containing the above, also caper root bark, iris root, fennel, rock parsley, endive, etc.
+
plumbum -i = the element Lead, Pb
  
'''P'''  
+
polii., polium -i = felty germander, ''Teucrium polium''
  
paeon., paeonia -ae = peony, P. officinalis; used by Galen for epilepsy 
+
polypod., polypodium -i =  polypody, a genus of fern; e.g., polypody of the oak, ''Polypodium quercinum'' or ''P. vulgare'', or polypody of the wall (''P. murinum'')
  
papav., papaver -eris = poppy; many species, including P. somniferum, opium poppy; P. rhoeas or P. erraticum, red corn poppy 
+
polytrich., polytrichum -i = golden maidenhair, ''Polytrichum commune'' or ''Adiantum aureum''
  
paralys., paralysis -is = cowslip, e.g., Paralysis fatua (Gerard); also in the usual sense of loss of function 
+
pom., pomum -i = apple, many species of genus ''Malum''
  
parietar., parietaria -ae = pellitory of the wall, Parietaria officinalis
+
pomat., pomatus -a -um = of, containing, or relating to apples; see unguentum pomatum, below
  
part., pars partis = part, side 
+
pontic., ponticum = Roman wormwood, ''Artemisia ponticum''
  
passul., passula -ae = a small raisin; passulae enucleatae, stoned raisins; passulae solis, raisins of the sun; passula Corinthiaca, Corinthian raisin, or
+
popul., populus -i = poplar tree
uvae Corinthiacae, Corinthian grapes
 
  
pastinac., pastinaca -ae = parsnip, Pastinaca sativa
+
populeon = see unguentum populeon, below
  
peru., peruvianus -a -um = Peruvian; e.g, Cortex peruviana (Cinchona), source of quinine
+
porcin., porcinus -a -um = of or relating to a hog or pig
  
pentaphyll., pentaphyllum -i = cinquefoil, Potentilla reptans; Pentaphyllum purpureum, purple cinquefoil, P. rubrum palustre, marsh cinquefoil, etc(Gerard)
+
posset. = see liquor posseticus, above
  
petasititid., petasites -idis = butterbur, Petasites fragrans
+
praecipit., praecipitat., praecipitatum -i = precipitate; p. rubrum = red mercuric oxide (HgO); p. album = ammoniated mercury or mercuric amidochloride (HgH<sub>2</sub>ClN); p. opt., optimum, "the best;" unknown and possibly a description and not an ingredient per se
  
petroselin., petroselinum -i = parsley, Apium petroselinum
+
prasius -i = prase, a green quartz
  
petroselin. macedonic., petroselinum macedonicum = Macedonian parsley, Bubon macedonicum
+
prassium, -i = white horehound, ''Marubium vulgare'' or ''M. album''; a syrup called syrupus de prassio is a pectoral (for chest ailments or as an expectorant) and vulnerary (for wound healing)
  
phyllit., phyllitis -is = hart's tongue fern, Scolopendrium vulgare
+
prunell., prunella -ae = self-heal or bugle, ''Prunella vulgaris''
  
pic., pix picis = pitch; pix Burgundia, Burgundy pitch, from Norway fir, Picea abies
+
prunum -i = plum; prunum coctum, cooked plum, possibly used as a sweetener
  
pil., pill., pillul., pil[l]ula -ae = pill
+
puleg., pulegium -i = pennyroyal, also fleabane or fleawort, ''Mentha pulegium''; or wild thyme, ''Thymus serpyllum''; also known as puliol
  
pilulae aurae = "golden pills," so called from their color; contained aloes, scammony, roses, smallage seed, etc., but no gold
+
pulm. vulp., pulmones vulpium = fox lungs
  
pilulae agregativae = aggregative pills, so called because they aggregated many effects; ingredients included aloes, turbith, scammony, rhubarb, myrabalans, agaric, etc.
+
pulpa -ae = pulp (of anything)
  
pilulae foetidae = "stinking pills;" asafoetida, galbanum, myrrh, confection of roses
+
pulv. sanct., pulvis -eris sanctus = holy powder; recipes vary but usually include senna and cream of tartar, with cloves, cinnamon, ginger, etc.
  
pilulae Rudii = black hellebore, colocynth, aloes, scammony, oil of cloves, sulfate of potash
+
purpureus -a -um = purple
  
pinear., pineus -a -um = of, from, or related to the pine; nuces pinearum, pine nuts
+
pyrethr., pyrethrum -i = root of pellitory (of Spain), or of Spanish chamomile, ''Anacyclus pyrethrum''
  
pingued., pinguedin., pinguedo -inis = fat (noun); e.g. pinguedo vulpis, fox fat, pinguedo taxi, badger fat
+
==Q==
  
pingu., pinguis -is = fat (adjective)
+
quercin., quercinus -a -um = made/ derived from oak; e.g., folia quercina, oak leaves; viscus quercini = mistletoe; uvae quercinae, aggregation of galls on oak roots or at the junction of the roots and trunk produced by the oak gall wasp ''Cynips quercus radicis''
  
piper -eris = pepper; various species of genus Piper, e.g. Piper nigrum, black pepper, P. longum, long pepper, etc.
+
quercitanus -i = not an ingredient but a person's name; French physician Joseph du Chesne (c. 1544 - 1609), Latinized as Quercitanus
  
plantag., plantago -inis = plantain; broad-leaved plantain, Plantago major
+
quercus -us = oak, oak tree, various species of genus ''Quercus''
  
polypod., polypodium -i = polypody, a genus of fern; e.g., polypody of the oak, Polypodium quercinum or P. vulgare, or polypody of the wall (P. murinum)
+
==R==
  
polytrich., polytrichum -i = golden maidenhair, Polytrichum commune or Adiantum aureum
+
rad., radic., radix -icis =  root (of anything)
  
pom., pomum -i = apple, various species of genus Malum
+
ran., rana -ae = frog; ranarum, of frogs, e.g., sperma ranarum, frog spawn
  
pomat., pomatus -a -um = of, containing, or relating to apples; see unguentum pomatum, below
+
ranunculus -i = about 600 species including the buttercup or crowfoot; JW mentions ''Ranunculus arvorum'', corn-buttercup or fallow-field crowfoot, same as ''R. arvensis'' or ''R.sylvestris''
  
pontic., ponticum = Roman wormwood, Artemisia ponticum
+
rap., rapum -i = turnip or rape, ''Brassica rapa''; plural genitive raporum, of turnips, e.g. raporum n<sup>o</sup> 4, four (of) turnips
  
popul., populus -i = poplar tree
+
raphan., raphanus -i = radish, ''Raphanus sativus''
  
populeon = see unguentum populeon, below
+
ras., rasur., rasus -a -um or rasuratus -a -um = scraped or scrapings of; often found with licorice (glychyrriza or liquiritia), but also of ivory, hartshorn, boar's tooth, and even human skull (cran., cranium -i humani)
  
porcin., porcinus -a -um = of or relating to a hog or pig
+
rasp., raspatus -a -um = rasped, essentially the same as above
  
posset. = see liquor posseticus, above
+
recent., recens -entis = recent, fresh; e.g., lactis recentis, of fresh milk; cf. ueter., veterus -a -um
  
prasius -i = prase, a green quartz
+
resin., resina -ae =  resin (from anything)
  
prunell., prunella -ae = self-heal or bugle, Prunella vulgaris
+
rhab., rhabarbarum -i =  rhubarb, ''Rheum rhabarbarum''
  
puleg., pulegium -i = pennyroyal, also fleabane or fleawort, Mentha pulegium
+
rhaphon., rhapontic., rhaponticum -i = rhapontic rhubarb, ''Rheum rhaponticum''
  
pulm. vulp., pulmones vulpium = fox lungs
+
rhei., rheo, rheum -i = rhubarb, ''Rheum rhabarbarum''
  
pulpa -ae = pulp (of anything)
+
rhead., rhoed., rhoead., rheados., rhoeas -adis = ''Papaver rhoeas'', red corn or wild poppy; see tinctura rubra, below
  
pulv. sanct., pulvis -eris sanctus = holy powder; recipes vary but usually include senna and cream of tartar, with cloves, cinnamon, ginger, etc.
+
rhodia, rhodium -i = (probably) either rhodium wood, from rootstock of bindweed species ''Convolvulus floridus'' and ''C. scoparius''; or oil of rhodium, made by distilling it
  
purpureus -a -um = purple
+
ros., rosa -ae = rose, various specied of genus ''Rosa''; ros. sol., rosa solis = rose of the sun
  
pyrethr., pyrethrum -i = root of pellitory (of Spain), or of Spanish chamomile, Anacyclus pyrethrum
+
rosac., rosaceus -a -um = made of or from roses; oleum rosaceum = rose oil
  
== Q ==
+
rorismar., rorismarinus -i = rosemary, ''Rorismarinus officinalis''
  
quercin., quercinus -a -um = made/ derived from oak; e.g., folia quercina, oak leaves
+
rosatus -a -um = prepared from or containing roses
  
quercus -us = oak, oak tree, various species of genus Quercus
+
rosmarin., rosmarinus -i =  rosemary, ''Rosmarinus officinalis''
  
== R ==
+
ruber rubra rubrum = red
  
rad., radic., radix -icis = root (of anything)
+
rumex -icis = dock, various species of genus ''Rumex''; see folia acetosae, above
  
ran., rana -ae = frog; ranarum, of frogs, e.g., sperma ranarum, frog spawn
+
ruta -ae = rue, ''Ruta graveolens'' and other species; see also vepris, below
  
rap., rapum -i = turnip or rape, Brassica rapa
+
==S==
  
raphan., raphanus -i = radish, Raphanus sativus
+
sabin., sabina =  savin, ''Juniperus sabina'' (a juniper species); an abortifacient 
  
ras., rasur., rasus -a -um or rasuratus -a -um = scraped or scrapings of; often found with licorice (glychyrriza or liquiritia), but also of ivory, hartshorn, boar's tooth, and human skull
+
saccharum -i = sugar
  
rasp., raspatus -a -um = rasped, essentially the same as above
+
sagapenum -i, sagapenon -eni = gum resin from ''Ferula persica''; antispasmodic & emmenogogue
  
recent., recens -entis = recent, new, fresh; e.g., lactis recentis, of fresh milk; cf. ueter., veter.
+
sal X = salt of X, with X in the genitive; numerous examples, including table salt and other acid and alkali salts; see elsewhere for definition of "X," e.g., sal absynthii
  
resin., resina -ae = resin (from anything)
+
sal -is marini = sea salt
  
rhab., rhabarbarum -i = rhubarb, Rheum rhabarbarum
+
sal. prunell., sal -is prunella = fused potassium nitrate (saltpeter) in balls, cakes, or sticks
  
rhaphon., rhapontic., rhaponticum -i = rhapontic rhubarb, Rheum rhaponticum
+
salicis, salix -icis = willow
  
rhei., rheo, rheum -i = rhubarb, Rheum rhabarbarum
+
salv., salvia -ae = common sage, ''Salvia officinalis''
  
rhoed., rhoead., rhoeas -adis = Papaver rhoeas, red corn or wild poppy; see tinctura rubra, below
+
sacchar., saccharum -i =  (cane) sugar; also sacchar. cand., saccharum candidum, sugar candy
  
ros., rosa -ae = rose, various specied of genus Rosa
+
sambuc., sambucus -i = elder tree, ''Sambucus nigra''
  
rosac., rosaceus -a -um = made of or from roses; oleum rosaceum =  rose oil 
+
sanal = a salve containing litharge of silver, red bole, balsam of Peru, etc.; but may be a misspelling for "santal," q.v.
  
rorismar., rorismarinus -i = rosemary, Rorismarinus officinalis
+
sandarach., sandaraca -ae = gum sandarac, from ''Iuniperus communis''; may also refer to arsenic sulfide or realgar (red arsenic, red orpiment)
  
rosatus -a -um = prepared from or containing roses
+
satureia (satureja) -ae = genus of aromatic plants including ''Satureja hortensis,'' summer savory, and ''S. montana'', winter savory; related to thyme and rosemary
  
rosmarin., rosmarinus -i = rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis
+
sangu. dracon., sanguis -is draconis = dragon's blood, a red resin made from various trees
  
ruber rubra rubrum = red
+
sanic., sanicula -ae = wood sanicle, ''Sanicula europaea''; can be a synonym for saxifraga (q. v.)
  
rumex -icis = dock, various species of genus Rumex; see folia acetosae, above
+
santal., santalum -i =  sandalwood, saunders, various species of genus ''Santalum''; red, white, and yellow varieties
  
ruta -ae = rue, Ruta graveolens and other species
+
santon., santonic., sem. santonic., semina santonica/ santonici = southernwood (''Artemisia santonica'') seeds or wormseeds (''Absinthium santonicum'')
  
== S ==
+
sap., sapo -onis = soap; black soap, ''sapo niger'', appears in some receipts
  
sabin., sabina = savin, Juniperus sabina (a juniper species) 
+
sarcocolla -ae = gum resin or balsam from shrub ''Astragalus sarcocolla''
  
sal X = salt of X, with X in the genitive; numerous examples, including table salt and other acid and alkali salts; see elsewhere for definition of "X," e.g., sal absynthii 
+
sars., sarsaparilla -ae = root of ''Smilax sarsaparilla''
  
sal -is marini = sea salt
+
sassaf., sassaphr., sassafras = bark of the sassafras tree, ''Sassafras officinale'' or ''Laurus sassafras''
  
sal. prunell., sal -is prunella = fused potassium nitrate in balls, cakes, or sticks
+
satyrion satyrii maris = tuber or rhizome of the early purple orchid, ''Orchis mascula'';  may also refer to other orchids, the cuckoo-pint, ''Arum maculatum'', or dragon arum, ''Dracunculus vulgaris''
  
salv., salvia -ae = common sage, Salvia officinalis
+
saxifrag., saxifraga -ae = saxifrage, breakstone, ''Saxifraga'' species, esp. ''S. granulata''; for treatment of urinary stones and as an antiseptic; related plants may be termed golden, burnet (or rough), great, or meadow saxifrage; ''S. anglica'', pepper saxifrage
  
sacchar., saccharum -i = (cane) sugar; also sacchar. cand., saccharum candidum, sugar candy 
+
scabios., scabiosa -ae = common scabious, ''Scabiosa arvensis''
  
sambuc., sambucus -i = elder tree, Sambucus nigra
+
scill., scilla -ae = see squill, below
  
sanal = a salve containing litharge of silver, red bole, balsam of Peru, etc.; but may be a misspelling for "santal," q.v.
+
scilliticus -a -um = derived from or containing squill
  
sandarach., sandaraca -ae = gum sandarac, from Iuniperus communis; may also refer to arsenic sulfide or realgar (red arsenic, red orpiment)
+
scob., scobis -is = powder or dust produced by sawing, rasping, filing, etc.; e.g. scob. dent. apri, scobis dentis apri, powdered wild boar's tooth
  
sangu. dracon., sanguis -is draconis = dragon's blood, a red resin made from various trees
+
scolopend., scolopendria -ae = spleenwort, ''Asplenium ceterach''
  
santal., santalum -i = sandalwood, saunders, various species of genus Santalum; red, white, and yellow varieties
+
scolopend., scolopendr., scolopendrium -i = hart's tongue fern, ''Scolopendrium vulgare''; phyllitis
  
santon., santonic., sem. santonic., semina santonica = southernwood (Artemisia santonica) seeds or wormseeds (Absinthium santonicum)
+
scord., scordium -i = water germander, ''Teucrium scordium''
  
sap., sapo -onis = soap; black soap, sapo niger, appears in some receipts
+
scorpion., scorpio -onis = the stinging arachnid, order ''Scorpiones''; ol. scorpion., oil of scorpions, apparently made by steeping scorpions in olive or other oil
  
sars., sarsaparilla -ae = root of Smilax sarsaparilla
+
scorzon., scorzoner., scorzonera -ae = viper's grass, ''Scorzonera humilis'', for treatment of any venomous bite
  
sassaf., sassaphr., sassafras = bark of the sassafras tree, Sassafras officinale or Laurus sassafras
+
seb., sebum -i =  tallow, suet, grease
  
satyrion -ii maris = tuber or rhizome of the early purple orchid, Orchis mascula
+
sebest., sebesten = sebesten plum, from the tree ''Cordia myxa''
  
saxifrag., saxifraga -ae = saxifrage, breakstone, Saxifraga species, esp. S. granulata; related plants may be termed golden, burnet or rough, great, or meadow saxifrage; for treatment of urinary stones, also an antiseptic
+
secalini., secale -is = a genus of grasses; e.g., rye
  
scabios., scabiosa -ae = common scabious, Scabiosa arvensis
+
sed., sedum -i =  wall-pepper, stone-crop; ''Sedum majus'' = sempervivum, see below
  
scill., scilla -ae = see squill, below
+
selinum -i = selinum, a genus of plants in the parsley family Apiaceae; see petroselinum, above
  
scob., scobis -is = powder or dust produced by sawing, rasping, filing, etc.; e.g. scob. dent. apri, scobis dentis apri, powdered wild boar's tooth
+
sem., semen -inis, (plural) semina =  seed(s) of anything
  
scolopend., scolopendria -ae = spleenwort, Asplenium ceterach
+
sem. frigid. maj., semina frigida majora = the four greater cold seeds: cucumber, melon, watermelon, and gourd or pumpkin
  
scolopend., scolopendr., scolopendrium -i = hart's tongue fern, Scolopendrium vulgare; phyllitis
+
sem. frigid. min., semina frigida minora = the four lesser cold seeds: endive, lettuce, purslane, and succory
  
scord., scordium -i = water germander, Teucrium scordium 
+
semperviv., sempervivum -i = houseleek, ''S. tectorum'' ("live forever," because it is always green)
  
scorpion. = the stinging arachnid, order Scorpiones; ol. scorpion., oil of scorpions, apparently made by steeping scorpions in olive or other oil
+
sen., sena -ae =  senna
  
scorzon., scorzonera -ae = viper's grass, Scorzonera humilis, for treatment of any venomous bite
+
senecion., senecio -onis = groundsel, ''Senecio vulgaris'', or ''S. iacobaea,'' Jacobaea (St. James' wort) or ragwort
  
seb., sebum -i = tallow, suet, grease 
+
senella -ae = same as spina alba, see below
  
sebest., sebesten = sebesten plum, from the tree Cordia myxa
+
serpentar., serpentaria -ae = snake-root; includes ''Aristolochia serpentaria'' and ''Serpentaria virginiana''; rad. serpentar. = radix serpentariae
  
secalini., secale -is = a kind of grain; likely rye or black spelt
+
ser., serum -i = milk whey; also serum lactis, whey of milk
  
sed., sedum -i = wall-pepper, stone-crop; Sedum majus = sempervivum, see below 
+
sericum -i = raw silk; or red pigment, possibly red lead
  
sem., semen -inis, (plural) semina = seed(s) of anything
+
seselios, seseli -is = various umbelliferous plants of several genera including ''Tordylium, Laserpitum, Seseli,'' and ''Levisticum'' among others, >100 species; collectively called hartwort
  
sem. frigid. maj., semina frigida majora = the four greater cold seeds:  cucumber, melon, watermelon, and gourd or pumpkin
+
sigill. Solom., sigillum -i Solomonis = Solomon's seal, ''Polygonatum multiflorum''
  
sem. frigid. min., semina frigida minora = the four lesser cold seeds:  endive, lettuce, purslane, and succory
+
silic., silicea -ae = shell or carapace of sea animals, e.g., bivalves and crustaceans
  
semperviv., sempervivum -i = houseleek, S. tectorum ("live forever," because it is always green)
+
simpl., simplex -icis = preparation with a single active ingredient, unblended; same as species
sen., sena -ae =  senna 
 
  
senecion., senecio -onis = groundsel, Senecio vulgaris, or S. iacobaea, Jacobaea (St. James' wort) or ragwort
+
sinap., sinapis -is = mustard; sem. sinap., semina sinapis, mustard seeds
  
ser., serum -i = milk whey; also serum lacti, whey of milk
+
sisymbr., sisymbrium -i = watercress, ''Sisymbrium nasturtium''
  
sericum -i = raw silk; or possibly red lead
+
smyrnium -i = species of flowering plants, family ''Apiaceae'' (carrots, anise, fennel, and many others); ''S. olusatrum'', alexanders
  
sigill. Solom., sigillum -i Solomonis = Solomon's seal, Polygonatum multiflorum
+
solan., solanum -i = nightshade, ''Solanum nigrum''; several other species, e.g., bitter-sweet, ''S. dulcamara,'' and the common tomato, ''S. lycopersicum''
  
silic., silicea -ae = shell or carapace of sea animals, e.g., bivalves and crustaceans
+
sp., spec., species =  a simple, or single ingredient or element; i.e., uncompounded or unmixed
  
simpl., simplex -icis = a single active ingredient, unblended; same as species
+
sp. ceti., spermaceti = from sperma + ceti (genitive of cetus -i); a fatty substance found in the head of the sperm whale, ''Physteter macrocephalus''
  
sinap., sinapis -is = mustard; sem. sinap., semina sinapis, mustard seeds 
+
spic., spica -ae =  a spike or common stalk bearing numerous flowers; ''Spica foemina ='' lavender
  
sisymbr., sisymbrium -i = watercress, Sisymbrium nasturtium
+
spica -ae nardi = spikenard; aromatic substance from ''Nardostachys jatamansi'' (India), or the plant itself; or sometimes lavender
  
solan., solanum -i = nightshade, Solanum nigrum; several other species, e.g., bitter-sweet, S. dulcamara, and the common tomato, S. lycopersicum
+
spin. alb., spina -ae alba = "white thorn;" precise identification uncertain, with several possibilities, incl. common hawthorn, ''Crategeus monogyna'' or ''C. oxyacantha,'' Our Lady's thistle, ''Carduus lacteus'' or ''C. mariae'', various species of acacia, etc.
  
sp., spec., species = a simple, or single ingredient or element; i.e., uncompounded or unmixed
+
sp. sal., spiritus -us salis = spirit of salt, muriatic (hydrochloric) acid, HCl
  
sp. ceti., spermaceti = from sperma + ceti (genitive of cetus -i); a fatty substance found in the head of the sperm whale, Physteter macrocephalus
+
sp. sulph., spiritus -us sulphuris = sulfurous acid, H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>3</sub>
  
spic., spica -ae = a spike or common stalk bearing numerous flowers; Spica foemina = lavender 
+
sp. vin., sp. vini, spiritus -us vini = alcohol, rectified spirit; used as solvent for tinctures, &c.
  
spin. alb., spina -ae alba = "white thorn;" precise identification uncertain, with several possibilities, incl. common hawthorn, Crategeus monogyna or C. oxyacantha, Our Lady's thistle, Carduus lacteus or C. mariae, various species of acacia, etc.
+
spod., spodium -i = a fine powder obtained from various substances by calcination (''OED'')
  
sp. sal., spiritus -us salis = spirit of salt, muriatic (hydrochloric) acid
+
squill., squilla -ae = squill; ''Scilla'' (or ''Drima'') ''maritima'', used as diuretic and expectorant
  
sp. sulph., spiritus -us sulphuris = sulfurous acid, H2SO3
+
squillitic., squilliticus -a -um = of or derived from squill
  
spod., spodium -i = a fine powder obtained from various substances by calcination (OED)
+
staphid. agr., staphis -idis agria = stavesacre, ''Delphinium staphisagria''
  
squill., squilla -ae = squill; Scilla maritima, used as diuretic and expectorant
+
stoechad., stoechas -adis = French lavender, ''Lavandula stoechas''
  
squillitic., squilliticus -a -um = of or derived from squill
+
stercor., stercus -oris = dung, excrement, feces:  e.g., of dog, canis; horse, equi; peacock, pavonis; also others
  
staphid. agr., staphis -idis = stavesacre, Delphinium staphisagria
+
stipul., stipula -ae = stalk, stem
  
stoechad., stoechas -adis = French lavender, Lavandula stoechas
+
sturionis, sturio -onis = European sea sturgeon, ''Acipenser sturio''; ova sturionis = caviar
  
stercor., stercus -oris = dung, excrement, feces (of dog, horse, peacock, etc.)
+
styrac. calamit., styrax -acis calamita = storax, gum-resin from ''Styrax officinalis''
  
stipul., stipula -ae = stalk, stem
+
suc[c]in., suc[c]inum -i =  amber
  
sturionis, sturio -onis = European sea sturgeon, Acipenser sturio; ova sturionis = caviar
+
succ., succus -i = juice
  
styrac. calamit., styrax -acis calamita = storax, gum-resin from Styrax officinalis
+
suillus -a -um = of, from, or related to pigs; adipes suillus, pig fat or lard
  
suc[c]in., suc[c]inum -i = amber 
+
summit., summitat., summitas -tatis = top or tops, with the name of the plant in the genitive; e.g., summitates absynthii, absinthe tops; summitates hyssopi, hyssop tops
  
succ., succus -i = juice
+
symphit., symphyt., symphitum -i = comfrey; ''Symphytum maius'', greater comfrey
  
suillus -a -um = of, from, or related to pigs
+
==T==
  
summitat., summitas -tatis = top or tops, with the name of the plant in the genitive; e.g., summitates absynthii, absinthe tops; summitates hyssopi, hyssop tops
+
tachamah., tacamahaca -ae = aromatic resin from ''Bursera'' (or ''Elaphrium'') ''tomentosa''
  
symphit., symphyt., symphitum -i = comfrey; Symphytum maius, greater comfrey 
+
tamarind., tamarindus -i = tamarind tree, ''Tamarindus indica''; source of tamarind fruit, a purgative
  
== T ==
+
tamarisc., tamarix -icis or tamariscus -i = tamarisk tree, various species of genus ''Tamarix''
  
tamarind., tamarindus -i = tamarind tree, Tamarindus indica; source of tamarind fruit, a purgative
+
tapsus -i barbatus = black mullein, ''Verbascum nigrum''
  
tamarisc., tamarix -icis or tamariscus -i = tamarisk tree, various species of genus Tamarix
+
taraxicum -i = '' Taraxicum officinalis,'' dandelion; may occur as "herba taraxici"
  
tapsus -i barbatus = black mullein, Verbascum nigrum
+
tartar., tartarus -i = tartar, potassium bitartrate, KC<sub>4</sub>H<sub>5</sub>O<sub>6</sub>; when purified forms white crytals and is referred to as cream of tartar; see cremor tartaris, above
  
tartar., tartarus -i = tartar; see cremor tartaris, above
+
tax., taxus -i =  yew tree (''Taxus baccata''); or badger, ''Taxidea taxus''; pinguedo taxi, badger fat
  
tax., taxus -i = yew tree (Taxus baccata); or badger, Taxidea taxus; pinguedo taxi, badger fat
+
terebinth., terebinthina -ae =  turpentine; terebinth. uenet. (Veneta), Venice turpentine; many others including terebinthina communis, Cypria, vulgaris; for Chio terebinth., see Chio, above
  
terebinth., terebinthina -ae = turpentine; terebinth. uenet. (Veneta), Venice turpentine; many others including terebinthina communis, Cypria, vulgaris; for Chio terebinth., see Chio, above
+
terr., terra -ae = earth
  
terr., terra -ae = earth  
+
terr. Lemni., terra -ae Lemnia = Lemnian earth or clay, a medicinal clay originally obtained from the island of Lemnos
  
terr. Lemni., terra -ae Lemnia = Lemnian earth or clay, a medicinal clay originally obtained from the island of Lemnos 
+
terr. sigillat., terra sigillata = "sealed earth;" Lemnian clay shaped into tablets or cakes into which decorative seals were pressed; same as terra Lemnia
  
terr. sigillat., terra sigillata = "sealed earth;" Lemnian clay shaped into tablets or cakes into which decorative seals were pressed; same as terra Lemnia 
+
test., testa -ae =  shell of a molllusc, or the skin or coating of a seed
  
test., testa -ae = shell of a molllusc, or the skin or coating of a seed
+
testud., testudo -inis = tortoise, various species of genus ''Testudo''
  
testud., testudo -inis = tortoise, variou species of genus Testudo
+
thapsia -ae = genus of umbilliferous perennials; ''Thapsia garganica'' or ''T. villosa'', deadly carrot
  
thebaic., thebaica -ae = opium; thebaic tincture or extract = laudanum
+
thebaic., thebaica -ae = opium; thebaic tincture or extract = laudanum
  
theriac., theriacal., theriaca -ae = antidote; treacle; e.g., Theriaca andromachi = mithridatium (q. v.), T. coelestis, laudanum
+
theriac., theriacal., theriaca -ae = antidote;  treacle; e.g., ''Theriaca andromachi'' or ''T. veneta'' (of Venice) = mithridatium (q. v.), ''T. coelestis ='' laudanum  
  
thur., thus thuris = frankincense or olibanum, aromatic resin from trees of genus Boswellia, esp. B. sacra  
+
thur., thus thuris =  frankincense or olibanum, aromatic resin from trees of genus ''Boswellia'', esp. ''B. sacra''
  
thym., thymi., thymum -i = thyme, various species of genus Thymus, esp. T. vulgaris  
+
thym., thymi., thymum -i = thyme, various species of genus ''Thymus'', esp. ''T. vulgaris''
  
til., tilia -ae = lime-tree, linden
+
til., tilia -ae = lime-tree, linden, ''Tilia europaea''; ''T. alba'', white lime-tree  
  
tinct., tinctura -ae = a solution of anything in spirit of wine; very many types, e.g., tinctura thebiaca, same as laudanum  
+
tinct., tinctura -ae = a solution of anything in spirit of wine; very many types, e.g., tinctura thebiaca, same as laudanum
  
tinct. rub., tinctura -ae rubra = tincture of red corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas), similar to laudanum  
+
tinct. rub., tinctura -ae rubra = tincture of red corn poppy (''Papaver rhoeas''), similar to laudanum
  
tormentill. tormentilla -ae = upright septfoil, tormentil; Tormentilla (or Potentilla) erecta  
+
tormentill. tormentilla -ae = upright septfoil, tormentil; ''Tormentilla'' (or ''Potentilla'') ''erecta''
  
torrefact., torrefactus -a -um = dried of moisture by heat, scorched, roasted  
+
torrefact., torrefactus -a -um = dried of moisture by heat, scorched, roasted, toasted
  
tragacanth., dragacanth., tragacanthum -i = gum tragacanth (q.v.)
+
tostus -a -um = past participle of torreo -ere, to parch, roast; same as above
  
turbith., turbithum -i = turbith or turpeth, from Convulvulus turpethum; a purgative
+
tragacanth., dragacanth., tragacanthum -i = gum tragacanth (q.v.)
  
tutia -ae = tutty; zinc oxide
+
turbith., turbithum -i = turbith or turpeth, from ''Convulvulus turpethum''; a purgative
  
== U - V ==
+
tutia -ae = tutty; zinc oxide
 +
 
 +
==U - V==
  
 
ueter., veter., veterus -a -um = old; cf. recent., recentis  
 
ueter., veter., veterus -a -um = old; cf. recent., recentis  
  
ung., vng. apostol., unguentum apostolorum = containing 12 ingredients incl. turpentine, resin, yellow wax, aristolochia, frankincense, etc.
+
ulmor., ulmorum, ulmus -i = elm tree
  
ung., vng. basilic., or just basilic., unguentum basilicum = basilicum ointment; yellow, black, or green, each containing beeswax and rosin and other ingredients but no basil
+
ung., vng. apostol., unguentum apostolorum = containing 12 (hence the name) ingredients incl. turpentine, resin, yellow wax, aristolochia, frankincense, etc.
  
ung., vng. alb., unguentum album = ointment containing olive oil, white wax, and white lead
+
ung., vng. basilic., or just basilic., unguentum basilicum = basilicum ointment; yellow, black, or green, each containing beeswax and rosin and other ingredients but not basil
  
unguentum Egyptiac., Egyptiacum = ointment containing verdigris (copper acetate or green rust from copper or brass), honey, and vinegar
+
ung., vng. alb., unguentum album = ointment containing olive oil, white wax, and white lead
  
ung. or vng. pomat., unguentum pomatum = ointment containing pork fat, rose water, and apple pulp
+
unguentum Egyptiac., Egyptiacum = ointment containing verdigris (copper acetate or green rust from copper or brass), honey, and vinegar
  
unguentum populeon = ointment containing poplar buds, animal fat, and various leaves
+
ung. or vng. pomat., unguentum pomatum = ointment containing pork fat, rose water, and apple pulp
  
urtic., vrtic., urtica -ae = nettle, esp. the common nettle Urtica dioica; urtic. urent., Urtica urens, dwarf/ annual/ dog nettle
+
unguentum populeon = ointment containing poplar buds, animal fat, and various leaves
  
uva -ae = grape
+
urtic., vrtic., urtica -ae = nettle, esp. the common nettle ''Urtica dioica''; urtic. urent., ''Urtica urens'' (burning), dwarf/ annual/ dog nettle
  
valerian., valeriana -ae = wild valerian, Valeriana officinalis
+
ustus -a -um = burnt
  
veronic., veronica -ae = speedwell, Veronica officinalis
+
uva -ae = grape; uvae quercinae or oak grapes, see above under quercinus -a -um
  
vin., vinum -i = wine; vinum album, white wine; vinum rubrum/rubellum/roseum, red wine
+
valerian., valeriana -ae = wild valerian, ''Valeriana officinalis''
  
viola -ae = violet, various species of genus Viola, esp. V. odorata
+
vepris -is = genus of plants in the Rutaceae (rue) family; approximately 80 species
  
visc. querc., viscum -i quercinus = mistletoe; also Viscum album
+
verbena -ae = common vervain, ''Verbena officinalis'', or other plants in genus ''Verbena''
  
vitell., vitellus -i = egg yolk; vitelli ovorum, yolks of eggs 
+
veronic., veronica -ae = speedwell, ''Veronica officinalis''
  
vitis -is = vine; folia vitis, grape leaves
+
viciar., vicia -ae = vetch; JW mentions species "vulgaris," same as fava bean/ broad bean
  
vitriol., vitriolum -i = vitriol; various metallic sulfates, esp. iron sulfate; v. album = zinc sulfate
+
Vigo = Giovanni de Vigo (1460 - 1519); emplastrum Vigonis, Vigo's plaster (lead, wax, mercury, turpentine, various herbs)
  
vulgar., vulgaris -e = common, usual
+
vin., vinum -i = wine; vinum album, white wine; vinum rubrum/rubellum/roseum, red wine
  
vulp., vulpes -is = wolf
+
viola -ae = violet, various species of genus ''Viola'', esp. ''V. odorata''; violarum, of violets
  
== Z ==
+
visc. querc., viscus -i quercinus = mistletoe; also ''Viscum album''
  
zedoar., zedoaria -ae = zedoary, Curcuma zedoaria
+
vitell., vitellus -i = egg yolk; vitelli ovorum, yolks of eggs
  
zizyphus -i = jujube; from Zizyphus species, e.g., Z. jujuba, tree that produces them; jujubinus -a -um, relating to jujubes; e.g., syrupus jujubinus, jujube syrup
+
vitis -is = vine; folia vitis, grape leaves
  
zyth., zythum -i = zythos  (unfermented Egyptian beer)  
+
vitriol., vitriolum -i = vitriol; various metallic sulfates, esp. iron sulfate ("green copperas") and vitr. album, zinc sulfate; oil of vitriol = sulfuric acid, H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>; the famous acronym "visite interiora terrae rectificando invenies occultum lapidem" is likely a spurious back formation
  
zz or ZZ = zinziber = ginger, Zinziber officinale; sometimes indicates myrrh
+
vitulinus -a -um = from or related to a calf (veal)
  
== Alchemical Symbols and Other Abbreviations ==
+
vulgar., vulgaris -e =  common, usual
 +
 
 +
vulp., vulpes -is = wolf
 +
 
 +
==W==
 +
 
 +
Winterani = only in (Captain) Winter's bark; see under cortex winterani, above
 +
 
 +
==Z==
 +
 
 +
zalap., zalapium, -i = same as ialap/jalap, q.v.
 +
 
 +
zedoar., zedoaria -ae = zedoary, ''Curcuma zedoaria''
 +
 
 +
zizyphus -i = jujube; from ''Zizyphus'' species, e.g., ''Z. jujuba'', the tree that produces them; iuiubinus or jujubinus -a -um, relating to jujubes; e.g., syrupus jujubinus, jujube syrup
 +
 
 +
zibet., zibetha -ae = civet, civet musk; from several species, best known being the African civet, ''Civettictis civetta''
 +
 
 +
zyth., zythum -i = zythos  (unfermented Egyptian beer)
 +
 
 +
zythogala -ae = posset drink; see liquor posseticus, above
 +
 
 +
zz or ZZ = z''in''z''iber'' = ginger, ''Zinziber officinale''; sometimes indicates myrrh
 +
 
 +
==Alchemical Symbols and Other Abbreviations==
  
 
Ward very occasionally used these, e.g.,   
 
Ward very occasionally used these, e.g.,   
  
'''♀️'''symbol for tartar; '''crem.♀️is''' = ''cremor tartaris'' = cream of tartar  
+
'''♀️''' symbol for tartar (symbol unicode &amp;#128831;); '''crem.♀️is''' = ''cremor tartaris'', cream of tartar  
  
'''♂️'''symbol for Mars; '''croc.♂️is''' = ''crocus Martis'' = saffron of Mars (iron peroxide, colcothar, or jeweler's rouge)
+
'''♂️'''symbol for Mars; '''croc.♂️is''' = ''crocus Martis'' = "saffron of Mars," iron peroxide, colcothar, or jeweler's rouge) (symbol unicode &amp;#9794;)
  
'''69''' = ''oculi cancri''  (see above)
+
[add symbol] , symbol for sulfur (symbol unicode &amp;#128781;); flores  is = "flowers of sulfur," powdered sulfur produced by sublimation as opposed to natural crystalline sulfur (i.e., brimstone)
  
'''9''' superscripted = "-us" (a common medieval contraction, as in ''corp9'' = ''corpus'')
+
[add symbol], symbol for vitriol (symbol unicode &amp;#128790;)
  
== '''Following list by Callum Simms''' ==
+
69: see above, "oculi cancri;" image from Zwinger, ''Theatri Praxeos Medicae'' (1710), p. 150
  
== Ingredients ==
+
[add thumbnail here] : Ocul''i'' ''cancri'' p''raeci''p''i''t''atum'' ana ʒss
 +
 
 +
<sup>9</sup> (superscript 9) = "-us;" a common medieval contraction, as in "corp<sup>9</sup> "''='' corpus
 +
 
 +
See various additional abbreviations in "John Ward's Alphabet."
 +
 
 +
 
 +
=='''Glossary of Latin terms by Callum Simms'''==
 +
 
 +
==Ingredients==
  
 
• absynth. - absynthium = 'wormwood'<br>
 
• absynth. - absynthium = 'wormwood'<br>
Line 1,430: Line 1,711:
 
• zyth. - zythum = 'zythos' (Egyptian beer)<br>
 
• zyth. - zythum = 'zythos' (Egyptian beer)<br>
 
The symbol (℞) is short for 'recipe' and means 'take' in Latin. This is still used for prescriptions today as Rx.<br>
 
The symbol (℞) is short for 'recipe' and means 'take' in Latin. This is still used for prescriptions today as Rx.<br>
== Other ==
+
==Other==
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
• ā - for originally Greek 'ana' = 'of each' <br>
 
• ā - for originally Greek 'ana' = 'of each' <br>
Line 1,475: Line 1,756:
 
• ust. - ustus = 'burnt'<br>
 
• ust. - ustus = 'burnt'<br>
 
• vulgar. - vulgaris = 'common'<br>
 
• vulgar. - vulgaris = 'common'<br>
 +
==Resources==
 +
[https://www.getty.edu/research/exhibitions_events/exhibitions/alchemy/AoA_symbols.pdf Alchemical symbols, from Getty]
 +
 +
[https://textcreationpartnership.org/docs/dox/alchem.html Alchemical symbols, from the Text Creation Partnership]
 +
 +
[https://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U1F700.pdf Alchemical symbols character code table, from the Unicode Standard, version 13.0]
 +
 +
[https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Appendix:Unicode/Alchemical_Symbols Alchemical symbols, from Wiktionary]
 +
 +
[https://www.lexilogos.com/keyboard/greek_ancient.htm Ancient Greek keyboard, from Lexilogos]
 +
 +
[https://folgerpedia.folger.edu/mediawiki/media/images_pedia_folgerpedia_mw/6/6a/JW_Alphabet_Revised_doc.pdf John Ward alphabet]
  
 
--------------------------------------------------
 
--------------------------------------------------

Latest revision as of 15:02, 26 March 2021

This article features two glossaries of the Latin words and abbreviations in the diaries of John Ward, Folger MS V.a.284 -299. The words are all associated with medical receipts. At the bottom of the article are links to a cribsheet for John Ward's handwriting, several sites that depict alchemical symbols, and a Greek keyboard.

The first glossary was compiled by Dr. Robert Tallaksen, a reader and transcriber at the Folger Shakespeare Library. It is regularly updated with new words. Last update was March 26, 2021.

The second glossary is the work of Callum Simms, a transcriber on Shakespeare's World (a crowd-sourced project between the Folger Shakespeare Library, Zooniverse and the OED, sponsored by EMMO). Some of John Ward's diaries have been transcribed by volunteers on Shakespeare's World. On Shakespeare's World's talk feature, Callum Simms is known as @IntelVoid.

John Ward was the vicar of Stratford-upon-Avon from 1662 to 1681. The Folger Shakespeare Library has 16 of his 17 diaries. More information on John Ward can be found in A Semi-Diplomatic Transcription of Selections from the John Ward Diaries.


John Ward's Latin medical words and abbreviations (Dr. Robert Tallaksen, compiler)

Instructions and Amounts

ā, ān., ana = of each

a. c., p. c., ante/post cibum = before or after a meal

ad. grat. acid., ad gratem aciditatem = to an agreeable sourness

ante pastum = before food

ante/post prandium = before/after a meal (lunch)

applic., applico -are = apply; e.g., applica ventre = apply to the abdomen

balneum -i = bath; e.g., BV, balneo vaporoso, in a steam bath; BM, balneo Mariae, in a bain-marie

bib., bibo -ere = drink; bibit (she/he drinks), bibat (let her/him drink) or bibatur (let X be drunk )

bullio -ire = boil; bulliant, they should boil or let them boil

calcino -are = to calcine; reduce by roasting or burning to a powder or friable substance; una calcinentur, let them be calcined together

cap., capio -ere = cape, take; also capiat (let him/her take X) and capiatur (let X be taken)

chartula -ae = a small piece of paper; specifically, such a piece of paper twisted or folded and containing a single dose of medicinal powder

clarific., clarifico -are = clarify

coch., cochleare = spoonful(s)

colatus -a -um (also incolatus) = strained, filtered, purified (from colo -are = strain, filter); colatura -ae, material which has been filtered or strained

compos., compositus -a -um = adj., compound; composed, prepared

cong., congius -i = gallon

contund., contundo -ere = bruise, crush, beat

contus., contusus -a -um = adj., bruised, crushed, beaten

coq., coqu., coquo -ere = boil

crebro = adv., frequently, repeatedly

cum = with; often abbreviated with macron: cū

cuspis -idis cultelli = point of a knife; as much medicine as will lie on a knife point; a small but uncertain amount, likely a few grains

d., da, datur detur = da, give; datur X, X is given; detur X, let X be given

d., dos., dosis -es = dose

decoq., decoquo -ere = boil down / reduce

diluculi., diluculum -i = at daybreak; alternis diluculis, every other morning at dawn

dulcorand., edulcorand., dulcorandus -a -um = sweetened; from dulcoro -are

e, ex = out of / from

ebull., ebullio -ire = boil

epotus -a -um = swallowed, quaffed, drunk up

erasus -a -um = scraped; see also rasus -a -um, below

et = and

exacin., exacinatus -a -um = with the seeds or stones removed; e.g. raisins

excorticatus -a -um = peeled, skinned, stripped of outer covering

f. (face), facio -ere = make

fiat X = let X be done/made

foveo -ere = keep warm; foveatur, let her/him/it be kept warm

frigid., frigidus -a -um = cold; e.g., capiat frigida, let it be taken cold

gran., granum = grain (apothecary measure)*

gt, gutt, gutta -ae = drop*

h. s., hora somni, hora somnj = at bedtime

in = in, into

incid., incido -ere = cut open/into; incisus -a -um, incised, cut open

(in)fund. - (in)fundo -ere = pour (in)

insideat = let her/him sit (in a bath)

inspissat., inspissatus -a -um = adj., thickened, condensed

inung., inunguo -ere = rub on (e.g., salve, ointment)

ieiuno or jejuno ventriculo = on a fasting (empty) stomach

lambend., lambo -ere = lick/ lap up; sensim lambendus, to be licked up slowly

lb, sometimes lib, or crossed, "℔" = pound; liquid measures often in pounds rather than volume

m., misc., misceo -ere = mix; misceantur, let them (ingredients) be mixed

m. f. = misce face/ misceat or misceant fiat, mix (the ingredients) and make X, or let (the ingredients) be mixed and X be made (e.g., pills, electuary)

magistral., magistralis -e = related to magister -tri, a master or teacher; can refer to something that is a practitioner's own formulation (as opposed to officinalis -e, see below), or a remedy that is supremely effective

mane = in the morning

manica hyppocratis = Hippocrates' sleeve, a kind of conical strainer made of linen or flannel; e.g., clarificentur per manicam hyppocratis, let them be clarified through a Hippocrates' sleeve

mass., massa -ae = the compound out of which pills, etc., are formed

matut., matutinus -a -um, matutine = in the (early) morning

mortarium -i = mortar; tunde, or contunde in mortario, crush in a mortar

mundat., mundatus -a -um = cleaned

no. or no = numerus, for the number of things; e.g. succ. Limon. no (numero) ii, juice of two lemons (in the number of two)

nocte = at night

nodulo, nodulus -i = a little knot, from nodus -i; in nodulo ligat., tied in a little knot

officin., officinalis -e = from officina -ae, a shop; any standard medicine or ingredient kept in apothecary shops

ꝑreꝑ. or preꝑ.= preparatus -a -um (conjectured)

paratur = it is prepared; e.g., paratur vnguent., an ointment is prepared

pauxill., pauxillatum = little by little

permisceo -ere = mix thoroughly; permisceantur, let them (ingredients) be thoroughly mixed

pisto -are = pound, stamp, crush; pistentur, let them be pounded

pomeridiane = (adv.) in the afternoon

pulveriz., pulverizatus -a -um = powdered

q. s., quantum satis or quantum sufficit = a sufficient quantity

q. s. m. f. = quantum satis misce face (or misceantur fiat), take a sufficient quantity of the last ingredient or ingredients named, mix, (and) make X; or let the ingredients be mixed and let X be made

ras., rasur., rasus -a -um or rasuratus -a -um = scraped or scrapings of

redig., redige, redigo -ere = reduce (into); e.g., redig. in cataplasma, reduce to a poultice

s. a., secundem artem = according to art/practice, in the usual way; connotation is that the method requires particular skill and/or experience

s. or ss., semis = one half (see note below)

saepe, sepe = often; saepius (comparative) = rather often, more often

semicoch., semicochl., semicochleare = half a spoonful

sero = late; e.g., mane et sero, in the morning and late

setaceum -i = sieve; per setaceum, through a sieve

siccus -a -um = dry

singul., singulus -a -um = one at a time, individually, singly

spatha -ae, spatula -ae = a flat piece of wood, a stirrer; diminutive is spatula -ae

spong., spongiā, spongiis = with a sponge or sponges

stillitat., stillatim = drop by drop

substituo -ere = substitute; X substituatur, X should/ought to be substituted; e.g. for a missing ingredient, in defectu vini graeci aliud vinum potens album substituatur, in the absence of Greek wine another strong white wine should/may be substituted

subtilissime, subtilissimus -a -um = very finely, minutely; e.g., face pulverem subtilissimam, make a very fine powder; contunde in mortario subtilissime, crush very finely in a mortar

sumend., sumendus -a -um = to be or should be taken; e.g., mane et sero sumendum = to be taken early and late

summo mane = very early in the morning

superbib., superbibo -ere = drink after or upon another substance; superbibendus -a -um, it should be taken after something else

ust., ustus -a -um = adj., burnt

vesperi = in the evening

Measurements

lb or ℔ = pound; NB the unit of weight, not of money

M = handful

p = pugil, the amount that can be picked up with the thumb and two fingers

℥ = ounce (available on EMROC toolbar in Dromio)

f℥ = fluid ounce, though the "f" is generally omitted

ʒ = dram, drachm (available on EMROC toolbar in Dromio)

℈ = scruple (available on EMROC toolbar in Dromio)

20 grains = 1 scruple; 3 scruples = 1 dram; 8 drams = 1 ounce

Numerical amounts are most often given in minuscule Roman numerals; e.g., iiii. The last "i" is very often written as a "long i" or "j," e.g., iiij, but should be transcribed as a minuscule: iiii.

When "s" or "ss" is used for one half, it follows the last character, thus

  • ℈s, 1/2 scruple
  • ℥iiis = 3 1/2 ounces
  • ʒiss = 1 1/2 drams
  • the "s" can look like a long "i" but will lack a dot.


The abbreviations for grain, "gr," and guttae, "gt," can look very similar; if so:

  • when the ingredient is a liquid, e.g., a syrup, suggest using "gt"
  • if a dry substance, e.g., saffron, use "gr."

Types of Receipts

alviducum -i = "opener of the belly;" i.e. a laxative

apozema -atis = infusion, decoction, concentration by boiling

aq. x = water of x; common ingredient meaning water infused or distilled with x (e.g., rosewater)

balneum -i = bath

bocheti, bochetum -i = a liquid produced in this way: after a decoction of woods, roots, and/or barks, fresh water is added to the same ingredients to make a second decoction for ordinary drinking

carminativus -a -um = serving to expel flatulence, as in "emplastrum carminativum"

cataplasm., cataplasma -is = poultice or plaster

cholagog., cholagogum -i = cholagogue, a medication that promotes discharge of bile

clyster -eris = enema

collutio -onis = a rinse or wash; e.g. "collutio oris," mouth-wash

collyrium -i = eye-wash

decoct., decoctio -onis = decoction

embroc., embrocatio -onis = an embrocation; like a liniment but of a thinner consistency, many types; used for bathing or moistening any part, applied by rubbing

eclegma, ecligma -atis = medicine to be taken by letting it melt in the mouth

elect., electuarium -i = electuary; a "medicinal conserve or paste, consisting of a powder or other ingredient mixed with honey, preserve, or syrup of some kind" (OED)

empl., emplastrum -i = plaster; emplastrum Paracelsi (of Paracelsus) is one of many

emuls., emulsio -onis = emulsion

epithema -ae = "Any kind of moist, or soft, external application" (OED)

errhin., errhinum -i = errhine; medication to be applied into the nose to produce sneezing

fomentum -i, fomentatio -onis = dressing, compress; usually with warm liquids (fomentation) and applied as a poultice or with a pad of material

fotus -us = same as fomentation, above

gargarisma -ae = a gargle, throat-wash

haust., haustu., haustus -us = draught

infus., infusio -onis = infusion

iulap., iulep., iulapium -i = a mixture, often sweet, used as a vehicle for medicines

iusculum, jusculum -i = broth

lambatiuum, lambativum, lambitivum -i = same as lohoch/linctus, below

linctus = medicine that is to be taken by licking (same as lohoch)

liniment., linamentum -i = liniment; l. arcei = liniment of Arceus, l. elemi (see below under gummi)

lithontriptic., lythontriptic., lithontripticus -a -um = lithontriptic; having the property of breaking up bladder stones

lohoch = medicine that is to be taken by licking (same as linctus)

lot., lotio -onis = lotion; fluid applied externally

metrenchyta -ae = injection ("clyster") for the uterus

pectoral., pectoralis -e = for diseases of the chest

pill., pillulae = pill(s)

possetum -i, liquor posseticus = posset; milk curdled with treacle, wine, or any acid substance

potio -onis = drink

potus -us = drink

ptisan., ptisana -ae = decoction of vegetable matters, e.g., barley, licorice, or raisins; a tisane

pulv., pulver., pulvis -eris = powder

purg., purgatio -onis = laxative

sorbilis -e = something that can be sucked up

syr., syrup., syrrup., sirup., sirupus -i = syrup

tragea = powder (?)

troch., trochisc., trochiscus -i = troche (lozenge)

ungu., vngu., unguentum -i = oil, salve, or ointment; for some types, see below

Italic text

Ingredients and Descriptions

A

abrotan., abrotanum -i = artemisia or southernwood, Artemisia abrotanum

absynth., absynthium -i = wormwood, Artemisia absinthium

acetos., acetosa -ae = sorrel or sour dock, Rumex acetosa; fol. acetos., folia acetosae, leaves of this plant

acet., acetum -i = vinegar; a. theriacale, treacle vinegar

acori., acorus -i = sweet flag plant, Acorus calamus

adiant., adianth., adiantum -i = maidenhair fern, Adiantum capillus-veneris

agaric., agaricus -i = originally the bracket fungus, Formitopsis officinalis, later any mushroom with a cap, various species including Agaricus cantharellus, the chanterelle

agni cast., agni casti = Vitex agnus-castus; chaste tree, chasteberry, Abraham's balm, etc.

agrimon., agrimonia -ae = common agrimony, Agrimonia eupatoria

alb., albus -a -um = white

alb. graec., album graecum = the dry white excrement of a dog, hyena, or other bone-eating carnivore, esp. when used as an ingredient in medicinal preparations (OED)

alchermes, alkermes (confectio -onis) = confection of Kermes (crimson insect, cf. cochineal)

alhandal = Arabic name for colocynth (q. v.); troches of alhandal also contained bdellium & gum tragacanth

alkakeng., alkekengi = winter cherry, Physalis alkekengi, a diuretic

aloe -es = aloe; common aloe, Aloe hepatica

aloe depurata = extract made by boiling aloe with water and then concentrating the liquid; if the water was replaced with juice of violet flowers, "aloe violata;" if with juice of rose leaves, "aloe rosata"

alth., althe., althea/althaea -ae = mallow or marsh-mallow, Althea officinalis; also called malvaviscus

alumin., alumina -ae = alum; argil or argillaceous earth

ambra = amber, or ambergris

ammi -ii = umbelliferous plant, Ammi vulgare (maius), common bishop's weed

ammoniac., ammoniacum -i = gum ammoniac, gum resin of Dorema ammoniacum

amomi., amomum -i = genus of aromatic plants including black cardamom, Amomum sublatum

amylum -i = white starch

anagallis -idis = common or "scarlet" pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis

aneth., anethum -i = dill, Anethum graveolens

anis., anisum -i = anise, Pimpinella anisum; semina anisi, aniseed

anserin., anserinus -a -um = of, relating to, or obtained from a goose; adipes anserinus, goose fat

antepileptic., antepilepticus -a -um = anti-epileptic; e.g., aqua antepileptica

anthos = rosemary flowers

apium -i = smallage or any of several kinds of celery or parsley, esp. wild celery, Apium graveolens dulce

aq., aqua -ae = water; aqua fontis, spring or well water

aq. calc., aqua -ae calcis = lime water (whitewash)

aq. fort., aqua -ae fortis = nitric acid, HNO3; may also be called "spirit of niter"

aq. histeric., aqu -ae histerica = anti-hysteric water; receipts vary

aq. naphae, aqua -ae naphae = orange flower water

aq. vit., aqua vitae = distilled spirit

argentum -i = the element Silver, Ag; argentum vivum ("alive") = mercury (Hg), see hydrargyrus, below

argill., argilla -ae = argil, argillaceous earth, alumina

arillus -i = seed/stone; uva passa detractis arillis, dried grapes with the seeds removed

ari., arum -i = common arum, Arum maculatum

aristoloch., aristolochia -ae = many species, including birthwort, Aristolochia clematitis; JW also mentions A. rotunda, smearwort or round-leaved birthwort; see also serpentaria, below

aromat. rosat., aromaticum rosatum = aromatic medicine containing roses

artemis., artemisia -ae = mugwort, Artemisia vulgaris; also other species including southernwood, wormwood, tarragon

artanit., artanita -ae = probably sow-bread, Cyclamen purpurascens

asar., asarum -i = asarabacca or hazelwort, Asarum europaeum

asparag., asparagus -i = asparagus, Asparagus officinalis; the root was used as a diuretic

asell., asellus -i = wood louse, Oniscus asellus; pulv. (onisc.) asell., powder of wood lice

ass. foetid., assafoetida -ae = asafoetida, dried gum of root of Ferula foetida or F. assa-foetida

auri = uncertain; appears in V.a.298 as "fol. auri," possibly leaves of Aurus brasiliensis, also known as Calamus aromaticus asiaticus, Asian sweet-scented flag

aur., aurum -i = gold; golden pills, see pillulae aurae below

aurant., aurantior., aurantium -i = orange, Citrus aurantium; cortex aurantiorum, orange peel

aurant. chinens., aurantium -i chinense = Chinese (sweet) orange, Citrus sinensis

auripigment., auripigmentum -i = auripigment, arsenic trisulfide (As2S3), used by painters under the name of King's Yellow (OED); also appears as arsenicum auripigmentum

avellan., avellanus -a -um = hazel- or filbert; nux avellana, hazel-nut; from the name of the town Avellana in Campania, well known for its fruit and nut trees

aven., auenaceae, avena -ae = oats, Avena sativa; wild oats, A. fatua

avenac., avenaceus -a -um = of or relating to oats; oaten

axung., axungia -ae = lard or fat of an animal; e.g., axung. porcin., hog lard

B

bacc., bacca -ae = berry

bacon., baco -onis = bacon

balaust., balaustium -i = pomegranate flower

balsam., balsamum -i = balsam, any strongly scented resin; many types; can be solid, e.g., benzoin (see below), or liquid, e.g., Peruvian balsam, balsam of Tolu

basilic. = see ung., vng. basilic. below

bechicus -a -um, bechinus -a -um = for treatment of a cough

bechion bechii = coltsfoot, Tussilago farfara

bdell., bdellium -i = gum resin from shrubs of Balsamodendron species, used as pectoral (for diseases of the chest) and emmenagogue (to promote menstrual flow)

becabung., beccabunga -ae = water pimpernel, brooklime; Veronica beccabunga

bened. laxat., benedicta laxativa or benedictum laxativum = another name for rhubarb, or the laxative electuary made from it

benedict. = carduus benedictus, q. v.

benz., benzoin., belzuinum -i = benzoin, gum benzoin; gum obtained from Styrax benzoin

berber., berberis -is = barberry tree, Berberis vulgaris or the berry itself

beta -ae = beetroot, Beta vulgaris; also appears as "rad. betae"

beton., betonic., betonica -ae = betony, Stachys betonica

bezoar (indecl.); bezoart., bezoarticum -i = a stone or concretion found in animal intestines; eight types are described (mineral, biliary, resinous, fibrous, etc.) and may be described with an adjective, e.g., bezoart. minerale, animale

bezoard., bezoardic., bezoardicus -a -um = relating to or in description of a bezoar

bismalv., bismalva -ae = althea, marshmallow; or related species Malva bismalva or M. moschata, musk-mallow

bol. armen., bolus -i Armeniae = Armenian bole, bole armoniac; an argillaceous earth

bombac., bombax -acem = cotton, cotton-wool, stuffing

borac., borax (-acis) = borax (sodium borate, disodium tetraborate), Sodae biboras

brassica -ae = cabbage; also a genus of numerous cruciferous plants incl. turnip, rape, etc.

bryon., bryonia -ae = briony, Bryonia dioica, may also be denoted red or white; black bryony = lady's seal

bubula -ae = beef; bubulus -a -um, derived from beef; medulla bubula, beef marrow

bugloss., buglossa -ae = bugloss (various species of Anchusa, Echium, and others)

bugul., bugula -ae = numerous herbaceous plants including common bugle, Ajuga reptans

bupthalmi., bupthalmum -i = common ox-eye, Bupthalmum salicifolium

butyr., butyron -i = butter; butryr. rancid., rancid butter; butyr. recens, recent. = fresh butter

C

calaminth., calamintha -ae = calamint; various species of Calamintha, e.g. officinalis, sylvatica

calc. viv., calx calcis = lime, limestone, chalk; calx vivum, unslaked lime

calendul., calendula -ae = garden or common marigold, Calendula officinalis

campan., campanula -ae = throat-wort, bell-flower; Campanula trachelium

camphir., camphor., camphora -ae = camphor, from Laurus camphora or Dryobalanops camphora

cancror., cancer cancri = crab; cancrorum vivorum, (of) live crabs; see also "oculi cancri," below

canell., canella -ae = canella tree; Canella alba, wild cinnamon

cantharid., cantharis -idis = blistering fly or Spanish fly, Musca hispanica; decoction of the insects used externally and internally as powder or tincture; can be poisonous in overdose

caphura -ae = camphor

capill. vener., capillus veneris = maidenhair fern, Adiantum capillus-veneris

cappar., capparis -is = caper, Capparis spinosa; ol., oleum capparibus, oil of capers

carabe, carabes = likely a name for white amber (V.a. 298, f. 161r, receipt in Latin, "Carab. pulueriz.," followed by receipt in English, "the white amber powderd")

cardiac., cardiacus -a -um = cordial, for stimulating, invigorating, or restoring the heart, aqua cardiaca = cordial water

card., carduus -i = thistle (various species)

card. ben., card. bened., card. benedict., carduus -i benedictus = holy thistle, Cnicus benedictus, widely used

cardam., cardamomum -i = cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum

caric., carica -ae = fig, Ficus carica; may be described as ficus pinguis, a fat or ripe fig

carlin., carlina -ae = carline or silver thistle, Carlina vulgaris

caro carnis = meat, flesh (any kind)

carthami., carthamus = saffron flower, Carthamus tinctorius

carui., carvi., carum -i = caraway, Carum carui

caryocost., caryostinum -i = caryocostinum, an electuary so called because it contains cloves and costus, Saussurea costus, also known as costus, kuth, and putchuk, a species of Indian thistle

caryophill., caryophillus -i = clove, Caryophyllus aromaticus

caseum -i = cheese

cass., cassia -ae = cassia (various species; e.g, Cassia fistula, purging cassia)

cass. lign., cassia -ae lignum = cassia wood

castanea -ae = chestnut or chestnut-tree, Castana vesca

castoreum -i = castoreum; beaver musk

catholicum -i = a universal purging electuary

C.C. = cornu cervi (deer or hart's horn), source of ammonia; not the plant (Plantago coronopus)

centinodii, centinodium -i = knotgrass, Polygonum aviculare; post-classical Latin "centinodia," Anglo-Norman "centinodie"

centaur., centaurium -i = centaury, feverfew, or featherfew; Centaurea magnum or maius = C. erythraea; C. minus or C. parvum = Chironia centaurium (?)

cera -ae = wax; cera alba or citrina = beeswax

ceras. nigr., cerasum -i nigrum = black cherry, Cerasum nigrum; aq. cerasorum nigrorum, black cherry water; gummi cerasi, (black) cherry tree gum

cerat., ceratio -onis = covering or smearing over of a portion of the body with wax

cerevis., cerevisia -ae = beer or ale

ceruss., cerussa -ae = mixture of lead carbonate and hydrate, white lead

cervin., cervinus -a -um = of or pertaining to a deer or stag

cervis., cervisia -ae = beer or ale; cervisia tenuis, thin or small (i.e., weak or inferior) beer

ceterach. = spleenwort or rustyback fern, Asplenium ceterach

chalyb., chalybs chalyibis = steel

chamamel., chamaemel., chamaemelum -i = chamomile, Anthemis nobilis

chamaepit., chamaepitys -yos = common ground pine, Teucrium chamaepitys

chamedr., chaemedr., chamaedrys = germander speedwell, Veronica chamaedrys, or wall germander, Teucrium chamaedrys

chel. 69., chelae -arum cancri = crab's claws; for explanation of "69," see oculi cancri, below

chelidon., chelidonium -i = common or greater celandine, Chelidonium magnus

chio, chia., terebinth. chia = turpentine from the tree Pistacia terebinthus, also called Cyprus, Chio, or Chian turpentine

chin., china -ae = china root, Smilax china, similar to sarsaparilla

cicer -i = chickpea, Cicer arietinum; several varieties, including white (album), red (rubrum), and black (nigrum)

cich., cichor., cichorium -i = wild chicory or succory, Cichorium intybus; C. endivia, endive

cinamomi., cinnamomum -i = true cinnamon, bark of Cinnamonum zeylanicum; wild cinnamon, Canella alba

cinabrii., cinabrium -i = cinnabar, or vermilion; mercuric sulfide, HgS

ciner., cinis -eris = ashes

citrin., citrinula -ae = a small citron or lemon

coccinel., cocinella -ae = cochineal; the red dye from the insect Coccus cacti, or the insect itself

cochlear., cochlearia -ae = lemon scurvy-grass, Cochlearia hortensis or C. officinalis, or horseradish, C. armoracia; NB don't confuse with coch., cochleare -is, = spoonful

coculus -i indi = India berries; possibly from a tree of genus Natsiatum

colatura -ae = something that has been strained; adjective is colaturus -a -um

colcothar = iron peroxide, jeweller's rouge; also called crocus martis

colocynth., colocynthis -idis = bitter-apple (a purgative), Citrullus colocynthis

colophon., colophonia -ae = resin obtained by distillation of turpentine with water

combustus- a -um (comburo -ere) = burnt up, reduced to ashes

commun., communis -e = common; also expressed as vulgaris -e

cond., conditus -a -um = preserved; e.g., nuces juglandis conditae, preserved walnuts

conf., confect., confectio -onis = compound of vegetable, fruit, etc., with sugar; same as conserva

confectio -onis Hamech = named after an Arabian physician; contains myrobalan, violets, rhubarb, absinthe, etc., made up with honey

confectio -onis hyacinthi = not from the flower, but an astringent containing many ingredients including zircon (called hyacinth from its color), red coral, bole armoniac, myrrh, alkermes, etc.

confectio -onis liberans -antis = name derives from its property of delivering the patient from the plague; as many as thirty ingredients including Armenian bole, terra sigillata, pearls, coral, &c.

cons., conserv., conserva -ae = compound of vegetable, fruit, etc., with sugar; same as confectio

consolid., rad. consolid., radix -icis consolidae = larkspur (root), Delphinium consolida

contrayerv., contrayerva -ae = contrayerva; the root stock and rhizome of Dorstenia contrayerva, D. brazilensis, or D. virginiana (= Aristolochia serpentaria); used as an antidote to snakebite

convall., convallaria -ae = lily of the valley, Convallaria majalis; or Solomon's seal, C. polygonatum or Polygonatum solomonis

cor., corium -i = leather

coral., corallium -i = general name for coral; most commonly red (rubr.), also black and white

coran. = uncertain; but possibly currants or Corinthian raisins (uvae corinthiacae)

cord., cordial -is = cordial; see also flores cordiales, below

coriand., coriandrum -i = coriander, Coriandrum sativum

cortic., cortex -icis = bark of any tree; occasionally described as cortex medius or cortex interior, middle or inner bark, esp. of the ash tree, Fraxinus excelsior

cort. winteran. = cortex -icis Winterani, Drimys winteri, antiscorbutic; named after a Captain Winter (or Wynter), who accompanied Sir Francis Drake in part of his voyage of 1577 - 80; Winter discovered it after rounding Cape Horn and before turning back

coton. = cotton

cotul., cotula -ae = mayweed, stinking chamomile; Anthemis cotula

crem., cremor -oris tartari = cream of tartar, potassium bitartrate, KC4H5O6; Ward occasionally uses the alchemical symbol for tartar, a square or rectangle with a cross below it ( ); see Alchemical Symbols, below

cret., creta -ae = chalk

croc., crocus -i = saffron, from the crocus flower, Crocus sativus

croc. metall., crocus -i metallus -i = several preparations of metals; e.g., crocus antimonii (antimony), crocus veneris (copper), crocus martis (iron)

crocatus -a -um = saffron-yellow

crud., crudus -a -um = raw, unrefined

cucum., cucumer. agrest., cucumis (-eris) agrestis or c. asinius = wild cucumber, Momordica elaterium, a purgative

cumin., cuminum -i = cumin, Cumin cyminum

cupressi., cupressus -i = cypress-tree; nux (pl. nuces) cupressi, the fruit or cone of the cypress

cupul. gland., cupula -ae glandis = the cupule, or cap, of the acorn

curcubitula -ae = cupping glass; also a bitter gourd

cuscuta -ae = dodder, a parasitic twining plant; genus Cuscuta has more than 200 species

cyclamen -inis = many species of genus Cyclamen; e.g., C. purpurascens (see artanita, above) and C. hederifolium, ivy-leaved cyclamen, also called sowbread

cydon., cydonium -i = quince; Cydonium oblonga or C. malum; or Pyrus cydonia

cydoniac., cydoniacus -a -um = of or relating to quince; consistentia cydonaci, the consistency of a quince

cynorrhod., cynorrhodon -i = cynorrhodon, the dog rose, Rosa canina; fructes cynorrh., rose hips

cynosbat., cynosbati fructus = rose hips from Rosa canina

D

dactyl., dactylus -i = date, Phoenix dactylifera

dauci, daucus -i = garden carrot, Daucus carota; D. sylvestris or D. vulgaris, wild carrot

deliquium -i = melting, flowing down; per deliquium = spontaneous liquification (deliquescence) of a solid by dissolving in moisture absorbed from the air; e.g., ol. tart. per deliquium = oleum tartaris per deliquium, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) in aqueous solution from water so absorbed

detract., detractus -a -um = removed; e.g., uva detractis arillis, grapes with the seeds removed; similar to enucleatus -a -um

dia- =  a preparation consisting of a main ingredient, usually alluded to in the name, though receipts vary; e.g., diambra -ae (powder containing cinnamon, angelica, cloves, nutmeg, galangal, etc. used for nervous afflictions and aphrodisiac); diabotanum (plaster of herbs); diacarcinon (from crabs, antidote for rabies); diacarthamum (safflower (a. k. a. bastard-saffron), hermodactyl, ginger, etc.); diachylon cum gummi or d. simplex (juices of herbs); diacorallium (diarrhodon abbatis (q. v.) plus coral, sugar, rosewater); diacurcuma (turmeric); dialthaea (marsh-mallow); diamoron or d. abbatis (honey and mulberries); diamoschus (musk); diapalma (desiccating plaster containing palm oil, litharge, and zinc sulfate); diaphaenicon (dates); diaprunum (damask prunes); diaturbith (Convolvulus turpethum); the New Sydenham's Society's Lexicon names about eighty (OED); a few of the more common ones are given below

diacass., diacassia = a purgative electuary with senna; or the confection of senna; may be designated "cum manna," q. v.

diacatholicon = laxative electuary containing senna, cassia, tamarinds, etc., named for its general usefulness

diaclysma, plural diaclysmata = mouthwash

diacod., diacodium -i = syrup of poppies

diacydon. simpl., diacydonium -i simplex = conserve or marmalade of quinces

diagrid., diagryd, diagrydium -i = old name for scammony (NB not a preparation) cv

diair., = either diaireos, an antidote that contained iris, or diaium -orum, a troche having violets as its main ingredient

diamargarit. fr., diamargariton frigida = cooling powder of pearls, compound

diarrhod. = either diarrhodomeli (juice of roses, scammony, agaric, pepper, and honey) or diarrhodon (several powders which contain roses); the latter may be designated being The Abbot's:  "diarrhodon abbatis"

diascord., diascordium -i = an electuary made with scordium (Teucrium scordium) or germander leaves, roses, storax, cinnamon, etc.; named for Dioscorides, 1st c. Greek physician

diatrion., diatrium -i santalorum = an antidote made from three kinds of sandal-wood with other ingredients

dictamn., dyctamn., dictamnus -i =  dittany, Dictamnus creticus

E

ebeni, ebenum -i = ebony (wood)

ebul. ebulus -i = danewort,  dwarf elder, Sambucus ebulus

ebori., ebur -oris = ivory; ras. ebori, ivory shavings

elaterium -i =  purgative made from seeds of the squirting or exploding cucumber, Ecballium elaterium

elephang., pill. de elephang = elephangma (?) (unknown; V.a.294, f. 33r; possibly but unlikely to be Phytelephas macrocarpa, alias Elephantusia)

elix., elixir (indecl.) = many different preparations, mostly compound

elix. proprietat., elixir proprietatis = elixir of special character; contained aloe, saffron, and myrrh

ens ensis or possibly ensis -is veneris = "essence" or "sword" of Venus; sal ammoniac with copper sulfate or "flores veneris," a copper oxide; used in cases of worms, rickets, and "vapors"

enucl., enucleatus -a -um = with the nut or kernel removed; similar to detractus -a -um

enul., enul. campan., enula -ae = elecampane, Inula helenium or Enula campana

epithymi., epithymum -i = dodder of thyme, thyme dodder, Cuscuta epithymum

equiset., equisetum -i = mare's tail, Hippurus vulgaris

ering., eryngium -i = sea holly, Eryngium maritimum

erisimi, erisimum -i = "irio grain" (Pliny), or Erysimum cheiri, wallflower

eruca -ae = colewort, Brassica oleracea; many common vegetables incl. cabbage, broccoli, &c.

eupator., eupatorium -i = agrimony or hemp agrimony, Eupatorium cannabinum

euphorb., euphorbia -ae = euphorbium, gum resin from Euphorbia antiquorum

euphrasia -ae = eyebright, Euphrasia officinalis

exicc., exiccatus -a -um = dried

extract., extractum -i = extract

extractum Rudii = see pilulae Rudii, below

F

fab., faba -ae = bean  

faeces, faecul., faecula -ae =  sediment, e.g., wine dregs, or material that falls to the bottom after grinding plant material in water

faenic., faeniculum -i = fennel, Faeniculum vulgare

faenugraec., faenugraecum -i = fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum

farin., farina -ae =  flour, meal; farina tritici, wheat flour

febrif., febrifugia -ae = feverfew, featherfew; common centaury, Centaurium erythraea

feculae bryoniae = powdered dried bryony root, a purgative

ferment. acrioris, fermentum -i acrius -oris = a sharper or more bitter fermentation (of ...?)

fic., ficus -i = fig, Ficus carica

fim., fimi, fimus -i =  dung, excrement

flammula -ae Iovis = "little flames of Jupiter;" Clematis flammula, C. recta; in classical Latin, periwinkle (Vinca species)

flor., flos floris = flower, with the plant name following; e.g., flores nymphaeae, water lily flowers

fl. cordial., flores -um cordiales = the four "cordial flowers:" borage, bugloss, roses, and violets

fl., flos floris sulphuris = flowers of sulfur, sublimed sulfur; may appear in conjunction with alchemical symbol for sulfur, , as fl. is

foetid., foetidus -a -um = stinking

fol., folium -i =  leaf or leaves (folia) of any plant

fol. acetos., folia acetosae = leaves of common sorrel or sour dock

follicul., follicula -ae = a pericarp or seed pod

fontan., fontana (aqua) =  spring (-water)

formicar. volant., formica -ae volans -antis = flying ant; there is a receipt that includes oleum formicarum volantium, oil of flying ants (V.a. 298, f. 129v)

frag., fragar., fragaria -ae = strawberry, Fragaria vesca; roots (rad.), leaves (fol.) and fruit were used

fraxin., fraxinus -i = ash-tree, Fraxinus excelsior

fumar., fumaria -ae =  fumitory, Fumaria officinalis

G

gagat., gagates -ae =  jet  (mineral)

galang., galing., galangala -ae = galangal, Maranta galanga

galban., galbanum -i = gum resin from Ferula gummosa or F. rubrucaulis

gallinaceus -a -um = from or relating to poultry; adipes gallinaceus, chicken fat

genist., genista -ae = broom, genus Genista, many species

gent., gentiana -ae = gentian, Gentiana lutea, officinal gentian; G. centaurium, lesser centaury

gland., glans glandis = acorn

glicirriz., glycheriz., glycheryz., glychyrriza -ae = licorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra

gram., gramin., gramen -inis = grass, or any kind of grass-like herb

gramen purpureum, purple grass or purplewort, Trifolium purpureum

guaiac., guaiacum -i = guaiac gum, guaiacum officinale; lignum guaiacum, guaiac wood

gumm., gummi (undecl.) = [tree] gum

gumm. arabic. = gum arabic or gum acacia, hardened sap of Acacia senegal or Vachellia seyal

gumm. ceras. = gummi cerasi, cherry tree (Prunus cerasus) or black cherry tree (Cerasum nigrum) gum

gummi elemi = a resin from the tree Amyris rumieri or gum elemi tree

gum. ammoniac., gummi ammoniacum = "gum of Ammon," from the herb Dorema ammoniacum

gumm. anim., gummi anime = gum anime, resin of various tropical trees, e.g., Hymenaea courbaril

gumm. tragacanth., gummi tragacantha -ae = gum tragacanth, obtained from shrubs of genus Astragulus, esp. A. tragacantha

H

haeder., heder., hedera -ae = ivy; Hedera terrestra, ground ivy

haedinus -a -um = of, relating to, or obtained from a kid

hamech. = confectio hamech, purgative containing myrobalans, violets, colocynth, etc.

helenii., helenium -i, hinula -ae = elecampane, Inula helenium or Enula campana

hepatic., hepatica herba = liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha

herb., herba -ae = herb; used to specify a plant when another substance has a similar name

hellebor., helleborus -i = hellebore, genus Helleborus, around 20 species; may be white, albus; black, niger; stinking, foetidus

haematit., hematit., lap. hematit. = lapis haematites, hematite; iron oxide, Fe2O3

heracleinus - a -um, heraclinus -a -um = relating to hazel-wood; oleum heracleinum, oil of hazelwood, from distillation of small pieces of the wood cut in spring or fall

hermodact., hermodactyl., hermodactylus -i = a bulbous root, possibly Colchicum, used as an antiarthritic

herniar., herniaria -ae =  rupturewort, Herniaria glabra

hier. picr., hiera picra, or hiera/hieræ = aloe powder made with honey into an electuary

hircinus -a -um = relating to a goat; esp. hircin, a "peculiar substance existing in the fat of the goat (and in a less degreee, in that of the sheep) on which its strong odour depends" (OED); thus possibly describing goat suet

hollandic., hollandicus -a -um = Dutch; pulv. hollandic., Dutch powder, apparently a purgative

hord., hordeum -i = barley, Hordeum vulgare; French barley, Hordeum spelticum; aq. hordei, barley water

hormini., horminum -i = sage or clary sage, Salvia sclarea (Pliny); there is also a flowering plant, Horminum pyrenalcum, dragonmouth or Pyrenean dead-nettle, apparently not used in medicine

hipposelinum, hypposelinum -i = alexanders or allisanders (black lovage), Smyrnium olusatrum

hydrarg., hydrargyrus -i = the element Mercury, Hg, in its liquid state

hyoscyamus -i = henbane, Hyoscamus niger, or an extract or tincture of it

hyperici, hypericon, hypericum -i = St. John's wort, especially Hypericum perforatum

hyssop., hyssopus -i = hyssop, Hyssopus officinalis, for which H. montanus is a subspecies or an accepted synonym; also H. capitatus, wild thyme

I - J

ialap., jalap., jalapa =  jalap, Ipomoea jalapa; a purgative; NB distinguish from iulap., iulep., iulapium -i, see "Types of Receipts," above

jejunus -a -um = fasting, abstinent, hungry; e.g., jejuno ventriculo, on a fasting (empty) stomach

imperatoria -ae = master-wort, Peucedanum ostruthium; same as ostruthium

inauratus -a -um = gilded; some pills were gilded, denoted pillulae inauratae

incis., incisus -a -um = incised, cut into, cut open

inula -ae = elecampane, Inula helenium or Enula campana

ireas., ireos., iridas, probably from iris -idis = iris flower, Iris species; radix ireas, iris root or rhizome, also known as orris or orrice root

iugland., jugland., iuglans -andis =  walnut

iuiubinus -a -um = relating to jujubes; see zizyphus, below

iuniper., juniper., iuniperus -i =  juniper; granum juniperi, juniper berry (its seed cone)

jujuba -ae, jujubinus -a -um = jujube; of, from, or related to jujubes; see Zizyphus below

L

labdan., ladan(um -i)., labdanum =  labdanum or ladanum, gum resin from plants of genus Cistus, used in perfumes and for fumigation; NB don't confuse with laudanum (q. v.)

lac., lact., lac lactis = milk; lac. rec. or recens (-entis), fresh milk, lac veterum, old milk

lact., lactuca -ae = lettuce, Lactuca sativa

laevigatus -a -um = made smooth, pulverized

lap. bezoard., lapis -idis bezoardicus = bezoar stone; see bezoar, above

lapis -idis calaminaris = calamine, a zinc ore; either zinc carbonate or silicate

lapat., lappath., lapathum =  dock, sorrel; Lapathum

lapp., lappa -ae = burdock, Arctium lappa; also called lapp. maj., lappa major, greater burdock

lard., lardum -i = lard, fat

larid., laridum -i = bacon; larid. veter., laridum veterum, old bacon

laudan., laudanum -i =  laudanum; alcoholic tincture of opium; also known as tinctura thebiaca; NB don't confuse with ladanum, see "labdanum," above

laudan. paracels., Paracelsi = Paracelsus' laudanum; opium and alcohol plus various other ingredients, incl. gold, amber, pearl, musk

lauendul., lavendula -ae =lavender, Lavandula angustifolia (or Spica foemina, spike)

lauri., laurus -i = laurel, bay tree, Laurus nobilis

lenitiv., lenitivus -a -um = soothing, gently laxative

leon., leonurus -i = lion's tail; motherwort, Leonurus cardiaca

leporinus -a  -um = of or relating to a hare; pilus leporinus, hair of a hare, hare hair

lepus -oris = hare; lepus combustus, hare ashes (in a receipt for treatment of urinary stone)

lign., lignum -i =  wood, with the name of the source in the genitive; e.g., lignum aloes

lign. rhod., lignum -i rhodii = rosewood; rose-scented wood from Convolvulus floridus or C. scoparius

lign. sanct., lignum -i sanctum = guiacaum, holy wood; Guiacum officinale

lill., lillior., lilliorum., lilium -a = lily; flores/folia/radix liliorum, flowers/leaves/root of lilies

limac., limacum, limax -acis = snail, slug; aq. limacum, snail water

lin., linum -i =  flax, Linum usitatissimum; semen or semina lini, flaxseed, linseed

linaria -ae = toad-flax or wild flax, Linaria vulgaris

liquirit., liquiritia -ae = licorice, Glychyrrhiza glabra

liquor -oris =  liquid, liquor

liquor possetic., posseticus = posset; milk curdled with treacle, wine, or any acid substance

litharg., lytharg., lithargium -i = litharge, lead oxide; can be white ("litharge of silver") or red ("litharge of gold")

lixivium -i = water containing alkaline salts leached from wood ashes (OED), used to make soap

lot., lotus -a -um = washed

lujul., lujula -ae = wood sorrel, Oxalis acetosella; or common or garden sorrel, Rumex acetosa

lupul., lupulus -i = hops; Humulus lupulus

M

mac., macis -idis =  mace; the covering of the nutmeg seed of Myristica fragrans

majoran., majorana -ae = marjoram; see Origanum, below

malabathrum or malobathrum -i = aromatic leaf of one of several oriental trees, e.g. Cinnamomum tamala

malicorii, malicorium -i = pomegranate rind

malvatic., malvaticum (vinum) =  Malmsey (wine of the Malvasia grape); Madeira/sack

malv., malvavisc., malvaviscus -i = marshmallow, Althaea officinalis

man., manna -ae = condensed juice of the manna ash tree, Fraxinus ornus; a purgative

margarit., margarita -ae = pearl; prepared pearl is a common ingredient

marrub., marrubium -i = common horehound, Marrubium vulgare; other species also

martiat., martiatus -a -um = pertaining to soldiers; unguentum martiatum, soldiers's ointment

mastich., masticha = mastic, resin of Pistacia lentiscus

matricar., matricaria -ae = feverfew, Matricaria or Tanacetum parthenium

matrisilv., matrisylv., matrisylva -ae = woodruff, Asperula matrisylva or A. odorata

mechoach., mechoacan = root of a variety of morning glory, Ipomoea macrorhiza or I. jalapa, from Michoacán (Mexico); may be identified as black (nigr.)

mecon., meconium -i = opium

medull., medulla -ae = the pith or pulp of any vegetable; also bone marrow: medulla spinalis, spinal cord

mel., mel mellis =  honey; (e)dulcorandus melle = to be sweetened with honey

melilot., melilotos -i = melilot, Trifolium melilotus officinalis

meliss., melissa -ae =  balm, esp. lemon balm, Melissa officinalis; several other species, also including common, field, & mountain calamint

merc. dulc., mercurius dulcis = mercurous chloride, Hg2Cl2; calomel; a purgative

mercur., mercury = annual or French mercury, Mercurialis annua; used in clysters; NB don't confuse with the element Mercury (Hg) , usually referred to as hydrargyrus

mespil., mespilus -i = medlar, fruit of medlar tree, Mespilus germanica; resembles a small apple

meum -i = spignel, Aethusa meum or Meum athamanticum

mica -ae = crumb, morsel, grain; micae panis, crumbs of bread

milii., milium -i = millet seed, Panicum mileaceum; also P. italicum, Indian millet seed

mill., milliped., millipes -pedis = pill-millipede or wood-louse; pulv. milliped., powdered millipede; also prepared by soaking in wine with or without crushing in a mortar

minium -i = native vermilion, read lead; emplastrum de minio, plaster of red lead and olive oil

mithridat., mithridatium -i = mithridate; complex and variable recipe, up to 60 ingredients, including opium

monach., rhab. monach., rhabarbarum -i monachorum = monk's rhubarb, Rumex patientia

mora -ae = mulberry; many species, including Mora nigra, black or common mulberry

mosch., moschat., (nux) moschata =  nutmeg; seed of Myristica fragrans

mucilag., mucilago -inis = aqueous solution of gum; e.g., Mucilago arabaci gummi

must., mustum -i = must; pressed grapes before fermentation into wine; also mustum cervisiae, = wort

myristic., nux myristica, myristica -ae = nutmeg, Myristica moschata

myrobalan., myrabalan., myrabalanum -i = myrobalan = Indian gooseberry, Phyllantus emblica; may be designated myrobalan omnium

myrtill., myrtillus -i = myrtle berry, black whortle berry, or bilberry; Vaccinium myrtillus

myrtin., myrtinus -a -um = of or made from myrtle, myrtle-; e.g., syrupus myrtinus, myrtle-syrup

N

nard, nardin., nardus -i or nardinus -a -um  = nard; or the ointment so named; or the plant from which the ointment was prepared, Nardostachys grandiflora, possibly the same as spikenard, Nardostachys jatamansi

nervin., nervinus -a -um = pertaining to nerves; e.g., unguentum nervinum, nerve ointment

nig., nigr., niger -gra -grum = black

nuc., nux nucis =  nut; e.g., nux moschata, nutmeg; nux pinea, pine nut; nux avellana, hazelnut

nucl., nucleus -i =  nut

nymph., nymphaea -ae = water lily; Nymphaea alba, white; other species may have blue, red, or yellow flowers

O

oculus -i = eye

ocul., oculi cancri = crab's eyes; "A round concretion, found in the stomach of crayfish and some other crustacea, consisting mainly of carbonate of lime; it has been used, finely powdered, as an absorbent and antacid" (OED), or possibly Abrus precatorius, the (poisonous) rosary pea. More likely the former, conclusion based on receipt in V.a. 298, f. 160r, calling for "ocul. 69" probably the same as "ocul. Cancri" on the same page, with "69" uncertain, but resembling the astrological symbol for Cancer (  ) rotated 90° (  ); see illustration on last page

ocymi., ocymum -i = basil, Ocimum basilicum

ol., oleum -i =  oil; many varieties, named from the source

ol. dulc., oleum -i dulcis = sweet oil; usually olive or rapeseed

ol. lumbric., oleum -i lumbricorum = oil of earthworms; from worms boiled in wine and oil and strained

ol. philosoph., oleum -i philosophi = philosopher's oil, made from distilling pieces of brick soaked in oil

ol. sulph., oleum -i sulphuris = oil of sulfur, various receipts

ol. vulpin., oleum -i vulpinum = fox oil; made from a skinned and gutted fox boiled with oil and herbs and pressed

olilban., olibanum -i = aromatic resin from trees of genus Boswellia, esp. B. sacra; frankincense

onon., ononis -is spinosa = restharrow, Ononis repens

opiat., opiatus -a -um = opiated; anything containing opium; other medicines that produce sleep but which may or may not contain opium

opt., optim., optimus -a -um = best

origan., origanum -i = several species, incl. Origanum vulgare, common Mediterranean oregano or wild marjoram; O. creticum, (Spanish) oregano; O. marjorana, sweet marjoram; O. dictamnus, dittany of Crete

os ossis = bone; oss. sep., ossa separata, separated bones, but definition uncertain

ostrutii., ostruthium -i = master-wort, Peucedanum ostruthium

ovin., ovinus -a -um = relating to or belonging to sheep

oxycrat., oxycratum -i = oxycrate  (mixture of vinegar and water with a little honey)

oxycroceum = as emplastrum oxycroceum, plaster made with saffron and vinegar

oxymel = honey and vinegar boiled to a syrup

oxymel Julianiz., oxymel Iulianizans = a syrup containing the above, also caper root bark, iris root, fennel, rock parsley, endive, etc.

P

paeon., paeonia -ae = peony, P. officinalis; used by Galen for treatment of epilepsy

papav., papaver -eris = poppy; many species, including P. somniferum, opium poppy; P. rhoeas or P. erraticum, red corn poppy

paralys., paralysis -is = cowslip, e.g., Paralysis fatua (Gerard); also in the sense of loss of function

parietar., parietaria -ae = pellitory of the wall, Parietaria officinalis; may be designated "herb. parietar."

part., pars partis =  part, side

passul., passula -ae = a small raisin; passulae enucleatae/exacinatae, stoned raisins; passulae solis, raisins of the sun; passula Corinthiaca, Corinthian raisin, alias uvae Corinthiacae, Corinthian grapes

pastinac., pastinaca -ae =  parsnip, Pastinaca sativa or P. sylvestris

penid., penidium -i = appears as in sacch(arum) penid(ium), a stick of boiled sugar used as a cold remedy

pentaphyll., pentaphyllon, pentaphyllum -i = cinquefoil, Potentilla reptans; Pentaphyllum purpureum, purple cinquefoil, P. rubrum palustre, marsh cinquefoil, etc. (Gerard)

perlarum mater = mother of pearl

peru., peruvianus -a -um = Peruvian; e.g, Cortex peruviana (Cinchona), source of quinine

pes pedis columbinus = dove's foot, Geranium molle; also some other species of cranesbill

petasititid., petasites -idis = butterbur, Petasites fragrans

petroselin., petroselinum -i = parsley, Apium petroselinum

petroselin. macedonic., petroselinum macedonicum = Macedonian parsley, Bubon macedonicum

peucedani, peucedanum -i = peucedanin, a "colourless crystalline compound... occur[ring] in the root of hog's fennel, Peucedanum officinale" (OED)

phyllit., phyllitis -is = hart's tongue fern, Scolopendrium vulgare

pic., pix picis = pitch; pix Burgundia, Burgundy pitch, from Norway fir, Picea abies

pil., pill., pillul., pil[l]ula -ae = pill

pilulae aurae = "golden pills," so called from their color; contained aloes, scammony, roses, smallage seed, etc., but no gold

pilulae agregativae = aggregative pills, so called because they aggregated many effects; ingredients included aloes, turbith, scammony, rhubarb, myrabalans, agaric, etc.

pilulae cochiae = cochiae pills; may be denoted "majores," the greater cochiae pill (hiera picra, alhandal troches, diagrydium, turpentine), or "minores," the lesser cochiae pill (aloes, scammony, colocynth, syrup of buckthorn, oil of cloves)

pilulae foetidae = "stinking pills;" asafoetida, galbanum, myrrh, confection of roses

pilulae Rudii = black hellebore, colocynth, aloes, scammony, oil of cloves, sulfate of potash

pimpinella -ae = burnet saxifrage, Pimpinella saxifraga, or great burnet, Sanguisorba officinalis

pinear., pineus -a -um = of, from, or related to the pine; nuces pinearum, pine nuts

pingued., pinguedin., pinguedo -inis =  fat (noun); e.g. pinguedo vulpis, fox fat, pinguedo taxi, badger fat

pingu., pinguis -is = fat (adjective); e.g. ficus pinguis, a fat (ripe) fig

piper -eris = pepper; various species of genus Piper, e.g. Piper nigrum, black pepper, P. longum, long pepper, etc.

plantag., plantago -inis = plantain; broad-leaved plantain, Plantago major

plumbeus -a -um = made of or derived from lead

plumbum -i = the element Lead, Pb

polii., polium -i = felty germander, Teucrium polium

polypod., polypodium -i =  polypody, a genus of fern; e.g., polypody of the oak, Polypodium quercinum or P. vulgare, or polypody of the wall (P. murinum)

polytrich., polytrichum -i = golden maidenhair, Polytrichum commune or Adiantum aureum

pom., pomum -i = apple, many species of genus Malum

pomat., pomatus -a -um = of, containing, or relating to apples; see unguentum pomatum, below

pontic., ponticum = Roman wormwood, Artemisia ponticum

popul., populus -i = poplar tree

populeon = see unguentum populeon, below

porcin., porcinus -a -um = of or relating to a hog or pig

posset. = see liquor posseticus, above

praecipit., praecipitat., praecipitatum -i = precipitate; p. rubrum = red mercuric oxide (HgO); p. album = ammoniated mercury or mercuric amidochloride (HgH2ClN); p. opt., optimum, "the best;" unknown and possibly a description and not an ingredient per se

prasius -i = prase, a green quartz

prassium, -i = white horehound, Marubium vulgare or M. album; a syrup called syrupus de prassio is a pectoral (for chest ailments or as an expectorant) and vulnerary (for wound healing)

prunell., prunella -ae = self-heal or bugle, Prunella vulgaris

prunum -i = plum; prunum coctum, cooked plum, possibly used as a sweetener

puleg., pulegium -i = pennyroyal, also fleabane or fleawort, Mentha pulegium; or wild thyme, Thymus serpyllum; also known as puliol

pulm. vulp., pulmones vulpium = fox lungs

pulpa -ae = pulp (of anything)

pulv. sanct., pulvis -eris sanctus = holy powder; recipes vary but usually include senna and cream of tartar, with cloves, cinnamon, ginger, etc.

purpureus -a -um = purple

pyrethr., pyrethrum -i = root of pellitory (of Spain), or of Spanish chamomile, Anacyclus pyrethrum

Q

quercin., quercinus -a -um = made/ derived from oak; e.g., folia quercina, oak leaves; viscus quercini = mistletoe; uvae quercinae, aggregation of galls on oak roots or at the junction of the roots and trunk produced by the oak gall wasp Cynips quercus radicis

quercitanus -i = not an ingredient but a person's name; French physician Joseph du Chesne (c. 1544 - 1609), Latinized as Quercitanus

quercus -us = oak, oak tree, various species of genus Quercus

R

rad., radic., radix -icis =  root (of anything)

ran., rana -ae = frog; ranarum, of frogs, e.g., sperma ranarum, frog spawn

ranunculus -i = about 600 species including the buttercup or crowfoot; JW mentions Ranunculus arvorum, corn-buttercup or fallow-field crowfoot, same as R. arvensis or R.sylvestris

rap., rapum -i = turnip or rape, Brassica rapa; plural genitive raporum, of turnips, e.g. raporum no 4, four (of) turnips

raphan., raphanus -i = radish, Raphanus sativus

ras., rasur., rasus -a -um or rasuratus -a -um = scraped or scrapings of; often found with licorice (glychyrriza or liquiritia), but also of ivory, hartshorn, boar's tooth, and even human skull (cran., cranium -i humani)

rasp., raspatus -a -um = rasped, essentially the same as above

recent., recens -entis = recent, fresh; e.g., lactis recentis, of fresh milk; cf. ueter., veterus -a -um

resin., resina -ae =  resin (from anything)

rhab., rhabarbarum -i =  rhubarb, Rheum rhabarbarum

rhaphon., rhapontic., rhaponticum -i = rhapontic rhubarb, Rheum rhaponticum

rhei., rheo, rheum -i = rhubarb, Rheum rhabarbarum

rhead., rhoed., rhoead., rheados., rhoeas -adis = Papaver rhoeas, red corn or wild poppy; see tinctura rubra, below

rhodia, rhodium -i = (probably) either rhodium wood, from rootstock of bindweed species Convolvulus floridus and C. scoparius; or oil of rhodium, made by distilling it

ros., rosa -ae = rose, various specied of genus Rosa; ros. sol., rosa solis = rose of the sun

rosac., rosaceus -a -um = made of or from roses; oleum rosaceum = rose oil

rorismar., rorismarinus -i = rosemary, Rorismarinus officinalis

rosatus -a -um = prepared from or containing roses

rosmarin., rosmarinus -i =  rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis

ruber rubra rubrum = red

rumex -icis = dock, various species of genus Rumex; see folia acetosae, above

ruta -ae = rue, Ruta graveolens and other species; see also vepris, below

S

sabin., sabina =  savin, Juniperus sabina (a juniper species); an abortifacient

saccharum -i = sugar

sagapenum -i, sagapenon -eni = gum resin from Ferula persica; antispasmodic & emmenogogue

sal X = salt of X, with X in the genitive; numerous examples, including table salt and other acid and alkali salts; see elsewhere for definition of "X," e.g., sal absynthii

sal -is marini = sea salt

sal. prunell., sal -is prunella = fused potassium nitrate (saltpeter) in balls, cakes, or sticks

salicis, salix -icis = willow

salv., salvia -ae = common sage, Salvia officinalis

sacchar., saccharum -i =  (cane) sugar; also sacchar. cand., saccharum candidum, sugar candy

sambuc., sambucus -i = elder tree, Sambucus nigra

sanal = a salve containing litharge of silver, red bole, balsam of Peru, etc.; but may be a misspelling for "santal," q.v.

sandarach., sandaraca -ae = gum sandarac, from Iuniperus communis; may also refer to arsenic sulfide or realgar (red arsenic, red orpiment)

satureia (satureja) -ae = genus of aromatic plants including Satureja hortensis, summer savory, and S. montana, winter savory; related to thyme and rosemary

sangu. dracon., sanguis -is draconis = dragon's blood, a red resin made from various trees

sanic., sanicula -ae = wood sanicle, Sanicula europaea; can be a synonym for saxifraga (q. v.)

santal., santalum -i =  sandalwood, saunders, various species of genus Santalum; red, white, and yellow varieties

santon., santonic., sem. santonic., semina santonica/ santonici = southernwood (Artemisia santonica) seeds or wormseeds (Absinthium santonicum)

sap., sapo -onis = soap; black soap, sapo niger, appears in some receipts

sarcocolla -ae = gum resin or balsam from shrub Astragalus sarcocolla

sars., sarsaparilla -ae = root of Smilax sarsaparilla

sassaf., sassaphr., sassafras = bark of the sassafras tree, Sassafras officinale or Laurus sassafras

satyrion satyrii maris = tuber or rhizome of the early purple orchid, Orchis mascula;  may also refer to other orchids, the cuckoo-pint, Arum maculatum, or dragon arum, Dracunculus vulgaris

saxifrag., saxifraga -ae = saxifrage, breakstone, Saxifraga species, esp. S. granulata; for treatment of urinary stones and as an antiseptic; related plants may be termed golden, burnet (or rough), great, or meadow saxifrage; S. anglica, pepper saxifrage

scabios., scabiosa -ae = common scabious, Scabiosa arvensis

scill., scilla -ae = see squill, below

scilliticus -a -um = derived from or containing squill

scob., scobis -is = powder or dust produced by sawing, rasping, filing, etc.; e.g. scob. dent. apri, scobis dentis apri, powdered wild boar's tooth

scolopend., scolopendria -ae = spleenwort, Asplenium ceterach

scolopend., scolopendr., scolopendrium -i = hart's tongue fern, Scolopendrium vulgare; phyllitis

scord., scordium -i = water germander, Teucrium scordium

scorpion., scorpio -onis = the stinging arachnid, order Scorpiones; ol. scorpion., oil of scorpions, apparently made by steeping scorpions in olive or other oil

scorzon., scorzoner., scorzonera -ae = viper's grass, Scorzonera humilis, for treatment of any venomous bite

seb., sebum -i =  tallow, suet, grease

sebest., sebesten = sebesten plum, from the tree Cordia myxa

secalini., secale -is = a genus of grasses; e.g., rye

sed., sedum -i =  wall-pepper, stone-crop; Sedum majus = sempervivum, see below

selinum -i = selinum, a genus of plants in the parsley family Apiaceae; see petroselinum, above

sem., semen -inis, (plural) semina =  seed(s) of anything

sem. frigid. maj., semina frigida majora = the four greater cold seeds: cucumber, melon, watermelon, and gourd or pumpkin

sem. frigid. min., semina frigida minora = the four lesser cold seeds: endive, lettuce, purslane, and succory

semperviv., sempervivum -i = houseleek, S. tectorum ("live forever," because it is always green)

sen., sena -ae =  senna

senecion., senecio -onis = groundsel, Senecio vulgaris, or S. iacobaea, Jacobaea (St. James' wort) or ragwort

senella -ae = same as spina alba, see below

serpentar., serpentaria -ae = snake-root; includes Aristolochia serpentaria and Serpentaria virginiana; rad. serpentar. = radix serpentariae

ser., serum -i = milk whey; also serum lactis, whey of milk

sericum -i = raw silk; or red pigment, possibly red lead

seselios, seseli -is = various umbelliferous plants of several genera including Tordylium, Laserpitum, Seseli, and Levisticum among others, >100 species; collectively called hartwort

sigill. Solom., sigillum -i Solomonis = Solomon's seal, Polygonatum multiflorum

silic., silicea -ae = shell or carapace of sea animals, e.g., bivalves and crustaceans

simpl., simplex -icis = preparation with a single active ingredient, unblended; same as species

sinap., sinapis -is = mustard; sem. sinap., semina sinapis, mustard seeds

sisymbr., sisymbrium -i = watercress, Sisymbrium nasturtium

smyrnium -i = species of flowering plants, family Apiaceae (carrots, anise, fennel, and many others); S. olusatrum, alexanders

solan., solanum -i = nightshade, Solanum nigrum; several other species, e.g., bitter-sweet, S. dulcamara, and the common tomato, S. lycopersicum

sp., spec., species =  a simple, or single ingredient or element; i.e., uncompounded or unmixed

sp. ceti., spermaceti = from sperma + ceti (genitive of cetus -i); a fatty substance found in the head of the sperm whale, Physteter macrocephalus

spic., spica -ae =  a spike or common stalk bearing numerous flowers; Spica foemina = lavender

spica -ae nardi = spikenard; aromatic substance from Nardostachys jatamansi (India), or the plant itself; or sometimes lavender

spin. alb., spina -ae alba = "white thorn;" precise identification uncertain, with several possibilities, incl. common hawthorn, Crategeus monogyna or C. oxyacantha, Our Lady's thistle, Carduus lacteus or C. mariae, various species of acacia, etc.

sp. sal., spiritus -us salis = spirit of salt, muriatic (hydrochloric) acid, HCl

sp. sulph., spiritus -us sulphuris = sulfurous acid, H2SO3

sp. vin., sp. vini, spiritus -us vini = alcohol, rectified spirit; used as solvent for tinctures, &c.

spod., spodium -i = a fine powder obtained from various substances by calcination (OED)

squill., squilla -ae = squill; Scilla (or Drima) maritima, used as diuretic and expectorant

squillitic., squilliticus -a -um = of or derived from squill

staphid. agr., staphis -idis agria = stavesacre, Delphinium staphisagria

stoechad., stoechas -adis = French lavender, Lavandula stoechas

stercor., stercus -oris = dung, excrement, feces:  e.g., of dog, canis; horse, equi; peacock, pavonis; also others

stipul., stipula -ae = stalk, stem

sturionis, sturio -onis = European sea sturgeon, Acipenser sturio; ova sturionis = caviar

styrac. calamit., styrax -acis calamita = storax, gum-resin from Styrax officinalis

suc[c]in., suc[c]inum -i =  amber

succ., succus -i = juice

suillus -a -um = of, from, or related to pigs; adipes suillus, pig fat or lard

summit., summitat., summitas -tatis = top or tops, with the name of the plant in the genitive; e.g., summitates absynthii, absinthe tops; summitates hyssopi, hyssop tops

symphit., symphyt., symphitum -i = comfrey; Symphytum maius, greater comfrey

T

tachamah., tacamahaca -ae = aromatic resin from Bursera (or Elaphrium) tomentosa

tamarind., tamarindus -i = tamarind tree, Tamarindus indica; source of tamarind fruit, a purgative

tamarisc., tamarix -icis or tamariscus -i = tamarisk tree, various species of genus Tamarix

tapsus -i barbatus = black mullein, Verbascum nigrum

taraxicum -i =  Taraxicum officinalis, dandelion; may occur as "herba taraxici"

tartar., tartarus -i = tartar, potassium bitartrate, KC4H5O6; when purified forms white crytals and is referred to as cream of tartar; see cremor tartaris, above

tax., taxus -i =  yew tree (Taxus baccata); or badger, Taxidea taxus; pinguedo taxi, badger fat

terebinth., terebinthina -ae =  turpentine; terebinth. uenet. (Veneta), Venice turpentine; many others including terebinthina communis, Cypria, vulgaris; for Chio terebinth., see Chio, above

terr., terra -ae = earth

terr. Lemni., terra -ae Lemnia = Lemnian earth or clay, a medicinal clay originally obtained from the island of Lemnos

terr. sigillat., terra sigillata = "sealed earth;" Lemnian clay shaped into tablets or cakes into which decorative seals were pressed; same as terra Lemnia

test., testa -ae =  shell of a molllusc, or the skin or coating of a seed

testud., testudo -inis = tortoise, various species of genus Testudo

thapsia -ae = genus of umbilliferous perennials; Thapsia garganica or T. villosa, deadly carrot

thebaic., thebaica -ae = opium; thebaic tincture or extract = laudanum

theriac., theriacal., theriaca -ae = antidote;  treacle; e.g., Theriaca andromachi or T. veneta (of Venice) = mithridatium (q. v.), T. coelestis = laudanum

thur., thus thuris =  frankincense or olibanum, aromatic resin from trees of genus Boswellia, esp. B. sacra

thym., thymi., thymum -i = thyme, various species of genus Thymus, esp. T. vulgaris

til., tilia -ae = lime-tree, linden, Tilia europaea; T. alba, white lime-tree  

tinct., tinctura -ae = a solution of anything in spirit of wine; very many types, e.g., tinctura thebiaca, same as laudanum

tinct. rub., tinctura -ae rubra = tincture of red corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas), similar to laudanum

tormentill. tormentilla -ae = upright septfoil, tormentil; Tormentilla (or Potentilla) erecta

torrefact., torrefactus -a -um = dried of moisture by heat, scorched, roasted, toasted

tostus -a -um = past participle of torreo -ere, to parch, roast; same as above

tragacanth., dragacanth., tragacanthum -i = gum tragacanth (q.v.)

turbith., turbithum -i = turbith or turpeth, from Convulvulus turpethum; a purgative

tutia -ae = tutty; zinc oxide

U - V

ueter., veter., veterus -a -um = old; cf. recent., recentis

ulmor., ulmorum, ulmus -i = elm tree

ung., vng. apostol., unguentum apostolorum = containing 12 (hence the name) ingredients incl. turpentine, resin, yellow wax, aristolochia, frankincense, etc.

ung., vng. basilic., or just basilic., unguentum basilicum = basilicum ointment; yellow, black, or green, each containing beeswax and rosin and other ingredients but not basil

ung., vng. alb., unguentum album = ointment containing olive oil, white wax, and white lead

unguentum Egyptiac., Egyptiacum = ointment containing verdigris (copper acetate or green rust from copper or brass), honey, and vinegar

ung. or vng. pomat., unguentum pomatum = ointment containing pork fat, rose water, and apple pulp

unguentum populeon = ointment containing poplar buds, animal fat, and various leaves

urtic., vrtic., urtica -ae = nettle, esp. the common nettle Urtica dioica; urtic. urent., Urtica urens (burning), dwarf/ annual/ dog nettle

ustus -a -um = burnt

uva -ae = grape; uvae quercinae or oak grapes, see above under quercinus -a -um

valerian., valeriana -ae = wild valerian, Valeriana officinalis

vepris -is = genus of plants in the Rutaceae (rue) family; approximately 80 species

verbena -ae = common vervain, Verbena officinalis, or other plants in genus Verbena

veronic., veronica -ae = speedwell, Veronica officinalis

viciar., vicia -ae = vetch; JW mentions species "vulgaris," same as fava bean/ broad bean

Vigo = Giovanni de Vigo (1460 - 1519); emplastrum Vigonis, Vigo's plaster (lead, wax, mercury, turpentine, various herbs)

vin., vinum -i = wine; vinum album, white wine; vinum rubrum/rubellum/roseum, red wine

viola -ae = violet, various species of genus Viola, esp. V. odorata; violarum, of violets

visc. querc., viscus -i quercinus = mistletoe; also Viscum album

vitell., vitellus -i = egg yolk; vitelli ovorum, yolks of eggs

vitis -is = vine; folia vitis, grape leaves

vitriol., vitriolum -i = vitriol; various metallic sulfates, esp. iron sulfate ("green copperas") and vitr. album, zinc sulfate; oil of vitriol = sulfuric acid, H2SO4; the famous acronym "visite interiora terrae rectificando invenies occultum lapidem" is likely a spurious back formation

vitulinus -a -um = from or related to a calf (veal)

vulgar., vulgaris -e =  common, usual

vulp., vulpes -is = wolf

W

Winterani = only in (Captain) Winter's bark; see under cortex winterani, above

Z

zalap., zalapium, -i = same as ialap/jalap, q.v.

zedoar., zedoaria -ae = zedoary, Curcuma zedoaria

zizyphus -i = jujube; from Zizyphus species, e.g., Z. jujuba, the tree that produces them; iuiubinus or jujubinus -a -um, relating to jujubes; e.g., syrupus jujubinus, jujube syrup

zibet., zibetha -ae = civet, civet musk; from several species, best known being the African civet, Civettictis civetta

zyth., zythum -i = zythos  (unfermented Egyptian beer)

zythogala -ae = posset drink; see liquor posseticus, above

zz or ZZ = zinziber = ginger, Zinziber officinale; sometimes indicates myrrh

Alchemical Symbols and Other Abbreviations

Ward very occasionally used these, e.g.,

♀️ symbol for tartar (symbol unicode &#128831;); crem.♀️is = cremor tartaris, cream of tartar

♂️symbol for Mars; croc.♂️is = crocus Martis = "saffron of Mars," iron peroxide, colcothar, or jeweler's rouge) (symbol unicode &#9794;)

[add symbol] , symbol for sulfur (symbol unicode &#128781;); flores is = "flowers of sulfur," powdered sulfur produced by sublimation as opposed to natural crystalline sulfur (i.e., brimstone)

[add symbol], symbol for vitriol (symbol unicode &#128790;)

69: see above, "oculi cancri;" image from Zwinger, Theatri Praxeos Medicae (1710), p. 150

[add thumbnail here] : Oculi cancri praecipitatum ana ʒss

9 (superscript 9) = "-us;" a common medieval contraction, as in "corp9 "= corpus

See various additional abbreviations in "John Ward's Alphabet."


Glossary of Latin terms by Callum Simms

Ingredients

• absynth. - absynthium = 'wormwood'
• acetos. - acetosa = 'sorrel'
• acet. - acetum = 'vinegar'
• agaric. - agaricum = 'tinder fungus'
• alchermes (confectio) = confection of 'Kermes' (crimson 'berry' bug - like cochineal)
• aloe optim. = 'agarwood'
• alth. - althea = 'mallow'
• ammoniac. - 'ammoniacum' = 'gum ammoniac'
• argill. - argilla = '(white) potter's clay, argil'
• aristoloch. - aristolochia = 'birthwort'
• artemis. - artemisia = 'mugwort'
• aven. - avena = 'oats'
• bacon. - baco = 'bacon'
• bezoardic. - bezoardicum = 'bezoar' (antimony salt)
• borac. - borax = 'borax'
• bryon. - bryonia = 'briony'
• bugloss. - buglossa = 'bugloss'
• calaminth. - calamintha = 'calamint'
• camphor. - camphora = 'camphor'
• cappar. - capparis = 'caper'
• cardiac. - (aqua) cardiaca = 'toddy' (a beverage - palm wine?)
• card. - carduus = 'thistle'
• carlin. - carlina = 'carline/silver thistle'
• carn. - caro = 'meat, flesh'
• caryophill. - caryophillus = 'clove'
• caseum = 'cheese'
• cass. - cassia = 'cassia' (a type of cinnamon)
• castoreum = 'castoreum' (beaver musk)
• centaur. - centaurium = 'centaury'
• cervis. - cervisa = 'beer'
• chalyb. - chalybs = 'steel'
• chamamel. - chamamelon = 'chamomile'
• cichor. - cichoria = 'chicory, endive'
• colcothar = 'colcothar, jeweller's rouge' (Ferric Oxide)
• cor. - corium = 'leather'
• coton. - cotone = 'cotton'
• cret. - creta = 'chalk'
• croc. - crocus = 'saffron, crocus flower'; (alchemical) 'liver' - crocus metallorum = liver of antimony
• cumin. - cuminum = 'cumin'
• dia-x = medicine containing x. Usually no other name than the Latin one.
• dictamn. - dictamnus = 'dittany'
• ebul. - ebulum = 'danewort'
• eupator. - eupatoria = 'agrimony'
• fab. - faba = 'broad bean' (= horse, fava)
• faecul. - faecula = 'salt of tartar' (potassium carbonate)
• farin. - farina = 'flour, meal'
• fim. - fimus = 'dung'
• fontan. - fontana (aqua) = 'spring' (-water)
• fumar. - fumaria = 'fumitory'
• gagat. - gagates = 'jet' (stone)
• guaiac. - guaiacum (lignum) = 'guaiac' (wood)
• gumm. - gummi = [tree] 'gum'
• hermodactyl. - hermodactylus = 'hermodactyl' (meadow crocus / autumn saffron roots, not black iris)
• herniar. - herniaria = 'rupturewort'
• iuniper. - iuniperus = 'juniper'; granum juniperi = juniper berry (actually a seed cone)
• jalap. - jalapa = 'jalap'
• jugland. - juglans = 'walnut'
• labdan. - labdanum = 'labdanum' (sticky brown resin from rock roses)
• lappath. - lap(p)athum = 'dock, sorrel'; L. acutum = broad-leafed dock
• laudan. - laudanum = 'laudanum'
• lin. - linum = 'flax'
• lujul. - lujula = 'wood sorrel'
• mac. - macis = 'mace'
• malvatic. - malvaticum (vinum) = 'Malmsey' (wine of the Malvasia grape) - Madeira/Sack
• mastich. - masticha = 'mastic'
• mecon. - meconium = poppy juice (opium)
• meliss. - melissa = 'lemon balm'
• mithridat. - mithridatum = 'Mithridate'
• moschat. - moschata (nux) = 'nutmeg'
• ovin. - ovinus (from ovis) = 'sheep'
• oxycrat. - oxycratum = 'oxycrate' (mixture of vinegar and water)
• papav. - papaver (erraticum) = '(common) poppy'
• paralys. - paralysis = 'cowslip'
• pastinac. - pastinaca = 'parsnip, carrot'
• pentaphyll. - pentaphyllum = 'cinquefoil'
• pinguedin. - pinguedo = 'fat'
• polypod. - polypodium = 'polypody', rockcap fern
• puleg. - pule(g)ium = 'pennyroyal' (/fleabane /fleawort)
• resin. - resina = 'resin, rosin'
• rhab. - rhabarbarum = 'rhubarb'
• rosac. - rosaceum = 'rose oil'
• rosmarin. - rosmarinus = 'rosemary'
• sabin. - sabina = 'savin' (a juniper species)
• sacchar. - saccharum = 'cane sugar'
• santal. - santalum = 'sandalwood'; S. citrinum = citrine/yellow sandalwood
• saxifrag. - saxifraga = 'saxifrage, rockfoil' ('breakstone' in Ward)
• scord. - scordium = 'water germander'
• seb./sev. - se(b/v)um = 'tallow, suet, grease'
• sed. - sedum = 'houseleek'
• semperviv. - sempervivum = 'houseleek' ('liveforever')
• sen. - sena = 'senna'
• ser. - serum = 'whey'
• spic. - spica = 'lavender'
• sucin. - sucinum = 'amber'
• symphit. - symphitum (maius) = (greater) 'comfrey'
• tax. - taxus = 'yew'; 'badger'
• terebinth. - terebinthina = 'turpentine'
• test. - testa = 'shell'
• theriac. - theriaca = 'antidote', 'antivenom', 'treacle'
• thur. - thus = 'frankincense'
• zyth. - zythum = 'zythos' (Egyptian beer)
The symbol (℞) is short for 'recipe' and means 'take' in Latin. This is still used for prescriptions today as Rx.

Other


• ā - for originally Greek 'ana' = 'of each'
• bib. - bibo = 'drink' - 'bibat' or 'bibatur' ('let him drink', 'let X be drunk')
• cap. - capio = 'take'
• cum = 'with' - often Ward marks non-abbreviated words with an apostrophe
• decoq. - decoquo = 'boil down / reduce'
• e, ex = 'out of / from'
• ebull. - ebullio = 'boil'
• et = 'and'
• f. - facio = 'make'
• (in)fund. - (in)fundo = 'pour (in)'
• in = 'in, into'
• inung. - inunguo = 'salve, rub ointment on'
• m. - misceo = 'mix'
• mane = 'in the morning'
• nocte = 'at night'
in alphabetical order:
• alb. - albus = 'white'
• aq. - aqua = 'water'. 'Water of X' is a common ingredient that means water infused with X (c.f. rosewater).
• bacc. - bacca = 'berry'
• commun. - communis = 'common'
• cortic. - cortex = 'bark'
• decoct. - decoctio = 'decoction'
• fol. - folium = 'leaf'
• gran. - granum = 'kernel'
• gutt. - gutta = 'drop'
• haust. - haustus = 'draught'
• lign. - lignum = 'wood'
• liquor = 'liquid, liquor'
• nigr. - niger = 'black'
• nuc. - nux = 'nut'
• nucl. - nucleus = 'nut'
• officin. - officinalis = 'medicinal'
• ol. - oleum = 'oil'
• optim. - optimus = 'best'
• part. - pars = 'part, side'
• pulveriz. - pulverizatus = 'powdered'
• radic. - radix = 'root'
• semin. - semen = 'seed'
• spec. - species = 'simple' - a 'simple' is a single-ingredient powder
• sal = 'salt' - 'Salt of X' is the name of a number of alchemical products which nowadays have chemical formulae.
• trochisc. - trochiscus - 'troche' (a lozenge)
• ust. - ustus = 'burnt'
• vulgar. - vulgaris = 'common'

Resources

Alchemical symbols, from Getty

Alchemical symbols, from the Text Creation Partnership

Alchemical symbols character code table, from the Unicode Standard, version 13.0

Alchemical symbols, from Wiktionary

Ancient Greek keyboard, from Lexilogos

John Ward alphabet


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